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Slide 1 - 1 An-Najah National University Faculty of Nursing Second year students Prepared by: Abed Alaziz Al Masri Obiedah Nasfat Abed Elsalam Isa Nursing Care Plan of Aortic Aneurysm
Slide 2 - 2
Slide 3 - 3 What is Aortic Aneurysm ? Is a localized sac or dilation at a weak point of the aorta to a size greater than 1.5 times its normal diameter
Slide 4 - 4 What are the causes of Aortic Aneurysm ? Most aneurysms are arteriosclerotic in origin Syphilis Infection Inflammatory diseases Trauma Hypertension Smoking Aortic dissection
Slide 5 - 5 What are the classifications of aneurysms according to their shape ? The first classification is : Fusiform Aneurysm : dilation of the entire circumference of the artery Saccular Aneurysm : localized balloon- shaped outpouching projects from one side of the artery
Slide 6 - 6 The second classification is : True Aneurysm : involve the entire vessel wall False Aneurysm : is formed when blood leaks outside of the artery but is contained by the surrounding tissues A pseudoaneurysm, or false aneurysm, is an enlargement of only the outer layer of the blood vessel wall A false aneurysm may be the result of a prior surgery or trauma
Slide 7 - 7 Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA) Occur most frequently in men between the ages 40 and 70 years About one third of patients with (TAA) die of rupture of the aneurysm
Slide 8 - 8 Thorasic Aorta Aneurysm- Clinical manifestations Back, neck or substernal pain Dyspnea, stridor or brassy cough if pressing on trachea Hoarseness Edema of the face and neck Distended neck vein Aphonia Disphagia Complications: such as rupture and hemorrhage
Slide 9 - What are the diagnostic tests for (TAA) ? Chest x-ray Computed tomography (CT) Transesophagial echocardiography
Slide 10 - 10 Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Affects men four times more often than women and is most prevalent in elderly patients Most of these aneurysms occur below renal arteries (infrarenal aneurysm) Untreated, the eventual outcome may be rupture and death
Slide 11 - Clinical manifestations of (AAA) Patients with (AAA) feel their heart beating in their abdomen when lying down Client´s awareness of a pulsating mass in the abdomen, with or without pain, followed by abdominal pain and back pain Flank pain or groin pain may be experienced because of increasing pressure on other structures sometimes mottling of the extrimities or distal emboli in the feet alert the clinician to a source in the abdomen 11
Slide 12 - 12 Clinical manifestations of (AAA) Aortic calcification noted on x-ray Mild to severe midabdominal or lumbar back pain Cool, cyanotic extrimities if iliac arteries are involved Claudication (ischemic pain with exercise, relieved by rest) Complication: peripheral emboli to lower extrimities Rupture and hemorrage
Slide 13 - Who’s at risk? In 20% of patients, familial clustering of aortic aneurysms suggests a hereditary tendency to develop aneurysms, aortic aneurysms also can be an individual aberration present at birth Pregnancy can hasten aneurysm development because of hormonal and hemodynamic changes 13
Slide 14 - Other risk factors include a history of Smoking Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Hyperlipidemia Poorly controlled diabetes Connective tissue disorders, including Marfan syndrome (which is a genetic connective tissue disorder that affects the skeleton, eyes, and cardiovascular system) Mycotic aneurysms, develop from streptococcal, staphylococcal, or salmonella infections of the aorta
Slide 15 - Indications for Surgical Repair of Aortic Aneurysms Thoracic Diameter 6 cm (5 cm in patients with Marfan syndrome) Symptoms suggesting expansion or compression of surrounding structures Abdominal Diameter 5 cm or more Diameter 4 cm or less, need regular follow-up Diameter 4–5 cm, management is controversial Others Rapidly expanding aneurysms (growth rate > 0.5 cm over a 6-month period) Symptomatic aneurysm regardless of size
Slide 16 - 16 Implement Interventions to Reduce the Risk of Aneurysm Rupture Maintain bed rest with legs flat Maintain a calm environment, implementing measures to reduce psychologic stress Prevent straining during deafecation Administer beta blockers and antihypertensive as prescibed Elevating or crossing the legs restricts peripheral blood flow and increases pressure in the aorta or iliac arteries
