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Slide 1 - Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV-Infected Women October 2007
Slide 2 - 2 This slide set was developed by members of the Cervical Cancer Screening Subgroup of the AETC Women's Health and Wellness Workgroup: Laura Armas, MD; Texas/Oklahoma AETC Kathy Hendricks, RN, MSN; François-Xavier Bagnoud Center Supriya Modey, MBBS, MPH; AETC National Resource Center Andrea Norberg, MS, RN; AETC National Resource Center Peter Oates, RN, MSN, ACRN, NP-C; François-Xavier Bagnoud Center Jamie Steiger, MPH; AETC National Resource Center Other subgroup members and contributors include: Abigail Davis, MS, ANP, WHNP; Mountain Plains AETC Lori DeLorenzo, MSN, RN; Organizational Ideas Rebecca Fry, MSN, APN; François-Xavier Bagnoud Center Pamela Rothpletz-Puglia, EdD, RD; François-Xavier Bagnoud Center Jacki Witt, JD, MSN, WHNP; Clinical Training Center for Family Planning 2
Slide 3 - 3 Learning Objectives Identify the five most common STDs affecting HIV-infected women Discuss clinical presentations associated with the five common STDs Recall methods for diagnosing the five common STDs
Slide 4 - 4 Common STDs in HIV-Infected Women Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Syphilis Chlamydia Gonorrhea Trichomoniasis
Slide 5 - 5 Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
Slide 6 - 6 HSV: Clinical Presentation Primary Infection Prodrome phase: Tingling/itching of skin Appearance of painful vesicles in clusters on an erythematous base Vesicles ulcerate then crust over and heal within 7-14 days Viral shedding continues for up to 2-3 weeks Recurrent Disease After primary infection, virus migrates to sacral ganglion and lies dormant Reactivation occurs due to various triggers Reoccurrence is usually milder and shorter in duration
Slide 7 - 7 Herpes Simplex in Women with AIDS Credit: Jean R. Anderson, MD
Slide 8 - 8 HSV: Diagnosis Clinical presentation Viral culture Tzanck smear/Giemsa smear Skin biopsy
Slide 9 - 9 HSV: Treatment Considerations Antivirals Lesions may be bathed in mild soap and water Sitz baths may provide some relief Sex partners may benefit from evaluation and counseling Transmission is possible when lesions not present due to viral shedding
Slide 10 - 10 Syphilis
Slide 11 - 11 Syphilis: Clinical Presentation Primary / Infectious / Early Syphilis Stage: Primary Phase Primary chancre Begins as papule and erodes into painless ulcer with a hard edge and clean base Usually in the genital area Appears 9-90 days after exposure Can be solitary or multiple (eg. kissing lesions) Heals with scarring in 3-6 weeks and 75% of patients show no further symptoms
Slide 12 - 12 Primary Chancre Primary Chancre Credit: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Slide 13 - 13 Syphilis: Clinical Presentation (continued) Primary / Infectious / Early Syphilis Stage: Secondary Phase Occurs 6 weeks – 6 months after chancre Lasts several weeks Accompanied with fever, malaise, generalized lymphadenopathy, and patchy alopecia Maculo-papular rash usually on palms and soles Condyloma lata on perianal or vulval areas Possible mild hepatosplenomegaly
Slide 14 - 14 Syphilitic Rash Credit: Dr. Gavin Hart and CDC Credit: Connie Celum and Walter Stamn and Seattle STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
Slide 15 - 15 Condyloma lata Credit: CDC Condyloma lata
Slide 16 - 16 Syphilis: Clinical Presentation (continued) Secondary / Latent Stage: Positive serology Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Venereal Disease Research Lab (VDRL) Patients are asymptomatic and not infectious after first year, but may relapse One-third will convert to sero-negative status One-third will stay sero-positive but asymptomatic One-third will develop tertiary syphilis
Slide 17 - 17 Syphilis: Clinical Presentation (continued) Tertiary Stage: Cardiovascular: Aortic valve disease, aneurysms Neurological: Meningitis, encephalitis, tabes dorsalis, dementia Gumma formation: Deep cutaneous granulomatous pockets Orthopedic: Charcot’s joints, osteomyelitis Renal: Membranous Glomerulonephritis
Slide 18 - 18 Syphilis: Diagnosis Requires demonstration of: Organisms on microscopy using dark field Positive serology on blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Non-Specific Treponemal Tests: 1. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) 2. Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR)
Slide 19 - 19 Syphilis: Diagnosis (continued) Positive serology on blood or CSF Specific Treponemal Test: 1. Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption (FTA-ABS) 2. Microhemagglutination-Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP) Organism may not be cultured but diagnosis cannot be determined by clinical findings only
Slide 20 - 20 Syphilis: Treatment Considerations Primary/ secondary/ latent stage: Benzathine penicillin Neurosyphilis: Penicillin G Ask about penicillin allergy before treatment Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction may occur
Slide 21 - 21 Chlamydia
