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Slide 1 - Overview of Programming Paradigms Lecture Objectives: Be able to explain the differences between programming languages and programming paradigms. Be able to differentiate between low-level and high-level programming languages and their associated advantages and disadvantages Be able to list four programming paradigms and describe their strengths and weaknesses. Introduction to Computer Programming Programming Languages Programming Paradigms Exercises
Slide 2 - Computer Programming The functions of a computer system are controlled by computer programs A computer program is a clear, step-by-step, finite set of instructions A computer program must be clear so that only one meaning can be derived from it, A computer program is written in a computer language called a programming language
Slide 3 - Programming Languages There are three categories of programming languages: 1.      Machine languages. 2.      Assembly languages. 3.      High-level languages. Machine languages and assembly languages are also called low-level languages
Slide 4 - Programming Languages (cont’d) A Machine language program consists of a sequence of zeros and ones. Each kind of CPU has its own machine language. Advantages Fast and efficient Machine oriented No translation required Disadvantages Not portable Not programmer friendly
Slide 5 - Assembly Language Assembly language programs use mnemonics to represent machine instructions Each statement in assembly language corresponds to one statement in machine language. Assembly language programs have the same advantages and disadvantages as machine language programs. Compare the following machine language and assembly language programs:
Slide 6 - High-Level Programming Languages A high-level language (HLL) has two primary components (1) a set of built-in language primitives and grammatical rules (2) a translator A HLL language program consists of English-like statements that are governed by a strict syntax. Advantages Portable or machine independent Programmer-friendly Disadvantages Not as efficient as low-level languages Need to be translated Examples : C, C++, Java, FORTRAN, Visual Basic, and Delphi.
Slide 7 - Programming Paradigms Why are there hundreds of programming languages in use today? Some programming languages are specifically designed for use in certain applications. Different programming languages follow different approaches to solving programming problems A programming paradigm is an approach to solving programming problems. A programming paradigm may consist of many programming languages. Common programming paradigms: Imperative or Procedural Programming Object-Oriented Programming Functional Programming Logic Programming
Slide 8 - Programming Paradigms: Imperative In this paradigm, a program is a series of statements containing variables. Program execution involves changing the memory contents of the computer continuously. Example of imperative languages are: C, FORTRAN, Pascal, COBOL etc Advantages low memory utilization relatively efficient the most common form of programming in use today. Disadvantages difficulty of reasoning about programs difficulty of parallelization. Tend to be relatively low level.
Slide 9 - Programming Paradigms: Object-Oriented A program in this paradigm consists of objects which communicate with each other by sending messages Example object oriented languages include: Java, C#, Smalltalk, etc Advantages Conceptual simplicity Models computation better Increased productivity. Disadvantages Can have a steep learning curve, initially Doing I/O can be cumbersome
Slide 10 - Programming Paradigms: Functional A program in this paradigm consists of functions and uses functions in a similar way as used in mathematics Program execution involves functions calling each other and returning results. There are no variables in functional languages. Example functional languages include: ML, MirandaTM, Haskell Advantages Small and clean syntax Better support for reasoning about programs They allow functions to be treated as any other data values. They support programming at a relatively higher level than the imperative languages  Disadvantages Difficulty of doing input-output Functional languages use more storage space than their imperative cousins
Slide 11 - Programming Paradigms: Logic A program in the logic paradigm consists of a set of predicates and rules of inference. Predicates are statements of fact like the statement that says: water is wet. Rules of inference are statements like: If X is human then X is mortal. The predicates and the rules of inference are used to prove statements that the programmer supplies. Example: Prolog Advantages Good support for reasoning about programs Can lead to concise solutions to problems  Disadvantages Slow execution Limited view of the world That means the system does not know about facts that are not its predicates and rules of inference. Difficulties in understanding and debugging large programs
Slide 12 - Which Programming Paradigm is Best? Which of these paradigms is the best? The most accurate answer is that there is no best paradigm. No single paradigm will fit all problems well. Human beings use a combination of the models represented by these paradigms. Languages with features from different paradigms are often too complex. So, the search of the ultimate programming language continues!
Slide 13 - Review Questions List two advantages and two disadvantages of low-level languages. 2. Explain the similarities and differences between an assembly language and a machine language. 3. Mention the programming paradigm to which each of the following languages belongs: Visual Basic, Java, C#, Haskell, Lisp, Prolog, Pascal. 4. Which programming paradigms give better support for reasoning about programs? 5. Which programming paradigms give better support for doing I/O?