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Slide 1 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here.
Slide 2 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective
Slide 3 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001
Slide 4 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation
Slide 5 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000)
Slide 6 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging
Slide 7 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M
Slide 8 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience
Slide 9 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03
Slide 10 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03
Slide 11 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/
Slide 12 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment
Slide 13 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano.
Slide 14 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI
Slide 15 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG
Slide 16 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology
Slide 17 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals
Slide 18 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography
Slide 19 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate
Slide 20 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces
Slide 21 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials
Slide 22 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1
Slide 23 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2
Slide 24 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density
Slide 25 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics
Slide 26 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor
Slide 27 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University
Slide 28 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire
Slide 29 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer
Slide 30 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors
Slide 31 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02
Slide 32 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC
Slide 33 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State
Slide 34 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State Microelectronics Nanoelectronics Evolutionary Revolutionary Two Paths (Including photonics, optics, magnetics, etc.)
Slide 35 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State Microelectronics Nanoelectronics Evolutionary Revolutionary Two Paths (Including photonics, optics, magnetics, etc.) On the Evolutionary Path Silicon technology will continue down the scaling path for at least another decade if not two. In reality, we are already in the regime of nanoelectronics. New techniques will be invented to overcome some of the limitations of optical lithography, short channel effects, etc. New device architecture will be invented to continue the down-scaling, e.g. vertical devices. However, scaling cannot continue forever. Still a lot of work on circuit and system architectures to exploit the gazillions of devices on a chip. Then there are multichip modules, flip chip, 3-D, etc. Silicon technology is not going away for a long time.
Slide 36 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State Microelectronics Nanoelectronics Evolutionary Revolutionary Two Paths (Including photonics, optics, magnetics, etc.) On the Evolutionary Path Silicon technology will continue down the scaling path for at least another decade if not two. In reality, we are already in the regime of nanoelectronics. New techniques will be invented to overcome some of the limitations of optical lithography, short channel effects, etc. New device architecture will be invented to continue the down-scaling, e.g. vertical devices. However, scaling cannot continue forever. Still a lot of work on circuit and system architectures to exploit the gazillions of devices on a chip. Then there are multichip modules, flip chip, 3-D, etc. Silicon technology is not going away for a long time. DARPA HGI Program, PI - K. Saraswat (Stanford U.) N+/P + poly Insulating Substrate Gate Drain Source L Channel Film Gate Dielectric Gate Electrode N+/P + poly or Silicide Transistor 9 nm Vertical Field Effect Transistor
Slide 37 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State Microelectronics Nanoelectronics Evolutionary Revolutionary Two Paths (Including photonics, optics, magnetics, etc.) On the Evolutionary Path Silicon technology will continue down the scaling path for at least another decade if not two. In reality, we are already in the regime of nanoelectronics. New techniques will be invented to overcome some of the limitations of optical lithography, short channel effects, etc. New device architecture will be invented to continue the down-scaling, e.g. vertical devices. However, scaling cannot continue forever. Still a lot of work on circuit and system architectures to exploit the gazillions of devices on a chip. Then there are multichip modules, flip chip, 3-D, etc. Silicon technology is not going away for a long time. DARPA HGI Program, PI - K. Saraswat (Stanford U.) N+/P + poly Insulating Substrate Gate Drain Source L Channel Film Gate Dielectric Gate Electrode N+/P + poly or Silicide Transistor 9 nm Vertical Field Effect Transistor Revolutionary Path Molecular electronics Spintronics Single Electron Transistors Quantum Cellular Automatons Nanotube transistors Carbon nanotube switching devices Quantum nanodots Nanophotonics Nanomagnetics Entangled photon memories Others
