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Slide 1 - 1 Bacteria Structure and Function
Slide 2 - 2 Prokaryote & Eukaryote Evolution
Slide 3 - 3 Cellular Evolution Current evidence indicates that eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes between 1 and 1.5 billion years ago Two theories: 1. Infolding theory 2. Endosymbiotic theory
Slide 4 - 4 Infolding Theory The infolding of the prokaryotic plasma membrane gave rise to eukaryotic organelles. infolding organelle
Slide 5 - 5 Endosymbiotic Theory Endosymbiosis refers to one species living within another(the host) Movement of smaller photosynthetic & heterotrophic prokaryotes into larger prokaryotic host cells Formed cell organelles chloroplast mitochondria
Slide 6 - 6 Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
Slide 7 - 7 Earliest Prokaryotes Most numerous organisms on Earth Include all bacteria Earliest fossils date 2.5 billion years old
Slide 8 - 8 Classification of Life
Slide 9 - 9 Three Domains of Life Archaea – prokaryotes living in extreme habitats Bacteria- Cyanobacteria and eubacteria Eukarya – Protozoans, fungi, plants, & animals
Slide 10 - 10 Kingdoms of Bacteria Archaebacteria: Found in harsh environments Undersea volcanic vents, acidic hot springs, salty water
Slide 11 - 11 Archaebacteria
Slide 12 - 12 Kingdoms of Bacteria Eubacteria: Called the true bacteria Most bacteria are in this group Include photosynthetic Cyanobacteria
Slide 13 - 13 Eubacteria
Slide 14 - 14 Characteristics of Bacteria
Slide 15 - 15 Bacterial Structure Microscopic prokaryotes No nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Contain ribosomes Single, circular chromosome in nucleoid region
Slide 16 - 16 Bacterial Cell
Slide 17 - 17 Protection Cell Wall made of Peptidoglycan May have a sticky coating called the Capsule for attachment to host or other bacteria
Slide 18 - 18 Sticky Bacterial Capsule
Slide 19 - 19 Bacterial Structure Have small rings of DNA called Plasmids Unicellular Small in size (0.5 to 2μm) PLASMIDS
Slide 20 - 20
Slide 21 - 21 Bacterial Structure Infoldings of cell membrane carry on photosynthesis & cellular respiration Infoldings called Mesosomes
Slide 22 - 22 Mesosomes MESOSOME
Slide 23 - 23 Bacterial Structure Most grow best at pH of 6.5 to 7.0 Many act as decomposers recycling nutrients Some cause disease
Slide 24 - 24 Staphylococcus Bacterial
Slide 25 - 25 Useful Bacteria Some bacteria can degrade oil Used to clean up oil spills
Slide 26 - 26 Useful Bacteria Other uses for bacteria include making yogurt, cheese, and buttermilk.
Slide 27 - 27 Flagella Bacteria that are motile have appendages called flagella Attached by Basal Body A bacteria can have one or many flagella
Slide 28 - 28
Slide 29 - 29 Flagella Made of Flagellin Used for Classification Monotrichous: 1 flagella Lophotrichous: tuft at one end Amphitrichous: tuft at both ends Peritrichous: all around bacteria
Slide 30 - 30 Monotrichous Lophotrichous Amphitrichous Peritrichous
Slide 31 - 31 Question: What is this type of bacteria ?
Slide 32 - 32 Pili Short protein appendages Smaller than flagella Adhere bacteria to surfaces Used in conjugation for Exchange of genetic information Aid Flotation by increasing buoyancy
Slide 33 - 33 Pili in Conjugation
Slide 34 - 34 Bacterial Shapes
Slide 35 - 35 Shapes Are Used to Classify Bacillus: Rod shaped Coccus: Spherical (round) Vibrio: Comma shaped with flagella Spirillum: Spiral shape Spirochete: wormlike spiral shape
Slide 36 - 36
Slide 37 - 37 Grouping of Bacteria Diplo- Groups of two Strepto- chains Staphylo- Grapelike clusters
Slide 38 - 38
Slide 39 - 39
Slide 40 - 40 Diplococcus
Slide 41 - 41 Streptococcus Causes Strep Throat
Slide 42 - 42 Staphylococcus
Slide 43 - 43 Bacillus - E. coli
Slide 44 - 44 Streptobacilli
Slide 45 - 45 Spirillum
Slide 46 - 46 Spirochetes
Slide 47 - 47 Leptospira
Slide 48 - 48
Slide 49 - 49 Bacterial Kingdoms
Slide 50 - 50 Archaebacteria Lack peptidoglycan in cell walls Have different lipids in their cell membrane Different types of ribosomes Very different gene sequences
Slide 51 - 51 Archaebacteria Archaebacteria can live in extremely harsh environments They do not require oxygen and can live in extremely salty environments as well as extremely hot environments Called the Ancient bacteria
Slide 52 - 52 Archaebacteria Subdivided into 3 groups: Methanogens Thermoacidophiles Extreme Halophiles
