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Slide 1 - Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology Frederic H. Martini Unit 2 Support and Movement Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared byProfessor Albia Dugger, Miami–Dade College, Miami, FL Professor Robert R. Speed, Ph.D., Wallace Community College, Dothan, AL 1
Slide 2 - Chapter 6: Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure 2
Slide 3 - The Skeletal System Skeletal system includes: bones of the skeleton cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues 3
Slide 4 - What are the functions of the skeletal system? 4
Slide 5 - Functions of the Skeletal System Support Storage of minerals (calcium) Storage of lipids (yellow marrow) 5
Slide 6 - Functions of the Skeletal System Blood cell production (red marrow) Protection Leverage (force of motion) 6
Slide 7 - How are bones classified? 7
Slide 8 - Classification of Bones Bones are identified by: shape internal tissues bone markings 8
Slide 9 - Bone Shapes Long bones Flat bones Sutural bones Irregular bones Short bones Sesamoid bones 9
Slide 10 - Long Bones Figure 6–1a 10
Slide 11 - Long Bones Are long and thin Are found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes 11
Slide 12 - Flat Bones Figure 6–1b 12
Slide 13 - Flat Bones Are thin with parallel surfaces Are found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapula 13
Slide 14 - Sutural Bones Figure 6–1c 14
Slide 15 - Sutural Bones Are small, irregular bones Are found between the flat bones of the skull 15
Slide 16 - Irregular Bones Figure 6–1d 16
Slide 17 - Irregular Bones Have complex shapes Examples: spinal vertebrae pelvic bones 17
Slide 18 - Short Bones Figure 6–1e 18
Slide 19 - Short Bones Are small and thick Examples: ankle wrist bones 19
Slide 20 - Sesamoid Bones Figure 6–1f 20
Slide 21 - Sesamoid Bones Are small and flat Develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet 21
Slide 22 - Bone Markings Depressions or grooves: along bone surface Projections: where tendons and ligaments attach at articulations with other bones Tunnels: where blood and nerves enter bone 22
Slide 23 - Bone Markings Table 6–1 (1 of 2) 23
Slide 24 - Bone Markings Table 6–1 (2 of 2) 24
Slide 25 - Long Bones The femur Figure 6–2a 25
Slide 26 - Long Bones Diaphysis: the shaft Epiphysis: wide part at each end articulation with other bones Metaphysis: where diaphysis and epiphysis meet 26
Slide 27 - The Diaphysis A heavy wall of compact bone, or dense bone A central space called marrow cavity 27
Slide 28 - The Epiphysis Mostly spongy (cancellous) bone Covered with compact bone (cortex) 28
Slide 29 - Flat Bones The parietal bone of the skull Figure 6–2b 29
Slide 30 - Flat Bones Resembles a sandwich of spongy bone Between 2 layers of compact bone 30
Slide 31 - What are the types and functions of bone cells? 31
Slide 32 - Bone (Osseous) Tissue Dense, supportive connective tissue Contains specialized cells Produces solid matrix of calcium salt deposits Around collagen fibers 32
Slide 33 - Characteristics of Bone Tissue Dense matrix, containing: deposits of calcium salts bone cells within lacunae organized around blood vessels 33
Slide 34 - Characteristics of Bone Tissue Canaliculi: form pathways for blood vessels exchange nutrients and wastes 34
Slide 35 - Characteristics of Bone Tissue Periosteum: covers outer surfaces of bones consist of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers 35
Slide 36 - Matrix Minerals 2/3 of bone matrix is calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2: reacts with calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 to form crystals of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 which incorporates other calcium salts and ions 36
Slide 37 - Matrix Proteins 1/3 of bone matrix is protein fibers (collagen) 37
Slide 38 - Bone Cells Make up only 2% of bone mass: osteocytes osteoblasts osteoprogenitor cells osteoclasts 38
Slide 39 - Osteocytes Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix Figure 6–3 (1 of 4) 39
Slide 40 - Osteocytes Live in lacunae Are between layers (lamellae) of matrix Connect by cytoplasmic extensions through canaliculi in lamellae Do not divide 40
Slide 41 - Osteocyte Functions To maintain protein and mineral content of matrix To help repair damaged bone 41
Slide 42 - Osteoblasts Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds (osteogenesis) Figure 6–3 (2 of 4) 42
Slide 43 - Osteoid Matrix produced by osteoblasts, but not yet calcified to form bone Osteoblasts surrounded by bone become osteocytes 43
Slide 44 - Osteoprogenitor Cells Mesenchymal stem cells that divide to produce osteoblasts Figure 6–3 (3 of 4) 44
