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Soil Biology PowerPoint Presentation

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Tags : Soil Biology

Published on : Feb 10, 2014
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Slide 1 - GES 175, Science of Soils Lecture 6, Soil Biology
Slide 2 - The Little Guys
Slide 3 - CO2 O2 Detritus (Plant Debris) Fungi Earthworms Bacteria Soil Humus energy
Slide 4 - Soil Bacteria Ruehr’s Rule: “The bugs get it first”.
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Slide 7 - CH2O  CO2 NH4+  NO3- Fe2+  Fe3+ H2S  SO42- NO3-  NH4+ Fe3+  Fe2+ SO42-  H2S O2  H2O Energy Yield Electron Donor (food) Electron Acceptor Edonor - Eacceptor Energy Energy
Slide 8 - CH2O CO2 O2 H2O NO3- CH2O CO2 N2 Fe(OH)3 CH2O CO2 Fe2+ CH2O CO2 SO42- H2S Energy Yields Donor Acceptor 700 400 100 Eh (mV)* Condition oxic suboxic anoxic *pH 7
Slide 9 - Aerobic Organisms Food Source Organic carbon* Ammonium Ion (NH4+) Ferrous Iron (Fe2+) Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Electron Acceptor Molecular Oxygen (O2)
Slide 10 - CH2O  CO2 NH4+  NO3- Fe2+  Fe3+ H2S  SO42- O2  H2O Energy Yield Electron Donor (food) Electron Acceptor Energy -400 -36 KJ/mol
Slide 11 - Anaerobic Organisms Food Source Organic carbon* Ammonium Ion (NH4+) Ferrous Iron (Fe2+) Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Electron Acceptor Nitrate (NO3-) Manganese (Mn4+) Ferric Iron (Fe3+) Sulfate (SO42-)
Slide 12 - CH2O  CO2 NO3-  NH4+ Fe3+  Fe2+ SO42-  H2S O2  H2O Energy Yield Electron Donor (food) Electron Acceptor Energy -400 -36 KJ/mol
Slide 13 - Microorganism-Plant Relationships
Slide 14 - legumes Bacterial-Plant Symbiosis
Slide 15 - - bacteria require plant for growth; plant gains ‘free’ source of available N Nitrogen Fixation * Symbiotic relation between bacteria and plants: -e.g., legumes + Rhizobium * Grasses-Azospirillum/Azobactor
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Slide 18 - N-Fixation: Frankia Frankia Nodules on Alder - actinomycetes - associates with desert shrubs (e.g., Ceanothus) and various tree species (e.g., alder)
Slide 19 - Fungi-Plant Interaction Mycorrhizae (root fungus) - extension of root system - fungus enhances nutrient and water intake - plants provide carbon source Nearly 90% of native plants have mycorrhizae association
Slide 20 - Ectomycorrhyzae - association at exterior of root - develop on evergreen trees and shrubs
Slide 21 - Mycorrhizae - Associations occur in root interior between cells - Develop on deciduous trees, annual and herbaceous plants Endomycorrhizae
Slide 22 - Organic Matter Degradation (Carbon Cycling)
Slide 23 - CO2 Detritus (Plant Debris) Fungi Earthworms Bacteria Soil Humus Organic Matter Biomass Humin (insoluble) Humic Acid (insoluble in acid) Fulvic Acid (soluble) degradation (nonliving, nontissue decay products) (identifiable dead tissue) (living organisms)
Slide 24 - Pools of Soil Organic Matter
Slide 25 - Soil Humus Organic Matter Degradation: Nutrient Cycling Biomass Detritus (Plant Debris) Nutrient Release Nutrient Incorporation
Slide 26 - reactive functional groups: carboxyl, hydroxyl, phenolic Soil Organic Matter: Humus High cation (anion) exchange capacity High water holding capacity Promotes soil aggregation
Slide 27 - To continue…
Slide 28 - Fertilizer Effects on Soil Organic Matter
Slide 29 - Effect of manure on organic matter