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Slide 1 - 1 PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF FIXED-BED GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORBERS D. W. Hand, J. C. Crittenden, D. R. Hokanson, and J. L. Bulloch Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Michigan Technological University Houghton, Michigan 49931 USA Presented at First IAWQ Specialized Conference on Adsorption in Water Environment and Treatment Processes; Shirahama, Wakayama Japan November 1996 Copyright © 1996-2002. Michigan Technological University. All Rights Reserved.
Slide 2 - 2 OUTLINECompetitive Interactions Between Known Components Correlation of Single Solute Adsorption Equilibria Prediction of Multicomponent Equilibria of Known Components Model Predictions Using the Equilibrium Column Model Model Predictions Using the Pore Surface Diffusion Model
Slide 3 - 3 OUTLINE (continued)Synthetic Organic Compound (SOC) and Unknown Background Organic Matter (BOM) Interactions Impact of BOM on Fixed Bed Adsorption Capacity of SOCs Influence of Exposure Time Influence of Compound Type Influence of Water Type Impact of BOM on Adsorption Rate Model Simulations for a Variety of Waters
Slide 4 - 4 ISOTHERM CORRELATION
Slide 5 - 5 MTU DATA FOR SIX COMPONENTS
Slide 6 - 6 IDEAL ADSORBED SOLUTION THEORY Wilson Activity Coefficients Empirical Activity Coefficients (less than 1.0)
Slide 7 - 7 IAST CALCULATIONS SHOWING IMPROVEMENT WITH g
Slide 8 - 8 IAST CALCULATIONS SHOWING NO IMPROVEMENT WITH g
Slide 9 - 9 ADSORPTION EQUILIBRIUM ISOTHERM FOR TRICHLOROETHENE
Slide 10 - 10 FREUNDLICH K REDUCTIONFOR VARIOUS WATERS
Slide 11 - 11 PSDM MECHANISMS
Slide 12 - 12 MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS External Mass Transfer Coefficient (Gnielinski, 1978)
Slide 13 - 13 MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS (continued) Intraparticle Surface Diffusion Coefficient Single Components: SPDFR between 4 and 8 (mean = 6.58) Multiple Components: SPDFR = 16.27 EBCT(min)-0.843
Slide 14 - 14 MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS (continued) Intraparticle Pore Diffusion Coefficient SOCs Alone (maximum pore diffusion flux): tp = 1.0 SOCs in the Presence of BOM: tp = 1.0 when Time < 70 days tp = 0.334 + 6.61(10-6) * t when Time > 70 days
Slide 15 - 15 ADSORPTION DESIGN SOFTWARE (AdDesignSTM) Gas and Liquid phase Visual Basic Front-End with FORTRAN DLLs Up To 6 Components (12 PDEs), Solved by Orthogonal Collocation (Up To 18 Axial and 6 Radial Points, Up To 126 ODEs for Each Component, 756 ODEs total) Structured Heuristics Based on Experience for Model Parameter Estimation Data Base for Isotherms and Adsorbents SI and English Units 15,000 lines of code
Slide 16 - 16 CHLOROFORM: 6 Component ECM and PSDM Simulations for Organic Free Water
Slide 17 - 17 1,2-DBE RESULT: 6 Component ECM and PSDM Simulations for Organic Free Water
Slide 18 - 18 TCE RESULT: 6 Component ECM and PSDM Simulations for Organic Free Water
Slide 19 - 19 MODEL VERIFICATION EFFORT 11 Case Studies 9 Pilot Plant Experiments 2 Full-Scale Plants 11 Water Sources (USA, Germany, Netherlands) 8 Groundwaters 3 Surface Waters 4 Adsorbents 50 Empty Bed Contact Times 15 Synthetic Organic Chemicals
Slide 20 - 20 TCE: PSDM PREDICTION - KARLSRUHE TAP WATER CORRELATIONS
Slide 21 - 21 TCE: PSDM PREDICTION - RHINE RIVER WATER CORRELATIONS
Slide 22 - 22 1,2-DCP: PSDM PREDICTION - KARLSRUHE TAP WATER CORRELATIONS
Slide 23 - 23 BENTAZONE: PSDM PREDICTION - KARLSRUHE TAP WATER CORRELATIONS
Slide 24 - 24 ATRAZINE: PSDM PREDICTION - KARLSRUHE TAP WATER CORRELATIONS
Slide 25 - 25 CHLOROFORM: PSDM PREDICTION USING THE RHINE RIVER WATER FOULING CORRELATION
Slide 26 - 26 TCE: PSDM PREDICTION USING THE RHINE RIVER WATER FOULING CORRELATION
Slide 27 - 27 CONCLUSIONS AdDesignSTM interfaces several fixed bed adsorption models, model parameter estimation methods, and isotherm and adsorbent data bases. AdDesignSTM allows the user to make adsorber performance predictions with greater ease and archive the results. The heuristics for determining the most appropriate models and parameters should be considered work in progress and the Adsorption Design Software can be greatly improved as more information is gathered on the practical application of the models.