Slide 45 - Osteoprogenitor Cells Are located in inner, cellular layer of periosteum (endosteum) The endosteum is a thin layer of connective tissue which lines the surface of the bony tissue that forms the medullary cavity of long bones. This endosteal surface is usually resorbed during long periods of malnutrition Assist in fracture repair 45
Slide 46 - Osteoclasts Secrete acids and protein-digesting enzymes Figure 6–3 (4 of 4) 46
Slide 47 - Osteoclasts Giant, mutlinucleate cells Dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals (osteolysis) Are derived from stem cells that produce macrophages 47
Slide 48 - Homeostasis Bone building (by osteocytes) and bone recycling (by osteoclasts) must balance: more breakdown than building, bones become weak exercise causes osteocytes to build bone 48
Slide 49 - What is the difference between compact bone and spongy bone? 49
Slide 50 - Compact Bone Figure 6–5 50
Slide 51 - Osteon The basic unit of mature compact bone smallest unit of mature compact bone Osteocytes are arranged in concentric lamellae Around a central canal containing blood vessels 51
Slide 52 - Perforating Canals Perpendicular to the central canal Carry blood vessels into bone and marrow 52
Slide 53 - Circumferential Lamellae Lamellae wrapped around the long bone Binds osteons together 53
Slide 54 - Spongy Bone Figure 6–6 54
Slide 55 - Spongy Bone Does not have osteons The matrix forms an open network of trabeculae Trabeculae have no blood vessels 55
Slide 56 - Red Marrow The space between trabeculae is filled with red bone marrow: which has blood vessels forms red blood cells and supplies nutrients to osteocytes 56
Slide 57 - Yellow Marrow In some bones, spongy bone holds yellow bone marrow: is yellow because it stores fat 57
Slide 58 - Weight–Bearing Bones Figure 6–7 58
Slide 59 - Weight–Bearing Bones The femur transfers weight from hip joint to knee joint: causing tension on the lateral side of the shaft and compression on the medial side 59
Slide 60 - Periosteum and Endosteum Compact bone is covered with membrane: periosteum on the outside endosteum on the inside 60
Slide 61 - Periosteum Figure 6–8a 61
Slide 62 - Periosteum Covers all bones: except parts enclosed in joint capsules It is made up of: an outer, fibrous layer and an inner, cellular layer 62
Slide 63 - Perforating Fibers Collagen fibers of the periosteum: connect with collagen fibers in bone and with fibers of joint capsules, attached tendons, and ligaments 63
Slide 64 - Functions of Periosteum Isolate bone from surrounding tissues Provide a route for circulatory and nervous supply Participate in bone growth and repair 64
Slide 65 - Endosteum Figure 6–8b 65
Slide 66 - Endosteum An incomplete cellular layer: lines the marrow cavity covers trabeculae of spongy bone lines central canals 66
Slide 67 - Endosteum Contains osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, and osteoclasts Is active in bone growth and repair 67
Slide 68 - What is the difference between intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification? 68
Slide 69 - Bone Development Human bones grow until about age 25 Osteogenesis: bone formation Ossification: the process of replacing other tissues with bone 69
Slide 70 - Calcification The process of depositing calcium salts Occurs during bone ossification and in other tissues 70
Slide 71 - Ossification The 2 main forms of ossification are: intramembranous ossification endochondral ossification 71
Slide 72 - Intramembranous Ossification Also called dermal ossification: because it occurs in the dermis produces dermal bones such as mandible and clavicle There are 3 main steps in intramembranous ossification 72
Slide 73 - Intramembranous Ossification: Step 1 Figure 6–11 (Step 1) 73
Slide 74 - Intramembranous Ossification: Step 1 Mesenchymal cells aggregate: differentiate into osteoblasts begin ossification at the ossification center develop projections called spicules 74
Slide 75 - Intramembranous Ossification: Step 2 Figure 6–11 (Step 2) 75
Slide 76 - Intramembranous Ossification: Step 2 Blood vessels grow into the area: to supply the osteoblasts Spicules connect: trapping blood vessels inside bone 76
Slide 77 - Intramembranous Ossification: Step 3 Figure 6–11 (Step 3) 77
Slide 78 - Intramembranous Ossification: Step 3 Spongy bone develops and is remodeled into: osteons of compact bone periosteum or marrow cavities 78
Slide 79 - Endochondral Ossification Ossifies bones that originate as hyaline cartilage Most bones originate as hyaline cartilage 79
Slide 80 - How does bone form and grow? 80
Slide 81 - Endochondral Ossification Growth and ossification of long bones occurs in 6 steps 81