Slide 38 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State Microelectronics Nanoelectronics Evolutionary Revolutionary Two Paths (Including photonics, optics, magnetics, etc.) On the Evolutionary Path Silicon technology will continue down the scaling path for at least another decade if not two. In reality, we are already in the regime of nanoelectronics. New techniques will be invented to overcome some of the limitations of optical lithography, short channel effects, etc. New device architecture will be invented to continue the down-scaling, e.g. vertical devices. However, scaling cannot continue forever. Still a lot of work on circuit and system architectures to exploit the gazillions of devices on a chip. Then there are multichip modules, flip chip, 3-D, etc. Silicon technology is not going away for a long time. DARPA HGI Program, PI - K. Saraswat (Stanford U.) N+/P + poly Insulating Substrate Gate Drain Source L Channel Film Gate Dielectric Gate Electrode N+/P + poly or Silicide Transistor 9 nm Vertical Field Effect Transistor Revolutionary Path Molecular electronics Spintronics Single Electron Transistors Quantum Cellular Automatons Nanotube transistors Carbon nanotube switching devices Quantum nanodots Nanophotonics Nanomagnetics Entangled photon memories Others Carbon Nanotube Transistors Single nanotube transistor that operates at room temperature. This three-terminal device consists of an individual semiconducting nanotube on two metal nanoelectrodes with the substrate as a gate electrode. The nanotube is ~5 nm in diameter Nanotube Field Effect Transistor IBM Research Fabricated, tested, and functional Delft University of Technology, Professor Cees Dekker
Slide 39 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State Microelectronics Nanoelectronics Evolutionary Revolutionary Two Paths (Including photonics, optics, magnetics, etc.) On the Evolutionary Path Silicon technology will continue down the scaling path for at least another decade if not two. In reality, we are already in the regime of nanoelectronics. New techniques will be invented to overcome some of the limitations of optical lithography, short channel effects, etc. New device architecture will be invented to continue the down-scaling, e.g. vertical devices. However, scaling cannot continue forever. Still a lot of work on circuit and system architectures to exploit the gazillions of devices on a chip. Then there are multichip modules, flip chip, 3-D, etc. Silicon technology is not going away for a long time. DARPA HGI Program, PI - K. Saraswat (Stanford U.) N+/P + poly Insulating Substrate Gate Drain Source L Channel Film Gate Dielectric Gate Electrode N+/P + poly or Silicide Transistor 9 nm Vertical Field Effect Transistor Revolutionary Path Molecular electronics Spintronics Single Electron Transistors Quantum Cellular Automatons Nanotube transistors Carbon nanotube switching devices Quantum nanodots Nanophotonics Nanomagnetics Entangled photon memories Others Carbon Nanotube Transistors Single nanotube transistor that operates at room temperature. This three-terminal device consists of an individual semiconducting nanotube on two metal nanoelectrodes with the substrate as a gate electrode. The nanotube is ~5 nm in diameter Nanotube Field Effect Transistor IBM Research Fabricated, tested, and functional Delft University of Technology, Professor Cees Dekker Figure 1. Suspended nanotube device architecture. (a) Schematic illustrating a periodic suspended nanotube crossbar array with a device element at each crossing point. The substrate consists of a conductor (e.g., highly doped silicon, dark-grey) that terminates in a thin dielectric layer (e.g., SiO2, light grey). The lower nanotubes (dark grey cylinders) are supported directly on the dielectric film, while the upper nanotubes are suspended by patterned inorganic or organic supports (dark grey blocks). The device elements at each crossing have two stable states: off and on. The off state (b) corresponds to the case where the nanotubes are separated, while the on state (c) is when the tubes are in vdW contact. A device element is switched between off and on states by applying voltage pulses that transiently charge the nanotubes to produce attractive or repulsive forces. After switching, the junction resistance can be read by measuring the current through the junction at a bias voltage much smaller than the voltage necessary for switching. (b) and (c) correspond to the calculated shapes (see text and Fig. 2) of off and on states for a 20 nm (10,10) SWNT, where the initial separation is 2.0 nm. Lieber, Harvard U.
