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Slide 1 - Temperate deciduous (mesophytic) forests Distribution Climate Soils Forest types and structure Plant ecophysiology Fauna History (Tertiary - PD) Disturbance Forest clearance Succession
Slide 2 - Global distribution of the biome Deciduous forests
Slide 3 - North American distribution of the TDF and representative climate stations Boston Atlanta Little Rock Madison
Slide 4 - Climate - monthly temperatures
Slide 5 - Climate - precipitation regimes
Slide 6 - Soil types of the temperate deciduous forest Alfisols Ultisols (Inceptisols)
Slide 7 - Soil profiles and soil-forming processes Cool temperate areas: Alfisols/Luvisols/Brown Earths Warm temperate areas: Ultisols
Slide 8 - Soil formation Alfisols (etc.) - the broadleaf deciduous trees exert a greater demand on soil nutrient resources than the conifers of the boreal forest, and their leaves are more base-rich. Incorporation of litter into the soil by earthworms produces humus-rich A and B horizons. Iron and aluminium are not mobilized, but clay particles, which tend to be dispersed in base-rich soils, are transported down to form a clay-rich B horizon. Ultisols replace alfisols in warm temperate areas as a result of more advanced weathering. Generally less fertile; often degraded in the southeastern USA by plantation agriculture.
Slide 9 - What controls the distribution of the dominant tree species of the TDF? Clockwise, from top left: Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Ostrya virginiana, Ulmus americana, Ulmus rubra, and Quercus rubra
Slide 10 - Temperate forest trees: similar western limits = similar drought intolerance? American beech red oak red maple (plus white oak, black oak, 2 hickories . . . . )
Slide 11 - Airmass climatology - biome boundaries
Slide 12 - D = R / (L x P) where D = dryness ratio; R = mean ann. net radiation; P = mean ann. precipitation; L = latent heat of vaporization of water Budyko-Lettau dryness ratio
Slide 13 - The forest- prairie boundary Budyko suggested that the forest - grassland boundary in the midwest corresponds with a dryness ratio of 1.1 -1.2 (=dotted line) Budyko dryness ratio values, N. America Hare (1980) Atmos.-Ocean 18, 127-153.
Slide 14 - Tree species diversity ++++++++ Is reduced diversity to northwest a result of the harsher climate?
Slide 15 - Temperate forest trees: common northern limits = similar limiting temperatures? American beech red oak red maple (plus white oak, black oak, 2 hickories . . . . )
Slide 16 - Airmass climatology - biome boundaries
Slide 17 - Thermal limits and optima
Slide 18 - Cold injury
Slide 19 - Probability of temperatures falling below -40°C A = common B = rare C = never American beech
Slide 20 - Winter-summer phases
Slide 21 - Daily irradiance*: Liriodendron stand, Tennessee Photosynthetic activity Trees Vernal ephemerals Summer herbs Evergreens (sun plants) (shade plants) * values are langleys/day
Slide 22 - Shade tolerance of N. American TDF trees
Slide 23 - Periodicity of acorn production (note variable behaviour within and between oaks) Black oak White oak
Slide 24 - Old-field succession (Northern hardwoods) Pioneer phase - 20 yr old stand of pin cherry (Prunus sp.) in S. Ontario. Bird dispersal.
Slide 25 - Fire / old-field succession (mixed forests of the southeast) Oak - hickory (tulip tree, magnolia, dogwood) Pine (shortleaf/longleaf) weedy herbs Year 50 5
Slide 26 - Modern forest fauna (N. America) Characteristic animals are now either herbivores (predominantly seed eaters) or omnivores. Herbivores: white-tailed deer, gray squirrel, chipmunk, blue jay (passenger pigeon - extinct). Omnivores: raccoon, opossum, skunk, black bear. Carnivores: (wolf, cougar, bobcat - all largely eliminated by hunting and habitat destruction; replaced by coyote)
Slide 27 - Many northern temperate forest tree genera are widespread Quercus (oak) Acer (maple) Fagus (beech) Castanea (chestnut) Carya (hickory) Ulmus (elm) Tilia (basswood/linden) Juglans (walnut) Liquidambar (sweet gum) Liriodendron (yellow poplar) E N Am Europe E Asia X X X X X X X X X X X X X F X X X X X X X X X X X F X X F X X = extant; F = fossil
Slide 28 - Biomes of the early Tertiary (~60 Ma)
Slide 29 - Eureka Sound formation: Ellesmere Is*. Gymnosperms: Cedrus, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga Angiosperms: Acer, Betula, Carya, Corylus, Castanea, Fagus, Quercus Fauna: turtles, alligators, boid snakes, salamanders, tortoises *
Slide 30 - Tertiary cooling and the temperate mesophytic forest southward retreat expansion fragmentation
Slide 31 - Eurasian - North American temperate forest divergence (from genetic evidence) Xiang et al., 2000. Mol. Phylogenet. and Evol. 15, 462-472. Liriodendron chinense Liriodendron tulipifera (Magnoliaceae)
Slide 32 - Pliocene fragmentation
Slide 33 - Full-glacial refuges (R) and Holocene migrations R? R? R? R? White pine E. hemlock Oaks Elms
Slide 34 - (=a x b) (a) (b) (c) (=a x c)
Slide 35 - Rapid post-glacial migration: are seed-caching birds responsible? What role do they play in long-distance dispersal at present? Fagus grandiflora Quercus macrocarpa blue jay passenger pigeon
Slide 36 - Postglacial fossil finds: passenger pigeon (dots) and blue jay (triangles )
Slide 37 - Why is the European TDF depauperate? Quercus (oak) Acer (maple) Fagus (beech) Castanea (chestnut) Carya (hickory) Ulmus (elm) Tilia (basswood) Juglans (walnut) Liquidambar (sweet gum) Nyssa (sour gum) E N Am Europe E Asia X X X X X X X X X X X X X F X X X X X X X X X X X F X X F X X = extant; F = fossil
Slide 38 - Late Quaternary dynamics (Europe) 13 000 yrs BP present
Slide 39 - Recent species fluctuations: pest-pathogen effects on species dynamics (+ Dutch elm) Chestnut blight (1920-30) (Endothia parasitica) Hemlock looper? (Lamdina fiscellaria) What effects do these die-outs have on the success of competitors?
