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Published on : Mar 14, 2014
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Slide 1 - Introduction to Orthopaedics: OPTIONS FOR HIP AND KNEE ARTHRITIS Stephen P. England, M.D. Park Nicollet Orthopedics
Slide 2 - What is Arthritis? Wear/loss of articular cartilage Similar to wearing the tread off a car tire Osteoarthritis – wear and tear / aging Inflammatory arthritis – systemic disease Post-traumatic arthritis – following injury Others
Slide 3 - How can I prolong the life of my hip or knee? Weight Management Activity Modification Medications – Systemic Inflammatory Arthritis Glucosamine ??
Slide 4 - What can help me live with my pain? Weight Management Activity Modification – Bike, Swim Physical Therapy – Motion, Strength Assistive Devices – Cane , Crutches, Walker, Scooter, Wheelchair
Slide 5 - What can help me live with my pain? Oral Medications Analgesic – Over the Counter, Prescription Glucosamine/Chondroitin Other “Alternative” Treatments Injectable Medications Cortisone Synvisc, Hyalgan Braces
Slide 6 - Unloader Brace Shifts weight off bad side of knee over to good side of knee Must have a good side Must be willing to wear brace(cumbersome) Best for those who enjoy specific activities – Golf, Tennis, Hiking, Walking
Slide 7 - QUESTIONS NON-SURGICAL OPTIONS
Slide 8 - How do I know when to have surgery? Need a diagnosis – Not all joint pain is caused by arthritis, not all arthritis is the same Fibromyalgia Not surgically treatable Makes surgery less predictable History, physical exam, x-ray Plain x-ray usually sufficient to make the diagnosis MRI and other tests occasionally helpful
Slide 9 - How do I know when to have surgery? Decision is almost always up to the patient M.D. should lay out the options, surgical and non-surgical M.D. may give advice, but should rarely tell you what to do – it’s your choice Others may help you decide (friends, family, primary care physician), but ultimately you make the call Consider the following questions
Slide 10 - Procedure Questions What exactly is the procedure? What are the goals? How likely is it to work? What is the recovery like? What are the risks/complications? What are my other options?
Slide 11 - Personal Questions What is my age? What is my occupation? What activities do I enjoy? What health problems do I have and how do these affect my surgical risk? What support system do I have to help me during recovery? HOW MUCH PAIN AND DISABILITY DO I HAVE?
Slide 12 - Surgical Options Arthroscopy Osteotomy Arthrodesis (Fusion) Arthroplasty (Replacement)
Slide 13 - HIP Osteotomy, arthrodesis, arthroscopy rarely used Arthroplasty common
Slide 14 - KNEE Arthroscopy common Osteotomy – popularity waxes and wanes Arthrodesis – rarely used Arthroplasty - common
Slide 15 - Arthrodesis (Fusion) Eliminates pain Creates a different disability Lasting result Commonly used before arthroplasty developed Young patient – heavy, laborer Salvage - infection
Slide 16 - Osteotomy Used most commonly in the knee Shifts weight from bad side of joint to good side (like unloader brace) Must have a good side of the joint Not appropriate for systemic inflammatory arthritis
Slide 17 - Osteotomy Most commonly done by removing a wedge of bone from femur or tibia and placing a plate to hold bones in place Young patient trying to avoid arthroplasty Intended as a temporizing procedure, not a permanent solution - reported results variable Takes a long time to recover – crutches, brace, therapy
Slide 18 - Osteotomy Not as popular currently as durability of arthroplasty improves May make subsequent arthroplasty more difficult
Slide 19 - QUESTIONS ARTHRODESIS OSTEOTOMY
Slide 20 - Arthoscopy Visualize joint through a fiberoptic tube inserted through small skin incision Common in knee, uncommon in hip (technically difficult) Arthoscopy is a way of doing an operation, NOT the operation itself, which may involve many things – DON’T COMPARE YOURSELF TO OTHERS!
Slide 21 - Arthroscopy Other small incisions – insert shavers, cutting devices, graspers Smooth joint surfaces Trim meniscus tears Remove loose bodies Remove diseased synovium – systemic inflammatory arthritis
Slide 22 - Arthroscopy Brief day surgery procedure Various anesthetics, frequently regional Minimal risks/complications Recovery varies but usually fairly rapid – return to activities as tolerated Doesn’t burn any bridges Helps evaluate the status of the joint, may help guide future treatment decisions
Slide 23 - Arthroscopy Results UNPREDICTABLE! Works best with less advanced arthritis Two specific groups do best Sudden symptom change – goal is to return to baseline (not eliminate all pain) Strong catching/locking symptoms – goal is to stop catching/locking (not eliminate all pain)
Slide 24 - QUESTIONS ARTHROSCOPY
Slide 25 - Arthroplasty (Replacement) One of the most successful operations in all of medicine Modern form originated in 60s and 70s Over 500,000 hips and knees done each year in the U.S.
Slide 26 - What is the procedure? Hip – Socket replaced with metal and plastic socket, ball replaced with metal ball attached to stem that goes down the femur Knee – End of femur covered with metal cap, top of tibia covered with metal and plastic plate, patella resurfaced with plastic button
Slide 27 - What are the goals of the procedure and how likely is it to work? Pain relief – very reliable Functional improvement – reliable but need to consider other factors which may limit function (other bad joints, poor balance, deconditioning, medical problems) Good and excellent results 95% - 97%
Slide 28 - What are the complications/risks? Infection Bleeding / need for transfusion Nerve injury “Blood Clots” – DVT, PE Anesthesia – regional techniques (spinal, epidural) becoming more common Dislocation (Hip) Differing leg lengths (Hip) Stiffness (Knee)
Slide 29 - What are the complications/risks? Many complications related to medical conditions / health problems Even the most healthy patient can suffer a complication
Slide 30 - Long Term Problems The replacement is a mechanical device with a limited lifespan Failure eventually results in pain Revision surgery has higher complication rates and lower success rates Will I need a revision procedure? How long will I live? How long will it last? (guess = 10-20 years)
Slide 31 - What is the recovery like? Historically long and difficult, but variable Surgery 1-2 hours Hospital 3-4 days Home or transitional care A lot of Rehab (especially knees) Walker/crutches 2-3 weeks, Cane 3-4 weeks Limited only by your pain and ability to progress May improve for up to one year
Slide 32 - What is the recovery like? Newer techniques may offer more rapid and less painful recovery “MIS” = “Minimally Invasive Surgery” Better term = “LESS Invasive Surgery” Same operation through smaller incision Not appropriate for all patients ? Not appropriate for all surgeons - ? Higher complication rate An easier recovery is nice, but cannot compromise the reliable long term success seen historically
Slide 33 - QUESTIONS ARTHROPLASTY
Slide 34 - “What do you recommend, Doctor?” Know your diagnosis Know your options, surgical and non-surgical Know yourself Seek advice from others – primary M.D. Ask your surgeon questions Trust your instincts – make sure you feel comfortable with your choice and your surgeon It’s YOUR decision (almost always)
Slide 35 - THANK YOU !