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Slide 1 - Macedonia, Alexander the Great, and the Hellenistic World © Student Handouts, Inc.
Slide 2 - Macedonia Macedonians were culturally and ethnically related to the Greeks Actually looked upon as sort of “barbarian cousins” by the Greeks of Athens, Sparta, etc. King Philip II of Macedonia Expanded his territory north to the Danube River and south into the Greek peninsula Conquered all city-states except Sparta by 338 B.C.E. Killed while planning to attack Persia (336 B.C.E.)
Slide 3 - Alexander the Great Tutored by the philosopher Aristotle Precarious position because his mother was not Macedonian (making Alexander half Macedonian), and his father took a Macedonian as a new wife Wanted to conquer Persia like his father Wanted to spread Greek culture throughout the world
Slide 4 - Alexander the Great Philip was killed by companions of Alexander Alexander came to the throne at age 20 (336 B.C.E.
Slide 5 - Alexander the Great First put down local revolts, including destroying Thebes Invasion of Persia and beyond 35,000 troops Granicus (334 B.C.E.) Issus (333 B.C.E.) Arbela (331 B.C.E.) City-states along the Mediterranean Phoenician Tyre Egypt Founded Alexandria India Reached Indus River Set up capital in Babylon (located in modern-day Iraq) in 324 B.C.E. Died of a fever in 323 B.C.E. at age 33
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Slide 7 - Alexander’s Empire Fell apart after Alexander’s death Generals fought for control of empire Empire divided Egypt – Ptolemy Most of Asian empire – Seleucus Macedonia and Greece – Antigonus New dynasties ruled for hundreds of years until conquered by Rome
Slide 8 - Alexander’s Impact on World History Spread Greek culture beyond the Greeks “Pan-Hellenism” Founded numerous cities Married a daughter of Darius Encouraged his soldiers to take Persian wives Worshiped foreign gods and goddesses Recognized as foreign incarnations of Greek gods Encouraged trade throughout his empire Settled Greeks throughout his empire Greek culture became “Hellenistic” as it spread and mingled with other cultures
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Slide 10 - Alexandria, Egypt City in Egypt founded by, and named after, Alexander the Great Ptolemy came to rule Egypt after Alexander’s death Ptolemies built a university in Alexandria – “Library of Alexandria” Included 700,000 volumes written on papyrus Center of research and scholarship
Slide 11 - Hellenistic Science Many practical, useful inventions Euclid (lived circa 300 B.C.E.) Greek who lived and worked in Alexandria, Egypt “Father of Geometry” Theorems in plane geometry (“Euclidean geometry”) Archimedes (circa 287 B.C.E.-circa 212 B.C.E.) Greek who lived and worked in Sicily Principle of specific gravity Law of floating bodies Used levers, pulleys, and screws to build things such as catapults
Slide 12 - Hellenistic Science Eratosthenes (circa 276 B.C.E.-circa 195 B.C.E.) Greek born in modern-day Libya Geographer and librarian of Alexandria, Egypt Closely determined the earth’s diameter Measured earth’s distance from the sun with 99% accuracy Used lines of longitude and latitude on a map Believed earth is round One could sail India by sailing west Aristarchus of Samos (310 B.C.E.-circa 230 B.C.E.) Heliocentric model – first to advocate that the earth revolves around the sun Hipparchus (circa 190 B.C.E.-120 B.C.E.) Invented plane and spherical trigonometry Predicted eclipses of the moon and sun
Slide 13 - Hellenistic Art and Architecture Architecture Built many impressive public buildings Baths, libraries, palaces, theaters Pharos – lighthouse of Alexandria – 400 feet high Art More lifelike – showed more expression Action, grief, motion, pain The Death of Laocoon, Winged Victory of Samothrace, Venus de Milo
Slide 14 - Hellenistic Philosophy Cynics (Cynicism) Diogenes (412-323 B.C.E.) Hatred of power and worldly possessions Stoics (Stoicism) Zeno of Citium (334-262 B.C.E.) Acceptance, courage, patience Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180 C.E.) was a Stoic philosopher (wrote Confessions) Stoic belief in human brotherhood influenced Christianity Epicureans (Epicureanism) Epicurus (341-270 B.C.E.) No life after death Pleasure and pain measure what is good and bad Life is to be enjoyed, particularly by searching for knowledge
Slide 15 - Hellenistic Literature Few Hellenistic works had enduring value Preserved classical Greek heritage Spread throughout Alexander’s former empire Particularly at Alexandria, Egypt Middle East kept and preserved Greek heritage during the fall of Rome and Europe’s Dark Ages Europeans rediscovered this Greek heritage during the Crusades
Slide 16 - Hellenistic Culture in the Roman World Greek cities of southern Italy piqued Roman interest in Greek culture Many southern Italian, Sicilian, and other Mediterranean cities which came under Roman control had been founded by Greeks Romans spread Greek culture throughout their own empire Much Roman art generally copied Greek art
Slide 17 - Hellenistic Civilization Declines Endured for approximately 300 years Wealth and power in the hands of a few Reliance on slavery Free persons could not find work Slave labor cheaper (in the short-term) than investments in new inventions and technologies Slave revolts Continuous warfare among city-states Easy target for Roman conquest
Slide 18 - Review Questions Under what circumstances did Alexander the Great come to the Macedonian throne? Name at least three modern-day countries which were conquered by Alexander the Great. What does the term Hellenistic mean? Describe the work of a Hellenistic scientist or mathematician. Describe a Hellenistic philosophy. What caused the fall of Hellenistic society? Imagine that you are a Babylonian living during the time of Alexander. How might you view Alexander’s conquests? Would you consider him “great”?