Slide 40 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State Microelectronics Nanoelectronics Evolutionary Revolutionary Two Paths (Including photonics, optics, magnetics, etc.) On the Evolutionary Path Silicon technology will continue down the scaling path for at least another decade if not two. In reality, we are already in the regime of nanoelectronics. New techniques will be invented to overcome some of the limitations of optical lithography, short channel effects, etc. New device architecture will be invented to continue the down-scaling, e.g. vertical devices. However, scaling cannot continue forever. Still a lot of work on circuit and system architectures to exploit the gazillions of devices on a chip. Then there are multichip modules, flip chip, 3-D, etc. Silicon technology is not going away for a long time. DARPA HGI Program, PI - K. Saraswat (Stanford U.) N+/P + poly Insulating Substrate Gate Drain Source L Channel Film Gate Dielectric Gate Electrode N+/P + poly or Silicide Transistor 9 nm Vertical Field Effect Transistor Revolutionary Path Molecular electronics Spintronics Single Electron Transistors Quantum Cellular Automatons Nanotube transistors Carbon nanotube switching devices Quantum nanodots Nanophotonics Nanomagnetics Entangled photon memories Others Carbon Nanotube Transistors Single nanotube transistor that operates at room temperature. This three-terminal device consists of an individual semiconducting nanotube on two metal nanoelectrodes with the substrate as a gate electrode. The nanotube is ~5 nm in diameter Nanotube Field Effect Transistor IBM Research Fabricated, tested, and functional Delft University of Technology, Professor Cees Dekker Figure 1. Suspended nanotube device architecture. (a) Schematic illustrating a periodic suspended nanotube crossbar array with a device element at each crossing point. The substrate consists of a conductor (e.g., highly doped silicon, dark-grey) that terminates in a thin dielectric layer (e.g., SiO2, light grey). The lower nanotubes (dark grey cylinders) are supported directly on the dielectric film, while the upper nanotubes are suspended by patterned inorganic or organic supports (dark grey blocks). The device elements at each crossing have two stable states: off and on. The off state (b) corresponds to the case where the nanotubes are separated, while the on state (c) is when the tubes are in vdW contact. A device element is switched between off and on states by applying voltage pulses that transiently charge the nanotubes to produce attractive or repulsive forces. After switching, the junction resistance can be read by measuring the current through the junction at a bias voltage much smaller than the voltage necessary for switching. (b) and (c) correspond to the calculated shapes (see text and Fig. 2) of off and on states for a 20 nm (10,10) SWNT, where the initial separation is 2.0 nm. Lieber, Harvard U. On the Revolutionary Path Revolutionary nanoelectronic devices (chips) are a long way off. Devices/chips must be stable, reproducible, and low cost in mass production. Devices/chips must have reliable input/output signals and interconnections. New circuit and system architectures must be developed to match the nanoelectronic devices. Devices/chips must be designable, testable, verifiable, and easy to package. Devices/chips must allow for heat dissipation and removal. First generation revolutionary nanoelectronics, if and when it is realizable, will be nitch applications, e.g. high density memories. For random logics, silicon technology will be hard to displace. Reliability and manufacturability are as important if not more so as speed and performance.
Slide 41 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State Microelectronics Nanoelectronics Evolutionary Revolutionary Two Paths (Including photonics, optics, magnetics, etc.) On the Evolutionary Path Silicon technology will continue down the scaling path for at least another decade if not two. In reality, we are already in the regime of nanoelectronics. New techniques will be invented to overcome some of the limitations of optical lithography, short channel effects, etc. New device architecture will be invented to continue the down-scaling, e.g. vertical devices. However, scaling cannot continue forever. Still a lot of work on circuit and system architectures to exploit the gazillions of devices on a chip. Then there are multichip modules, flip chip, 3-D, etc. Silicon technology is not going away for a long time. DARPA HGI Program, PI - K. Saraswat (Stanford U.) N+/P + poly Insulating Substrate Gate Drain Source L Channel Film Gate Dielectric Gate Electrode N+/P + poly or Silicide Transistor 9 nm Vertical Field Effect Transistor Revolutionary Path Molecular electronics Spintronics Single Electron Transistors Quantum Cellular Automatons Nanotube transistors Carbon nanotube switching devices Quantum nanodots Nanophotonics Nanomagnetics Entangled photon memories Others Carbon Nanotube Transistors Single nanotube transistor that operates at room temperature. This three-terminal device consists of an individual semiconducting nanotube on two metal nanoelectrodes with the substrate as a gate electrode. The nanotube is ~5 nm in diameter Nanotube Field Effect Transistor IBM Research Fabricated, tested, and functional Delft University of Technology, Professor Cees Dekker Figure 1. Suspended nanotube device architecture. (a) Schematic illustrating a periodic suspended nanotube crossbar array with a device element at each crossing point. The substrate consists of a conductor (e.g., highly doped silicon, dark-grey) that terminates in a thin dielectric layer (e.g., SiO2, light grey). The lower nanotubes (dark grey cylinders) are supported directly on the dielectric film, while the upper nanotubes are suspended by patterned inorganic or organic supports (dark grey blocks). The device elements at each crossing have two stable states: off and on. The off state (b) corresponds to the case where the nanotubes are separated, while the on state (c) is when the tubes are in vdW contact. A device element is switched between off and on states by applying voltage pulses that transiently charge the nanotubes to produce attractive or repulsive forces. After switching, the junction resistance can be read by measuring the current through the junction at a bias voltage much smaller than the voltage necessary for switching. (b) and (c) correspond to the calculated shapes (see text and Fig. 2) of off and on states for a 20 nm (10,10) SWNT, where the initial separation is 2.0 nm. Lieber, Harvard U. On the Revolutionary Path Revolutionary nanoelectronic devices (chips) are a long way off. Devices/chips must be stable, reproducible, and low cost in mass production. Devices/chips must have reliable input/output signals and interconnections. New circuit and system architectures must be developed to match the nanoelectronic devices. Devices/chips must be designable, testable, verifiable, and easy to package. Devices/chips must allow for heat dissipation and removal. First generation revolutionary nanoelectronics, if and when it is realizable, will be nitch applications, e.g. high density memories. For random logics, silicon technology will be hard to displace. Reliability and manufacturability are as important if not more so as speed and performance. CNT FED Display; Zhou, UNC GMR Reading Head; IBM INFORMATION NANOTECHNOLOGY STORAGE DISPLAY LOGIC CNT FET; Avouris, IBM TRANSMISSION Superlattice VCSEL; Honeywell AU Nanocluster Vapor Sensor; Snow NRL, MSI/SAWTEK SENSE
Slide 42 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State Microelectronics Nanoelectronics Evolutionary Revolutionary Two Paths (Including photonics, optics, magnetics, etc.) On the Evolutionary Path Silicon technology will continue down the scaling path for at least another decade if not two. In reality, we are already in the regime of nanoelectronics. New techniques will be invented to overcome some of the limitations of optical lithography, short channel effects, etc. New device architecture will be invented to continue the down-scaling, e.g. vertical devices. However, scaling cannot continue forever. Still a lot of work on circuit and system architectures to exploit the gazillions of devices on a chip. Then there are multichip modules, flip chip, 3-D, etc. Silicon technology is not going away for a long time. DARPA HGI Program, PI - K. Saraswat (Stanford U.) N+/P + poly Insulating Substrate Gate Drain Source L Channel Film Gate Dielectric Gate Electrode N+/P + poly or Silicide Transistor 9 nm Vertical Field Effect Transistor Revolutionary Path Molecular electronics Spintronics Single Electron Transistors Quantum Cellular Automatons Nanotube transistors Carbon nanotube switching devices Quantum nanodots Nanophotonics Nanomagnetics Entangled photon memories Others Carbon Nanotube Transistors Single nanotube transistor that operates at room temperature. This three-terminal device consists of an individual semiconducting nanotube on two metal nanoelectrodes with the substrate as a gate electrode. The nanotube is ~5 nm in diameter Nanotube Field Effect Transistor IBM Research Fabricated, tested, and functional Delft University of Technology, Professor Cees Dekker Figure 1. Suspended nanotube device architecture. (a) Schematic illustrating a periodic suspended nanotube crossbar array with a device element at each crossing point. The substrate consists of a conductor (e.g., highly doped silicon, dark-grey) that terminates in a thin dielectric layer (e.g., SiO2, light grey). The lower nanotubes (dark grey cylinders) are supported directly on the dielectric film, while the upper nanotubes are suspended by patterned inorganic or organic supports (dark grey blocks). The device elements at each crossing have two stable states: off and on. The off state (b) corresponds to the case where the nanotubes are separated, while the on state (c) is when the tubes are in vdW contact. A device element is switched between off and on states by applying voltage pulses that transiently charge the nanotubes to produce attractive or repulsive forces. After switching, the junction resistance can be read by measuring the current through the junction at a bias voltage much smaller than the voltage necessary for switching. (b) and (c) correspond to the calculated shapes (see text and Fig. 2) of off and on states for a 20 nm (10,10) SWNT, where the initial separation is 2.0 nm. Lieber, Harvard U. On the Revolutionary Path Revolutionary nanoelectronic devices (chips) are a long way off. Devices/chips must be stable, reproducible, and low cost in mass production. Devices/chips must have reliable input/output signals and interconnections. New circuit and system architectures must be developed to match the nanoelectronic devices. Devices/chips must be designable, testable, verifiable, and easy to package. Devices/chips must allow for heat dissipation and removal. First generation revolutionary nanoelectronics, if and when it is realizable, will be nitch applications, e.g. high density memories. For random logics, silicon technology will be hard to displace. Reliability and manufacturability are as important if not more so as speed and performance. CNT FED Display; Zhou, UNC GMR Reading Head; IBM INFORMATION NANOTECHNOLOGY STORAGE DISPLAY LOGIC CNT FET; Avouris, IBM TRANSMISSION Superlattice VCSEL; Honeywell AU Nanocluster Vapor Sensor; Snow NRL, MSI/SAWTEK SENSE Hutchby, SRC