Slide 17 - Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm- Open Repair Open repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm involves an incision of the abdomen to directly visualize the aortic aneurysm The procedure is performed in an operating room under general anesthesia The surgeon will make an incision in the abdomen either lengthwise from below the breastbone to just below the navel or across the abdomen and down the center 17
Slide 18 - Grafts
Slide 19 - Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm- Open Repair The aneurysm is exposed, the aorta is clamped just above and below the aneurysm to stop the flow of blood, the aneurysm is opened and a Dacron graft is placed within the anuerysm The aneurysm sac is then wrapped around the graft to protect it 19
Slide 20 - Open Repair The graft is sutured to the aorta connecting one end of the aorta at the site of the aneurysm to the other end of the aorta Open repair remains the standard procedure for an abdominal aortic aneurysm repair 20
Slide 21 - 21 Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR( EVAR is a minimally-invasive (without a large abdominal incision) procedure performed to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm EVAR may be performed in an operating room, radiology department, or a catheterization laboratory The physician may use general anesthesia or regional anesthesia (epidural or spinal anesthesia) The physician will make a small incision in each groin to visualize the femoral arteries in each leg
Slide 22 - Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) With the use of special endovascular instruments, along with x-ray images for guidance, a stent-graft will be inserted through the femoral artery and advanced up into the aorta to the site of the aneurysm 22
Slide 23 - 23 Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR( A stent-graft is a long cylinder-like tube made of a thin metal framework (stent). The stent helps to hold the graft in place The stent-graft is inserted into the aorta in a collapsed position and placed at the aneurysm site Once in place, the stent-graft will be expanded (in a spring-like fashion), attaching to the wall of the aorta to support the wall of the aorta The aneurysm will eventually shrink down onto the stent-graft
Slide 24 - Risks of the Procedure- open repair Myocardial infarction Irregular heart rhythms Bleeding during or after surgery Injury to the bowel Limb ischemia Embolus to other parts of the body Infection of the graft Lung problems Kidney damage Spinal cord injury Damage to surrounding blood vessels, organs, or other structures by instruments Groin wound infection Groin hematoma Endoleak Allergy
Slide 25 - Nursing Assessment Attention to the character and quality of the peripheral pulses and the neurologic status Pedal pulse sites (dorsalis pedis and posterial tibial) and skin lesions on the lower Extrimities should be marked and documented before surgery 25
Slide 26 - 26 Planning The overall goals for a patient undergoing aortic surgery include: Normal tissue perfusion Intact motor and sensory function No complications related to surgical repair such as thrombosis or infection
Slide 27 - 27 Nursing Implementation- Graft Patency Maintain adequate blood pressure to promote graft patency. Prolonged hypotention may result in graft thrombosis due to decreased blood flow Administration of of i.v. fluids and blood components as indicated is essential to maintaining adequate blood flow to the graft Central venous pressure readings or pulmonary artery pressures and urinary output should be monitored hourly in the immediate postoperative period to help assess the patient´s state of hydration
Slide 28 - 28 Nursing Implementation- Graft Patency Severe hypertention may cause undue stress on the arterial anastomosis resulting in leakage blood or rupture at the suture lines Drug therapy with duiretics or i.v antihypertensive agents may be indicated if severe hypertension persists
Slide 29 - 29 Nursing Implementation- Cardiovascular Status In individuals with preexisting coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia or infarction may occur in the perioperative period due to decreased oxygen supply to the heart or increased oxygen demands on the heart. Cardiac rhythmias also may occur due to electrolyte imbalances, hypoxemia, hypothermia or myocardial ischemia Nursing interventions include continous ECG monitoring, frequent electrolyte and blood gas (ABG) determinations, administrations of oxygen and antiarrhythmic medications as needed Replacement of electrolytes as indicated, adequate pain control and resumption of preoperative cardiac medications
