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Overview of Melanoma PowerPoint Presentation

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On : Feb 24, 2014

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  • Slide 1 - Melanoma
  • Slide 2 - What is Melanoma? Melanoma is a very serious form of skin cancer. Melanoma is cancer of the melanocytes. Melanocytes are located in the Stratum Basale and produce melanin.
  • Slide 3 - Melanocytes When skin is exposed to sunlight, melanocytes produce more pigment, causing the skin to tan. Sometimes, clusters of melanocytes form noncancerous (benign) growths called moles. Moles can be either flat or raised, round or oval, and are smaller than a pencil eraser. Generally harmless, but can become cancerous
  • Slide 4 - ppt slide no 4 content not found
  • Slide 5 - What is cancer? Cancer is abnormal cell growth. The mass of extra cells forms a growth or tumor. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors are not cancer. They often can be removed and, in most cases, they do not come back.
  • Slide 6 - Malignant Tumors Malignant tumors are cancerous. Cells can invade and destroy surrounding tissue. Cells can also break away from a malignant tumor and enter the bloodstream. When cancer spreads (metastasizes) to other parts of the body, the new tumor has the same kind of abnormal cells and the same name as the original tumor.
  • Slide 7 - Types of Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Slide 8 - Melanoma Although melanoma accounts for only about 5% of all skin cancer cases, it causes most skin cancer-related deaths.
  • Slide 9 - Causes of Melanoma 90% of all melanomas are linked to UV radiation. (Sun exposure) 8% are due to chromosomal abnormalities About 2% are unknown www.oncologychannel.com
  • Slide 10 - Risk Factors Family history of melanoma Dysplastic nevi (noncancerous, but unusual- looking moles) Previous melanoma Many nevi (ordinary moles): more than 50 Severe, blistering sunburns Freckling tendency Fair skin, light eyes Excessive use of tanning beds
  • Slide 11 - Signs and Symptoms Melanoma can appear suddenly as a new mole, or it can develop slowly in or near an existing mole. In men, melanomas are often found between the shoulders and hips, or the head and neck area. In women, melanoma often develops on the lower legs as well as between the shoulders and hips. It may also appear under the fingernails or toenails or on the palms or soles.
  • Slide 12 - Signs and Symptoms cont… A skin growth that increases in size and looks pearly, translucent, tan, brown, black, red, pink, or multicolored. A mole that changes in color or in texture, becomes irregular in shape, gets larger, or is bigger than a pencil eraser. A spot or growth that continues to itch, hurt, crust, scab, erode, or bleed.
  • Slide 13 - Signs and Symptoms cont… An open sore that lasts for more than 4 weeks, or heals and then reopens. A scaly or crusty bump that is horny, dry, and rough and may produce a pricking or tender sensation.
  • Slide 14 - ABCD’s of Melanoma A                                                         Asymmetry--one half unlike the other half. B                                                         Border irregular--scalloped or poorly circumscribed border. C                                               Color varied from one area to another; shades of tan and brown; black; sometimes white, red or blue. D                                                         Diameter larger than 6mm as a rule (diameter of a pencil eraser).
  • Slide 15 - ABCD’s
  • Slide 16 - Melanoma Early Melanoma is totally curable. If melanomas of this type are diagnosed early  minor surgery is all that is required.
  • Slide 17 - Melanoma Surface Melanoma- Most common form of melanoma. Spreads across the surface of the skin. Only when it invades deeper does it become dangerous
  • Slide 18 - Melanoma Nodular Melanoma -The most dangerous form of melanoma, arising as a small lump on pure melanoma tissue in the skin.  The risk of death from this melanoma increases rapidly as the tumor buries deeper in the skin.
  • Slide 19 - Stages of Melanoma - Treatment Stage 0 — Also called melanoma in situ, this tumor is found only on the top layer of the epidermis. Treatment is by surgery. Virtually all of these cases can be cured.
  • Slide 20 - Stages of Melanoma - Treatment Stage IA — The tumor is low-risk, less than .75 mm in thickness, and/or has not penetrated to the dermis. The tumor has not spread to the lymph nodes or distant organs. Treatment is by surgery.
  • Slide 21 - Stages of Melanoma - Treatment Stage IIA — The melanoma is between 1.5 mm and 4 mm and/or has penetrated the deep dermis. Treatment is by surgery.
  • Slide 22 - Stages of Melanoma - Treatment Stage IIB — The tumor is thicker than 4 mm and/or invades the subcutaneous fat. Additional tumors called “satellites” may be found within 2 centimeters of the original tumor. Treatment is by surgery.
  • Slide 23 - Stages of Melanoma - Treatment Stage III — Melanoma has spread to the nearest lymph node. Treatment is by surgery. Adjacent lymph nodes often removed.
  • Slide 24 - Stages of Melanoma - Treatment Stage IV — The melanoma has spread to other organs such as the lung, liver, or brain, or to distant areas of skin or lymph nodes. Treatment may include surgery and chemotherapy
  • Slide 25 - Facts One person each hour dies from melanoma. Melanoma afflicts nearly 45,000 Americans yearly. Affects all age groups and is one of the most common cancers in young adults Melanoma diagnosed at an early stage can usually be cured, but melanoma diagnosed at a late stage is more likely to spread and cause death. The Key is PREVENTION!
  • Slide 26 - Ultraviolet Rays UV-APenetrate more deeply into the skin's layers than UV-B rays. These rays contribute to premature aging and wrinkling of the skin, to sunburn, and to skin cancer.
  • Slide 27 - UV Radiation UV-B -Stronger than UV-A, are more intense in summer months, at higher altitudes, and closer to the equator. Most common cause of sunburning, can contribute to the premature aging of the skin and can cause cataracts.
  • Slide 28 - UV Radiation UV-CThese rays, although the strongest and most dangerous, are normally filtered by the ozone layer and do not reach the Earth.
  • Slide 29 - How much UV reaches me? Time of Day: UV is greatest between 10 AM and 3 PM
  • Slide 30 - How much UV reaches me? Where You Live: UV is strongest at the equator and gets weaker as you move towards the Earth's poles. Altitude: The air is cleaner and thinner at higher altitudes; therefore, UV exposure is greater in the mountains than in the valleys.
  • Slide 31 - Sun Facts Protecting your skin during the first 18 years of life can reduce the risk of some types of skin cancer by up to 78%. You can get a sunburn even on a cloudy day! Up to 80% of the sun's rays can penetrate light clouds, mist, and fog. Severe sunburn during the first 15 years of life can double the risk of skin cancer. You can get sunburned when you are in the water - Water reflects an additional 5% of the sun's rays back on you. Even dry surfaces reflect the sun's rays! Concrete reflects 10% to 12% of the sun's rays.
  • Slide 32 - Prevention 1. UV reflection from sand, water, pavement, cement and snow doubles the amount of ultraviolet exposure. 2. Wear a sunscreen with a minimun of 15 SPF, even on cloudy days. SPF- Sun Protection Factor Number= amount of time you can spend in the sun without getting burned. Ex No sunscreen- Burn 10 minutes Ex SPF- 5- Burn time 50 minutes
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