Slide 82 - Endochondral Ossification: Step 1 Chondrocytes in the center of hyaline cartilage: enlarge form struts and calcify die, leaving cavities in cartilage Figure 6–9 (Step 1) 82
Slide 83 - Endochondral Ossification: Step 2 Figure 6–9 (Step 2) 83
Slide 84 - Endochondral Ossification: Step 2 Blood vessels grow around the edges of the cartilage Cells in the perichondrium change to osteoblasts: producing a layer of superficial bone around the shaft which will continue to grow and become compact bone (appositional growth) 84
Slide 85 - Endochondral Ossification: Step 3 Blood vessels enter the cartilage: bringing fibroblasts that become osteoblasts spongy bone develops at the primary ossification center Figure 6–9 (Step 3) 85
Slide 86 - Endochondral Ossification: Step 4 Remodeling creates a marrow cavity: bone replaces cartilage at the metaphyses Figure 6–9 (Step 4) 86
Slide 87 - Endochondral Ossification: Step 5 Capillaries and osteoblasts enter the epiphyses: creating secondary ossification centers Figure 6–9 (Step 5) 87
Slide 88 - Endochondral Ossification: Step 6 Figure 6–9 (Step 6) 88
Slide 89 - Endochondral Ossification: Step 6 Epiphyses fill with spongy bone: cartilage within the joint cavity is articulation cartilage cartilage at the metaphysis is epiphyseal cartilage 89
Slide 90 - Endochondral Ossification Appositional growth: compact bone thickens and strengthens long bone with layers of circumferential lamellae Endochondral Ossification PLAY Figure 6–9 (Step 2) 90
Slide 91 - What are the characteristics of adult bones? 91
Slide 92 - Epiphyseal Lines Figure 6–10 92
Slide 93 - Epiphyseal Lines When long bone stops growing, after puberty: epiphyseal cartilage disappears is visible on X-rays as an epiphyseal line 93
Slide 94 - Mature Bones As long bone matures: osteoclasts enlarge marrow cavity osteons form around blood vessels in compact bone 94
Slide 95 - Blood Supply of Mature Bones 3 major sets of blood vessels develop Figure 6–12 95
Slide 96 - Blood Vessels of Mature Bones Nutrient artery and vein: a single pair of large blood vessels enter the diaphysis through the nutrient foramen femur has more than 1 pair 96
Slide 97 - Blood Vessels of Mature Bones Metaphyseal vessels: supply the epiphyseal cartilage where bone growth occurs 97
Slide 98 - Blood Vessels of Mature Bones Periosteal vessels provide: blood to superficial osteons secondary ossification centers 98
Slide 99 - Lymph and Nerves The periosteum also contains: networks of lymphatic vessels sensory nerves 99
Slide 100 - How does the skeletal system remodel and maintain homeostasis, and what are the effects of nutrition, hormones, exercise, and aging on bone? 100
Slide 101 - Remodeling The adult skeleton: maintains itself replaces mineral reserves Remodeling: recycles and renews bone matrix involves osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts 101
Slide 102 - KEY CONCEPTS Bone continually remodels, recycles, and replaces Turnover rate varies If deposition is greater than removal, bones get stronger If removal is faster than replacement, bones get weaker 102
Slide 103 - Effects of Exercise on Bone Mineral recycling allows bones to adapt to stress Heavily stressed bones become thicker and stronger 103
Slide 104 - Bone Degeneration Bone degenerates quickly Up to 1/3 of bone mass can be lost in a few weeks of inactivity 104
Slide 105 - KEY CONCEPTS What you don’t use, you lose Stresses applied to bones during physical activity are essential to maintain bone strength and mass 105
Slide 106 - Effects of Hormones and Nutrition on Bone Normal bone growth and maintenance requires nutritional and hormonal factors 106
Slide 107 - Minerals A dietary source of calcium and phosphate salts: plus small amounts of magnesium, fluoride, iron, and manganese 107
Slide 108 - Calcitriol The hormone calcitriol: is made in the kidneys helps absorb calcium and phosphorus from digestive tract synthesis requires vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) 108
Slide 109 - Vitamins Vitamin C is required for collagen synthesis, and stimulates osteoblast differentiation Vitamin A stimulates osteoblast activity Vitamins K and B12 help synthesize bone proteins 109
Slide 110 - Other Hormones Growth hormone and thyroxine stimulate bone growth Estrogens and androgens stimulate osteoblasts Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone regulate calcium and phosphate levels 110
Slide 111 - Hormones for Bone Growth and Maintenance Table 6–2 111
Slide 112 - The Skeleton as Calcium Reserve Bones store calcium and other minerals Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body 112