Slide 28 - 28 CONCLUSIONS (continued) Single component isotherm data can be correlated using the intrinsic molar volume and the Polanyi Potential Theory Multicomponent equilibria can be predicted from single solute isotherms using IAST for similar sized molecules The Equilibrium Column Model can predict the longest bed life and the highest overshoot concentrations for multicomponent mixtures of known components.
Slide 29 - 29 CONCLUSIONS (continued) The PSDM can predict the effluent concentration history profiles for multicomponent mixtures of known components. The PSDM can simulate the effluent concentration history profiles for SOCs in the presence of BOM. Reductions in capacity and diffusivities which were estimated from a ground water and surface water span the range of fixed bed data from 11 different studies. Additional comparisons are needed to develop more general guidelines.
Slide 30 - 30 FURTHER READING Crittenden, J.C., N.J. Hutzler, D.G. Geyer, J.L. Oravitz, and G. Friedman, "Transport of Organic Compounds with Saturated Groundwater Flow: Model Development and Parameter Sensitivity," Water Resources Research, 22 (3), 271‑284 (1986). Crittenden, J.C., T.F. Speth, D.W. Hand, P.J. Luft, and B. Lykins, "Evaluating Multi-component Competition in Fixed Beds," Journal of Environmental Engineering, 113 (6), 1363‑1375 (1987a). Crittenden, J.C., D.W. Hand, H. Arora, and B.W. Lykins Jr., "Design Considerations for GAC Treatment of Organic Chemicals," Jour. of AWWA, 79 (1), 74‑82 (1987b). Crittenden, J.C., R.D. Cortright, B. Rick, S.R. Tang, and D. Perram, "Using Granular Activated Carbon to Remove Volatile Organic Chemicals from Air Stripping Off-Gas," Jour. of AWWA, 80 (5), 73‑84 (1988). Hand, D. W., J. C. Crittenden, and W. E. Thacker, "Simplified Models for Design of Fixed-Bed Adsorbers," Jour. of Env. Eng. Div., Proceedings of ASCE, 110 (EE2), 1984. Hand, D. W., J. C. Crittenden, H. Arora, J. Miller, and B.W.Lykins Jr., "Design of Fixed-Beds to Remove Multi-component Mixtures of Volatile and Synthetic Organic Chemicals," Jour. of AWWA, 81(1) 1989. Hand, D. W., J.C. Crittenden, D.R. Hokanson, and J.L. Bulloch, “Predicting the performance of fixed-bed granular activated carbon adsorbers,” Water Science and Technology, 35(7), 235-241 (1997). Sontheimer, H., J.C. Crittenden, and R.S. Summers, “Activated Carbon for Water Treatment,” DVGW-Forschungsstelle, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Univ. Karlsruhe, Fed. Rep. of Germany (1988).
Slide 31 - 31 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS National Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Science Foundation (No. ECE 8603615) Environmental Engineering Center (MTU) Some laboratory and field data were analyzed and provided by G. Baldauf, Gerhard Zimmer, and the late Professor Heinrich Sontheimer at Engler-Bunte-Institut, University of Karlsruhe