Slide 40 - ppt slide no 40 content not found
Slide 41 - Plant community structure as a function of topography and elevation in the Great Smoky Mountains
Slide 42 - Plant community structure as a function of topography, substrate and disturbance frequency in Michigan
Slide 43 - Disturbance and ecological succession Fire Wind Anthropogenic (forest clearance) Examine the roles of:
Slide 44 - Natural disturbance: lightning-strike fires
Slide 45 - Natural fire recurrence “from 1955 to 1994 only 5 years had records of lightning-set fire, with an average of 7 years between fires. Lightning strikes occurred on ridge tops and along xeric upper hillslopes (and) did not spread into lower sheltered coves or stream valleys.” Delcourt, H.R. & Delcourt, P.A. 1997. Conservation Biol., 11, p. 1010.
Slide 46 - Natural disturbance: hurricane windthrow Erin (160) Dean (70) Alison (120) Jerry (65) Paths of tropical storms in 1995, and their maximum wind speed in km/h.
Slide 47 - Natural disturbance: tornado windthrow Paths of F3-F5 tornadoes in USA: 1950-2005 Graphic:
Slide 48 - Windstorm disturbance: local and regional Tornado path (above: satellite image) and forest damage (below) in Menominee Reservation, Wisconsin, June 2007 Great Storm of 1987: 15 million trees blown over in southern Britain 90 knots = 170 km/h
Slide 49 - Anthropogenic disturbance: agricultural clearance Intensive cultivation Extensive cultivation Woodland landscape (local disturbance) Woodland landscape (little disturbance) W Europe China N America Archaic (hunting, fire, nuts) Woodland (shifting cultivation) Mississippian European
Slide 50 - Anthropogenic disturbance and forest remnants (Europe) Forest patches on steeper slopes and distant from villages
Slide 51 - Clearing the forest primeval: northern England Roman Mesolithic (2000 BP) (8000 BP) Medieval Late Bronze Age (6000 BP) (4500 BP)
Slide 52 - Forest management: coppicing and charcoal production ~10,000 poles/acre baskets, farm implements, barrels, soap (from ash) Dried poles
Slide 53 - Forest management: animal husbandry Pannage Right to feed pigs in the forest acorns, beechmast, sweet chestnuts
Slide 54 - Or was the primeval forest “open”? Vera (2000) argues that the early forest was “open”, primarily based on these lines of evidence: palynology (lots of hazel pollen) abundance of oak (mid-successional species) presence of large herbivores (aurochs, bison, horses, etc.) Classical and medieval descriptions of “forestis”
Slide 55 - Late Quaternary forest fauna (Europe)
Slide 56 - The Vera hypothesis Should large grazers be re-introduced as a tool of forest management? Graphic: Mitchell, F.J.G. 2005. J. Ecol., 93, 168-177.
Slide 57 - Testing the Vera hypothesis: distribution of European herbivores in early Holocene Mitchell, F.J.G. 2005. J. Ecol., 93, 168-177.
Slide 58 - Testing the Vera hypothesis: pollen in small forest hollows Percent (mean ±1s) tree pollen in modern “forest-parkland” Ireland S. Sweden Mitchell, F.J.G. 2005. J. Ecol., 93, 168-177.
Slide 59 - Fire regimes? Clark et al., 1989. J. Ecol., 97, 897-922. Data from southwestern Germany * *”Atlantic” in the Blytt-Sernander sequence Fires in mid-Holocene at ~250-yr intervals; successional sequence: Corylus avellana Ulmus (elm) (hazel) >> Quercus (oak) >> >> Fagus (beech) Fraxinus excelsior Tilia (lime) (ash)
Slide 60 - If oak is a mid-successional tree, and natural fire is rare, why are oaks a dominant species in the TDF of the eastern USA? Source: Copenheaver, C.A., et al., 2006. Northeastern Naturalist, 13, 477-494. Tree and sapling diameters, Watertower stand, Fishburn Forest, VA Tree and sapling diameters, Radio Tower stand, Fishburn Forest, VA
Slide 61 - Forest constancy because of anthropogenic fire? Delcourt, H.R. & Delcourt, P.A. 1997. Conservation Biol., 11, p. 1010. oak 4000 BP chestnut Euro-settlement Macon Co., N. Carolina
Slide 62 - Indians as ecological agents in the forests of northeastern America In 1669 Galinée visited a Seneca village (in modern NY State). The village was in an agricultural clearing about 6km wide; Village sites were abandoned every 10-20 years as the soil became exhausted Forests near villages were burned each spring and fall to remove undergrowth and improve grazing for deer and elk. An Algonkian village Abstracted from: Day, G.M. 1953. Ecology, 34, 329-346.