Slide 30 - Infection Diagnosis Risk for infection related to presence of a prosthetic vascular graft and invasive lines Outcome Normal body temperature No signs of infection Wound is well approximated
Slide 31 - 31 Nursing Implementation- Infection Nursing prevention to prevent infection should include ensuring that the patients receives a broad spectrum antibiotic as prescribed Monitor for signs of infetion The nurse should ensure adequate nutrition and observe the surgical incision for any evidence of delaying healing or prolonged drainage
Slide 32 - 32 Nursing Implementation- Infection All i.v., arterial and central venous catheter insertion sites should be carried for carefully with the use of sterile technique because they are frequently a portal of entry for bacteria Meticulous perianial care for the patient with an indwelling urinary catheter is essential to minimize the risk of urinary tract infection Surgical incisions should be kept clean and dry
Slide 33 - 33 Nursing Implementation- Gastrointestinal Status Paralytc ileus may develop as a result of anesthesia and the manual manipulation and displacement of the bowel for long periods during surgery The intestine may become swollen and bruised and pristalsis ceases for variable intervals A nasogastric tube is inserted during surgery and connected to low, intermittent suction This decompreses the stomach and duodenum, prevent aspiration of stomch contents, and decrease pressure on suture lines
Slide 34 - 34 Nursing Implementation- Gastrointestinal Status The nasogastric tube should be irrigated with normal saline solution as needed and the amount and character of the drainage should be recorded The nurse should auscultate for the return of bowel sounds The passing of the flatus is a key sign of returning bowel function and shoud be noted Early ambulation will assist with the resumption of bowel functioning It is unusual for paralytic ileus to persist beyond the fourth postoperative day
Slide 35 - 35 Diagnose: risk for ischemia of the bowel If the client undergoes extensive aortic procedures that involve clamping the mesenteric vessels, ischemic colitis can develop Inferior mesenteric artery can embolize The lack of blood supply can lead to ischemia and ileus Outcomes The nurse will monitor the client for abdominal distention, diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, sudden elevation in white blood cell count and bowel sound
Slide 36 - 36 Intervention Assess bowel sounds every 4 hours Keep the client NPO and provide oral care every 2-4 hr Provide routine nasogastric tube care and assess nares for tissue impairment Perform guaiag test (Test for blood in stool) of NG drainage every 4 hours or if bleeding is suspected (i.e., drainage has dark, coffee-ground appearance or is bright red)
Slide 37 - 37 Nursing Implementation- Neurologic Status When the ascending aorta and aortic arch are involved, nursing interventions should include: assessment of level of conciosness, pupil size and response to light, facial symmetry, tongue deviation, speech, ability to move upper extrimities, quality of hand grasps, the carotid, radial, and temporal artery pulses should be assessed When the descending aorta is involved, nursing assessment of: the ability to move lower extrimities pulses to be assessed may include the femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis
Slide 38 - 38 Nursing Implementation- Peripheral Perfusion Status When checking the pulses, the nurse should mark the locations lightly with a felt-tip pen so that others can locate them easily An ultrasonic Doppler is useful in assessment of peripheral pulses It is also important to note the skin temperature and color, capillary refill time and sensation and movement of the extrimities
Slide 39 - 39 Nursing Implementation- Peripheral Perfusion Status A decreased or absent pulse in conjunction with a cool, pale, mottled or painful extrimity may indicate embolization of aneurysmal thrombus or plaque or occlusion of the graft Gaft occlusion is treated with reoperation if identified early In rare instances, thrombolytic therapy may also be considered
Slide 40 - 40 Nursing Implementation- Renal Perfusion Status One of the causes of decreased renal perfusion is embolization of a fragment of thrombus or plaque from the aorta that subsequently lodges in one or both of the renal arteries This can cause ischemia of one or both kidneys Hypotension, dehydration, prolonged aortic clamping, or blood loss can also lead to decreased renal perfusion