Slide 53 - 53 Methanogens Live in anaerobic environments (no oxygen) Get energy by changing H2 & CO2 into methane gas Found in swamps, sewage treatment plants, digestive tracts of animals
Slide 54 - 54 Methanogens Break down cellulose in a cow’s stomach Produce marsh (methane) gas
Slide 55 - 55 Extreme Halophiles Live in very salty water Use salt to generate ATP (energy) Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake inhabitants
Slide 56 - 56 Thermoacidophiles or Thermophiles Live in extremely hot environments Found in volcanic vents, hot springs, cracks on ocean floor that leak acid
Slide 57 - 57 Kingdom Eubacteria True Bacteria
Slide 58 - 58 Characteristics 3 basic shapes (coccus, bacillus, spirilla) Most are heterotrophic (can’t make their own food) May be aerobic or anaerobic Identified by Gram staining
Slide 59 - 59 Gram Staining Developed in 1884 by Hans Gram Bacteria treated with purple Crystal Violet & red Safranin stains Cell walls either stain purple or reddish pink
Slide 60 - 60 Gram Positive Have thick layer of peptidoglycan (protein-sugar complex) Single lipid layer Stain purple Can be treated with antibiotics
Slide 61 - 61 Gram Positive Bacteria Lactobacilli (makes yogurt & buttermilk) Actinomycetes (make antibiotics) Clostridium (lockjaw bacteria) Streptococcus (strep throat) Staphylococcus (staph infections)
Slide 62 - 62 Gram Negative Bacteria Thin layer of peptidoglycan in cell wall Extra thick layer of lipids Stain pink or reddish Hard to treat with antibiotics Some photosynthetic but make sulfur not oxygen Some fix nitrogen for plants
Slide 63 - 63 Gram Negative Rhizobacteria grow in root nodules of legumes (soybeans, peanuts) Fix N2 from air into usable ammonia
Slide 64 - 64 Gram Negative Rickettsiae are parasitic bacteria carried by ticks Cause Lyme disease & Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Slide 65 - 65 Cyanobacteria Gram negative Photosynthetic Called blue-green bacteria Contain phycocyanin (red-blue) pigments & chlorophyll
Slide 66 - 66 Cyanobacteria May be red, yellow, brown, black, or blue-green May grow in chains (Oscillatoria) Have Heterocysts to help fix N2 First to re-enter devastated areas Some cause Eutrophication (use up O2 when die & decompose in water)
Slide 67 - 67 Cyanobacteria
Slide 68 - 68 Spirochetes Gram positive Flagella at each end Move in corkscrew motion Some aerobic; others anaerobic May be free living, parasitic, or symbiotic
Slide 69 - 69 Enteric Bacteria Gram negative Can live in aerobic & anaerobic habitats Includes E. coli in intestines Salmonella – causes food poisoning
Slide 70 - 70 Chemoautotrophs Gram negative Obtain energy from minerals like iron Found in freshwater ponds
Slide 71 - 71 Nutrition, Respiration, and Reproduction
Slide 72 - 72 Modes of Nutrition Saprobes – feed on dead organic matter Parasites – feed on a host cell Photoautotroph – use sunlight to make food Chemoautotroph – oxidize inorganic matter such as iron or sulfur to make food
Slide 73 - 73 Methods of Respiration Obligate Aerobes – require O2 (tuberculosis bacteria) Obligate Anaerobes – die if O2 is present (tetanus) Facultative Anaerobes – don’t need O2, but aren’t killed by it (E. coli)
Slide 74 - 74 Bacterial Respiration Anaerobes carry on fermentation Aerobes carry on cellular respiration
Slide 75 - 75 Reproduction Bacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission Single chromosome replicates & then cell divides Rapid All new cells identical (clones)
Slide 76 - 76 Cellular organism copies it’s genetic information then splits into two identical daughter cells
Slide 77 - 77 Binary Fission E. coli
Slide 78 - 78 Reproduction Bacteria reproduce sexually by Conjugation Form a tube between 2 bacteria to exchange genetic material Held together by pili New cells NOT identical
Slide 79 - 79 Conjugation
Slide 80 - 80 Spore Formation Form endospore whenever when habitat conditions become harsh (little food) Able to survive for long periods of time as endosperm Difficult to destroy (heat resistant)
Slide 81 - 81 Transduction & Transformation Genetically change bacteria May become antibiotic resistant Transformed bacteria pick up pieces of DNA from dead bacterial cells Transduction – viruses carry foreign DNA to bacteria; used to make insulin
Slide 82 - 82 Pathenogenic Bacteria
Slide 83 - 83 Pathogens Called germs or microbes Cause disease May produce poisons or toxins Endotoxins released after bacteria die (E. coli) Exotoxins released by Gram + bacteria (C. tetani)
Slide 84 - 84