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Pre Event Planning and Activities Emergency Preparedness

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Published on : Jan 08, 2015
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Slide 1 - Pre-Event Planning and Activities
Slide 2 - Principles of Smallpox Control Outbreak Detection. Diagnosis and Isolation of Cases. Search and Containment: Active Case Search. Contact Management. Vaccination.
Slide 3 - Pre-Event Activities
Slide 4 - Training for health care providers and public health staff: Clinical case definition. Differential diagnosis of febrile vesicular pustular rash illness. High level of alertness for cases of smallpox. Laboratory diagnostic issues (VZV, other). Notification procedures. Post-event surveillance methods (Case search and Contact Tracing). Pre-Event Training
Slide 5 - Epi/Surv/Summary Case interview. Contact identification. Contact households, other sites, travel modes. Contact risk category for prioritization. Assignment of contacts to tracing teams. Contact and contact household member interviews. Vaccination of contact and household members. Contact surveillance for fever/rash follow-up. Reporting of contacts with fever and rash for isolation. Vaccine take and severe adverse event surveillance. Reporting of severe adverse vaccination events. Maintaining forms and data files. Data reporting.
Slide 6 - Pre-Event Smallpox Surveillance Clinical Case Definition* An illness with acute onset of fever > 101o F followed by a rash characterized by firm, deep-seated vesicles or pustules in the same stage of development without other apparent cause. * Note: definition modified from current draft smallpox response plan
Slide 7 - Varicella Surveillance Clinical Case Definition An illness with acute onset of diffuse (generalized) maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause.
Slide 8 - Epidemiology United States, 2001
Slide 9 - Epidemiology United States, 2001
Slide 10 - Pre-Event Smallpox Surveillance Case definition specific – early cases will be missed. Minimize risk of false positive in conditions of zero cases with extremely low predictive value positive for smallpox test results. Varicella and disseminated herpes zoster – 2 million cases/year. Enteroviral infections – 10 million cases/year.
Slide 11 - Suspected Smallpox Case Meets clinical case definition. Public health emergency. Arrange for laboratory testing.
Slide 12 - Pre-event Preparation Preparing for post-event surveillance and response: Identifying state/local lead for coordinating surveillance activities. Establish redundant mechanisms for reporting cases and communicating with reporting sources. Surveillance forms and reporting.
Slide 13 - Coordination Human resources (Local and National). Identify communication infrastructure. Stockpiles. Transport: Supplies. People. Lab Specimens.
Slide 14 - Identify Staff Estimate number of teams/personnel needed – more is better! Case interviewers. Contact team supervisors. Support staff: secretaries, telephonists, data entry. Contact tracing teams: face-to-face vs. telephone. Vaccination status.
Slide 15 - Smallpox diagnosis and case definition. Risk categorization of contacts/contact sites. Case/contact interviewing methods and skills. Vaccination arrangements to be used; vaccine contraindications. Reporting of contact fever/rash, vaccination “take,” and severe adverse events. Record keeping: forms, databases, etc. Train Staff
Slide 16 - Materials Forms: Case forms, Contact forms, etc. Educational materials: Smallpox recognition card. Vaccination Status recognition card. Vaccine contraindication sheet. Vaccine Information Statement (VIS). Vaccination “ticket.”
Slide 17 - Emergency Operations Center National headquarters with specialists for supporting field teams: Operations coordinator and operations staff. Specialists in smallpox investigations, surveillance, lab, vaccine safety. Specialists in contact tracing, vaccine supply, policy and procedures. Communications, training, and hot line advisors. IT and computer support.
Slide 18 - Creation Smallpox Response Teams Reasoning Behind: Smallpox attack will be reason for international concern and focus. National government will want people “on the scene” to coordinate response at national and local level. Local resources may become overwhelmed.
Slide 19 - Human resources Identify state/local leader for coordinating contact tracing activities. Estimate number of teams needed - more is better. Identify and vaccinate state/local staff. Train state/local staff. Assure forms, informational pieces and other print materials are available. Contingency plan for additional staff. Protect the health and security of team members.
Slide 20 - Well Functioning Teams Spirit of team work and sharing of information. “Get the job done” mentality. Recognize and utilize local experts. Share credit broadly, particularly with local counterparts. Make others look good. Use brief, succinct, and positive communications. Keep messages consistent among all team members.