Slide 113 - Chemical Composition of Bone Figure 6–13 113
Slide 114 - Functions of Calcium Calcium ions are vital to: membranes neurons muscle cells, especially heart cells 114
Slide 115 - Calcium Regulation Calcium ions in body fluids: must be closely regulated Homeostasis is maintained: by calcitonin and parathyroid hormone which control storage, absorption, and excretion 115
Slide 116 - Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone Control Bones: where calcium is stored Digestive tract: where calcium is absorbed Kidneys: where calcium is excreted 116
Slide 117 - Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Figure 6–14a 117
Slide 118 - Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Produced by parathyroid glands in neck Increases calcium ion levels by: stimulating osteoclasts increasing intestinal absorption of calcium decreases calcium excretion at kidneys 118
Slide 119 - Calcitonin Figure 6–14b 119
Slide 120 - Calcitonin Secreted by C cells (parafollicular cells) in thyroid Decreases calcium ion levels by: inhibiting osteoclast activity increasing calcium excretion at kidneys 120
Slide 121 - KEY CONCEPTS (1 of 2) Calcium and phosphate ions in blood are lost in urine Ions must be replaced to maintain homeostasis If not obtained from diet, ions are removed from the skeleton, weakening bones 121
Slide 122 - KEY CONCEPTS (2 of 2) Exercise and nutrition keep bones strong 122
Slide 123 - What are the types of fractures, and how do they heal? 123
Slide 124 - Fractures Fractures: cracks or breaks in bones caused by physical stress Fractures are repaired in 4 steps 124
Slide 125 - Fracture Repair: Step 1 Figure 6–15 (Step 1) 125
Slide 126 - Fracture Repair: Step 1 Bleeding: produces a clot (fracture hematoma) establishes a fibrous network Bone cells in the area die 126
Slide 127 - Fracture Repair: Step 2 Figure 6–15 (Step 2) 127
Slide 128 - Fracture Repair: Step 2 Cells of the endosteum and periosteum: Divide and migrate into fracture zone Calluses stabilize the break: external callus of cartilage and bone surrounds break internal callus develops in marrow cavity 128
Slide 129 - Fracture Repair: Step 3 Figure 6–15 (Step 3) 129
Slide 130 - Fracture Repair: Step 3 Osteoblasts: replace central cartilage of external callus with spongy bone 130
Slide 131 - Fracture Repair: Step 4 Figure 6–15 (Step 4) 131
Slide 132 - Fracture Repair: Step 4 Osteoblasts and osteocytes remodel the fracture for up to a year: reducing bone calluses Steps in the Repair of a Fracture PLAY 132
Slide 133 - Figure 6–16 (1 of 9) The Major Types of Fractures Pott’s fracture 133
Slide 134 - The Major Types of Fractures Comminuted fractures Figure 6–16 (2 of 9) 134
Slide 135 - The Major Types of Fractures Transverse fractures Figure 6–16 (3 of 9) 135
Slide 136 - The Major Types of Fractures Spiral fractures Figure 6–16 (4 of 9) 136
Slide 137 - Figure 6–16 (5 of 9) The Major Types of Fractures Displaced fractures 137
Slide 138 - Figure 6–16 (6 of 9) The Major Types of Fractures Colles’ fracture 138
Slide 139 - Figure 6–16 (7 of 9) The Major Types of Fractures Greenstick fracture 139
Slide 140 - Figure 6–16 (8 of 9) The Major Types of Fractures Epiphyseal fractures 140
Slide 141 - Figure 6–16 (9 of 9) The Major Types of Fractures Compression fractures 141
Slide 142 - What are the effects of aging on the skeletal system? 142
Slide 143 - Age and Bones Bones become thinner and weaker with age Osteopenia begins between ages 30 and 40 Women lose 8% of bone mass per decade, men 3% 143
Slide 144 - Effects of Bone Loss The epiphyses, vertebrae, and jaws are most affected: resulting in fragile limbs reduction in height tooth loss 144
Slide 145 - Osteoporosis Severe bone loss Affects normal function Over age 45, occurs in: 29% of women 18% of men 145
Slide 146 - Hormones and Bone Loss Estrogens and androgens help maintain bone mass Bone loss in women accelerates after menopause 146
Slide 147 - Cancer and Bone Loss Cancerous tissues release osteoclast-activating factor: that stimulates osteoclasts and produces severe osteoporosis 147
Slide 148 - SUMMARY (1 of 5) Bone shapes, markings, and structure The matrix of osseous tissue Types of bone cells 148
Slide 149 - SUMMARY (2 of 5) The structures of compact bone The structures of spongy bone The periosteum and endosteum 149
Slide 150 - SUMMARY (3 of 5) Ossification and calcification Intramembranous ossification Endochondrial ossification 150
Slide 151 - SUMMARY (4 of 5) Blood and nerve supplies Bone minerals, recycling, and remodeling The effects of exercise 151
Slide 152 - SUMMARY (5 of 5) Hormones and nutrition Calcium storage Fracture repair The effects of aging 152