Slide 41 - 41 Nursing Implementation- Renal Perfusion Status The patient return from surgery with an indwelling urinary catheter in place An accurate record of fluid intake and urinary out- put should be kept until the patient resumes the preoperative diet Daily weight also should be obtained Central venous pressure reading and pulmonary artery pressures also provide important information regarding hydration status
Slide 42 - 42 Diagnose Risk for hemorrhage because of the risk of bleeding at the graft site, the client is at risk for hemorrhage Risk for deficient fluid volume Outcome The nurse will monitor for manifestations of hemorrhage and notify the physician if any manifestations occur
Slide 43 - Interventions- Monitor the client for: increase in pulse rate decrease in blood pressure clammy skin pallor anxiety & restlessness decreasing levels of conciousness Cyanosis thirst oliguria increase abdominal girth increased chest tube output greater than 100 ml/hr/for 3 hours back pain from retroperitoneal bleeding
Slide 44 - 44 Diagnose Risk for impaired gas exchange Impaired gas exchange related to ineffective cough secondary to pain from large incision Outcome The client will have improved gas exchange as evidenced by oxygen saturation or Pao2 greater than 95%, increasing effectiveness in coughing, and clearing of lung sounds
Slide 45 - Intervention Monitor settings on ventilator to ensure the client is adequately oxygenated Assess lung sounds every 1 to 2 hours Monitor oxygen saturation continously. Report any desaturation After extubation, assist with coughing by using incentives spirometry, provide splinting pillows before coughing, encourage ambulation provide adequate analgesia Spirometry
Slide 46 - 46 Diagnose Risk for inadequate tissue perfusion During the operation, aorta is clamped to stop bleeding while the graft is placed During that time, peripheral tissues are not perfused The graft site can also become occluded with thrombus In addition the client often has preexisting arterial disease Outcomes The client will maintain adequate tissue perfusion as evidenced by: pedal pulses warm feet capillary refill of less than 5 seconds, abscence of numbness or tingling ability to dorsiflex and plantar flex both feet equally Urin output adequate
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Slide 48 - 48 InterventionRisk for Inadequate Tissue Perfusion Administer i.v. Fluid at prescribed rates to ensure adequate hydration and renal perfusion Maintain a warm environment to prevent temperature induced vasoconstriction Administer anticoagulants and /or antiplatelet agents as prescribed to prevent thrombus formation Monitor urinry output daily weights, BUN, and serum createnine to detect signs of altered perfusion and renal failure
Slide 49 - 49 Diagnosis: Acute pain related to surgical incision Outcomes The client will have increased comfort as evidenced by : self-report of decreasing levels of pain use of decreasing amounts of opioid analgesics for pain control ambulating or coughing without extreme pain Acute Pain
Slide 50 - 50 Intervention Opioids are usually provided via a patient-controlled analgesia system or through an epidural catheter Asses the degree of pain often and record the baseline level of pain and the degree to which pain is reduced by medications or other intervention When changing to an oral route for pain management, plan to pretreat the pain with oral medications 30 minutes or more before discontinuing the infusion
Slide 51 - 51 Diagnose: Risk for spinal cord ischemia A rare but devastating effect of aortic abdominal aneurysm repair is spinal cord ischemia leading to paralysis, with or without bowel and bladder involvement It appears to be most common in clients who have suprarenal aortic reconstruction Outcome The nurse will monitor for manifestations of spinal cord damage and report any abnormal data Implementation Monitor ability to move lower extrimities and sensation in both legs every 1-2 hours
Slide 52 - 52 Nursing Implementation- Ambulatory and Home Care Sexual dysfunction in male patients is not uncommon after aortic surgery Sexual dysfunction may occur because the internal hypogastric artery is interrupted, leading to decreased arterial blood flow to the penis Preoperatively, baseline sexual function should be documented and patient counselling is recommended Postoperatively a referral to urologist may be considered if impotence is a problem
Slide 53 - 53 Self Care The client should ambulate as tolerated, including climbing stairs and walking outdoors If legs swelling develops, the leg should be wrapped in elastic bandages or support stockings should be used Activities that involve lifting heavy objects are not permitted for 6-12 weeks postoperatively
Slide 54 - Thank You