Slide 22 - 22 Chlamydia: Clinical Presentation Mucopurulent cervicitis/vaginal discharge Dysuria Lower abdominal pain Urethritis, salpingitis, and proctitis Post coital bleeding – friable cervix Key Considerations: 50% of females are asymptomatic Sterile pyuria with urinary tract symptoms should trigger you to think chlamydia
Slide 23 - 23 Cervicitis Credit: University of Washington and Seattle STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
Slide 24 - 24 Chlamydia: Diagnosis Chlamydia culture New tests include: Direct immunofluorescence assays (DFA) Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)
Slide 25 - 25 Chlamydia: Treatment Considerations Antibiotics Azithromycin Evaluate and treat sexual partners Avoid sex for seven days after completion of treatment
Slide 26 - 26 Gonorrhea
Slide 27 - 27 N. gonorrhoeae-gram negative diplococci Diplococci Credit: Negusse Ocbamichael and Seattle STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
Slide 28 - 28 Gonorrhea: Clinical Presentation Areas of Infection Urethra Endocervix Upper genital tract Pharynx Rectum Signs and Symptoms Frequently asymptomatic Vaginal discharge Abnormal uterine bleeding Dysuria Mucopurulent cervicitis Lower abdominal pain
Slide 29 - 29 Gonorrhea: Diagnosis Clinical exam Cervical culture Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or ligase chain reaction (LCR) Gram stain–polymorphonucleocytes with gram negative intracellular diplococci
Slide 30 - 30 Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) — Percent of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with resistance or intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin, 1990–2005
Slide 31 - 31 Gonorrhea: Treatment Considerations Intramuscular Ceftriaxone For pregnant women only: Ceftriaxone single dose but substitute Quinolones with Erythromycin Do not treat with Quinolones or Tetracyclines Evaluate and treat all sexual partners
Slide 32 - 32 Trichomoniasis
Slide 33 - 33 Trichomoniasis: Clinical Presentation Signs and symptoms: Vulvar irritation Dysuria Dyspareunia Pale yellow, malodorous - gray/green frothy discharge Strawberry cervix, inflamed and friable
Slide 34 - 34 Strawberry Cervix Credit: Claire E. Stevens and Seattle STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
Slide 35 - 35 Flagellated, motile trichomonads on wet mount Vaginal pH > 4.5 Diagnosis confirmed by microscopy Other FDA approved tests: OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test Affirm VP III Trichomoniasis: Diagnosis
Slide 36 - 36 Trichomoniasis: Treatment Considerations For HIV-infected women: same treatment as non-HIV infected women Metronidazole or Tinidazole Sex partners have to be treated
Slide 37 - 37 Providing Culturally Competent Care The following factors can influence a woman’s understanding of STDs and need for screening: Language and literacy level Cultural and social background and its impact on her understanding of health, illness, and the female anatomy Comfort with discussing sexual health issues Comfort and previous experience with STD screening or testing History of sexual abuse and/or domestic violence may cause anxiety and exam refusal
Slide 38 - 38 Pearls of Wisdom Get comfortable with obtaining a thorough sexual history Check oral cavity if genital STD suspected Minimum of annual screening for STDs is recommended, with more frequent screening if high risk behaviors are reported Partner notification and risk reduction counseling for both patient and partner is an important part of treatment and follow-up.
Slide 39 - 39 Conclusion STD screening and treatment should be a primary intervention and a standard of care in all health care settings. Women infected with STDs have increased chances of contracting HIV. Studies show STD and HIV co-infection increases HIV virus shedding in the patients’ genital secretions. If co-infection is present, proper diagnosis and treatment of STDs will decrease the chances of transmitting HIV.
Slide 40 - 40 Helpful Resources AETC National Resource Center (NRC), www.aidsetc.org Clinical Manual for Management of the HIV-Infected Adult AIDSMAP,http://www.aidsmap.com Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/std STD Treatment guidelines 2006 HIV / AIDS and STDs Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau, http://hab.hrsa.gov/ A Guide to the Clinical Care of Women with HIV/AIDS HIVInsite, http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu Transgender Awareness Training & Advocacy http://www.tgtrain.org/
Slide 41 - 41 References Anderson, J.R, ed. (2005). A Guide to the Clinical Care of Women with HIV. Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2006. MMWR, Aug 4, 2006, 55. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2006. MMWR, April 13, 2007, 56 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Role of STD Detection and Treatment in HIV Prevention. Retrieved on September 16, 2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/std/hiv/STDFact-STD&HIV.htm#WhatIs Health Resources and Services Administation, HIV/AIDS Bureau, AETC National Resource Center. (2006). Guiding Principles for Cultural Competency. Retrieved on September 20, 2007 from http://www.aidsetc.org/doc/workgroups/cc-principles.doc US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for gonorrhea: recommendation Statement. Ann Fam Med 2005;3:263-7.