Slide 21 - Sending in Response Teams Things to Remember Community physicians, hospitals, and Local Public Health Officials will be the real first responders. Most of the smallpox response work will be done by local public health officials. The local government knows their area. Don’t see it as “taking over.” Level of the national response will depend partly on: Local Area Capacity. Political Realities.
Slide 22 - Other national agencies may be involved under established emergency response plans. The national health agency will need to coordinate efforts with these other agencies. A criminal investigation will be taking place: Criminal agency may have lead on response. Public health may have to coordinate activities to improve response. Sending in Response Teams Things to Remember
Slide 23 - Response Team Composition The US Response Team Structure Physician Team Leader Public Health Advisors Medical Epidemiologists Laboratory Scientist or Technician Information Technology Specialist Communications Specialists Community Liaison Specialists/Anthropologist Occupational Health Specialist
Slide 24 - Coordination and oversight of all team activities. Represents the national team in policy and political discussions with local HD. Delegates assignments to team members. Coordinates communication with national agency. Physician Team Leader
Slide 25 - Management skills with understanding of medical issues. Not necessarily nurse or physician. Serves as deputy to team leader for management and operations oversight. Represents team leader at operational meetings. Manages non-technical aspects of activities. Key problem solver and expediter. Frees up team leader to concentrate on medical issues. Senior Public Health Advisor
Slide 26 - Managerial positions with training in epidemiology skills. Assist Local HDs to establish policy and manage: Contact tracing. Vaccinations. Training. Other duties as assigned. Frees up medical team members to work on medical planning and evaluation. Public Health Advisors
Slide 27 - Serve as technical consultants for: outbreak investigation. surveillance. data collection. isolation. hospital infection control. communication of technical info to local HD. Medical Epidemiologists
Slide 28 - Coordinates activities for: diagnosing and monitoring adverse events. medical care for serious adverse events. reporting. analysis. coordinating safety and risk messages with communications specialists. Medical Epidemiologist – Vaccine Safety
Slide 29 - Advise medical care providers and laboratories on all aspects of: specimen collection. handling. processing. safety. Serve as liaison with national laboratory on shipping, specimen quality, and results. Laboratory Scientist or Technician
Slide 30 - Serve as liaison between team and communications specialists for: health agencies. emergency and police agencies. political offices. Advise and assist with drafting press materials, handling press inquiries, dealing with public, and coordinating with national agency. Communications Specialists
Slide 31 - Serve as contact to local hospitals, infectious disease specialists, health department officials, and other key community responders to: identify and brief key community partners. assist in management of community outreach staff. help prepare for and hold partner briefings. assist in communication and educational activities for quarantined persons and families, contacts, etc. report outreach progress and requirements to team leader and CDC. Facilitates flow of information to places where community goes for information and answers, e.g., hotlines, etc. Community Liaison Specialists/ Anthropologist
Slide 32 - Assists and coordinates data management for: surveillance. lab specimens and results. contact tracing. vaccinations. adverse events. Problem solver for software and connectivity issues with team and local counterparts. Information Technology Specialists
Slide 33 - Provide guidance on personal protective equipment for exposed workers and team. Ensure adequacy of engineering (e.g., ventilation-- negative pressure rooms) and administrative controls. Provide guidance on site safety and health plan Coordinate with agencies (at all levels) responsible for occupational issues. Facilitate worker notification regarding exposure and risk of disease. Facilitate employee and labor representation in meetings. Technical assistance on occupational illness and exposure surveillance. Occupational Health Specialist
Slide 34 - Isolation Establish what laws exist. Enforcement. What facilities exist: Negative air pressure rooms. Facilities that can be converted into smallpox facilities. Training response team: Case management. Infection control.
Slide 35 - Vaccination Strategies Identify providers of the vaccine. Sources for bifurcated needles. Sources for VIG/Cidofovir. Vaccine Storage and mobilization. Distribution mechanisms. Planning vaccine administration. Monitoring for Adverse Events (forms, data collection). Vaccinate frontline respondents.
Slide 36 - Outbreak Declared Confirmation of smallpox virus, antigen or nucleic acid in a clinical specimen. Large outbreak of clinically compatible illness pending etiologic confirmation. Confirmation of smallpox virus in environmental sample, package or device associated with potential human exposure. Reports of suspected or probable cases once an outbreak has been previously identified. Criteria for Implementation of Smallpox Response Plan