Slide 43 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State Microelectronics Nanoelectronics Evolutionary Revolutionary Two Paths (Including photonics, optics, magnetics, etc.) On the Evolutionary Path Silicon technology will continue down the scaling path for at least another decade if not two. In reality, we are already in the regime of nanoelectronics. New techniques will be invented to overcome some of the limitations of optical lithography, short channel effects, etc. New device architecture will be invented to continue the down-scaling, e.g. vertical devices. However, scaling cannot continue forever. Still a lot of work on circuit and system architectures to exploit the gazillions of devices on a chip. Then there are multichip modules, flip chip, 3-D, etc. Silicon technology is not going away for a long time. DARPA HGI Program, PI - K. Saraswat (Stanford U.) N+/P + poly Insulating Substrate Gate Drain Source L Channel Film Gate Dielectric Gate Electrode N+/P + poly or Silicide Transistor 9 nm Vertical Field Effect Transistor Revolutionary Path Molecular electronics Spintronics Single Electron Transistors Quantum Cellular Automatons Nanotube transistors Carbon nanotube switching devices Quantum nanodots Nanophotonics Nanomagnetics Entangled photon memories Others Carbon Nanotube Transistors Single nanotube transistor that operates at room temperature. This three-terminal device consists of an individual semiconducting nanotube on two metal nanoelectrodes with the substrate as a gate electrode. The nanotube is ~5 nm in diameter Nanotube Field Effect Transistor IBM Research Fabricated, tested, and functional Delft University of Technology, Professor Cees Dekker Figure 1. Suspended nanotube device architecture. (a) Schematic illustrating a periodic suspended nanotube crossbar array with a device element at each crossing point. The substrate consists of a conductor (e.g., highly doped silicon, dark-grey) that terminates in a thin dielectric layer (e.g., SiO2, light grey). The lower nanotubes (dark grey cylinders) are supported directly on the dielectric film, while the upper nanotubes are suspended by patterned inorganic or organic supports (dark grey blocks). The device elements at each crossing have two stable states: off and on. The off state (b) corresponds to the case where the nanotubes are separated, while the on state (c) is when the tubes are in vdW contact. A device element is switched between off and on states by applying voltage pulses that transiently charge the nanotubes to produce attractive or repulsive forces. After switching, the junction resistance can be read by measuring the current through the junction at a bias voltage much smaller than the voltage necessary for switching. (b) and (c) correspond to the calculated shapes (see text and Fig. 2) of off and on states for a 20 nm (10,10) SWNT, where the initial separation is 2.0 nm. Lieber, Harvard U. On the Revolutionary Path Revolutionary nanoelectronic devices (chips) are a long way off. Devices/chips must be stable, reproducible, and low cost in mass production. Devices/chips must have reliable input/output signals and interconnections. New circuit and system architectures must be developed to match the nanoelectronic devices. Devices/chips must be designable, testable, verifiable, and easy to package. Devices/chips must allow for heat dissipation and removal. First generation revolutionary nanoelectronics, if and when it is realizable, will be nitch applications, e.g. high density memories. For random logics, silicon technology will be hard to displace. Reliability and manufacturability are as important if not more so as speed and performance. CNT FED Display; Zhou, UNC GMR Reading Head; IBM INFORMATION NANOTECHNOLOGY STORAGE DISPLAY LOGIC CNT FET; Avouris, IBM TRANSMISSION Superlattice VCSEL; Honeywell AU Nanocluster Vapor Sensor; Snow NRL, MSI/SAWTEK SENSE Hutchby, SRC Commercial Products Tools for characterization (FM, SPM, STM, etc.) Tools for fabrication (NIL, DPL, etc.) Carbon nanotubes by the pound 65nm VLSI chips Corrosion resistant ceramic nanoparticle coatings Embedded nanotube polymer matrix materials Sunscreen with TiO2 nanoparticles Nanoenergetic particles NEMS devices Flat panel displays (soon)
Slide 44 - Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 c.lau@ieee.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here. Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didn’t call it nanotechnology at the time. 1980 1990 2000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000) NNI Participating Agency Programs NSF Nanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoD Information technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NIST Measurements and standards, commercialization DoE Energy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJ Diagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoT Smart, light weight materials for transportation EPA Environment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDA Food packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel Comm Detection, prevention of technological surprises NASA Lighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIH Therapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRC Radiological detections, material reliability USDA Biotech for improved crop yields, food packaging National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 (enacted) (request) (request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF $97M $150M $204M $221M $249M DoD $70M $123M $224M $243M $222M DoE $58M $88M $89M $133M $197M NASA $4M $22M $35M $33M $31M NIH/HHS $32M $40M $59M $65M $70M NIST/DoC $8M $33M $77M $69M $62M EPA $5M $6M $6M $5M DHS(TSA) $2M $2M $2M $2M USDA $1M $10M DOJ $1M $1M $1M Total $270M $464M $697.1M $773.7M $849.5M Global Participation in Nanoscience Center Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) Hu Univ. of California Santa Barbara Tiwari Cornell University Harris Howard University Fonash Pennsylvania State University Plummer Stanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) Lundstrom Purdue DOE Integrated NanoSystems Michalske Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured Materials Lowndes Oak Ridge National Lab. Molecular Foundry Alivisatos Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional Nanomaterials Hwang Brookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale Materials Bader Argonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03 Name Principal Investigator Institution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies Buhrman Cornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental Engineering Smalley Rice University Integrated Nanopatterning and Detection Mirkin Northwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures Yardley Columbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Westervelt Harvard University Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Siegel Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology Center Baird Cornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials Design Groves Univ Virginia Nanostructured Materials Chien Johns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures Doezema Univ Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces Eom Univ Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic Structures Liou Univ Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of Matter Bonnell Univ Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Thomas Mass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for Defense Awschalom UC Santa Barbara Nanoscience Institute Prinz Naval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration Ho UCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nanomaterials Junkins Texas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of Aksay Princeton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing Datta Purdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03 NRL Nanoscience InstituteFacility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/ DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 DoD $70M $123M $180M $243M $222M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano. * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS “BY DESIGN” High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG FY01-06 DURINT Research Program Investigator Prime Institution Research Topic Josef Michl Univ. of Colorado Nanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet Sarikaya Univ. of Washington Molecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael Zachariah Univ. of Minnesota Nano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang Cui Stevens Inst. of Tech. Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard Smalley Rice Univ. Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall Feenstra Carnegie Mellon Univ. Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra Suresh MIT Deformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia Metiu UC Santa Barbara Nanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. Boyce MIT Polymeric Nanocomposites Paras Prasad SUNY at Buffalo Polymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry Orlando MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices James Lukens SUNY, Stony Brook Quantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad Mirkin Northwestern Univ. Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam Madhukar USC Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George Whitesides Harvard Univ. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FY Investigator Institution Research Topic 98-03 J. Sturm Princeton Univ. Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03 A. Epstein MIT Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 B. Zinn Georgia Tech Microthermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03 S. Goodnick Arizona State U. Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03 James Univ. Minnesota Computational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04 Brueck U. New Mexico Nanolithograph 99-04 Datta Purdue Univ. Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05 Mabuchi Caltech Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05 Shapiro MIT Quantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06 Bruce Dunn UCLA 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Ken Poppelmeier Northwestern 3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06 Shelton Taylor Univ Virginia Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06 Ed Cussler Univ. Minnesota Multifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07 I. Schuller UC San Diego Integrated Nanosensors 02-07 D. Lambeth CMU Integrated Nanosensors 03-08 Dan van der Weide Wisconsin Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 Lukas Novotny U. Rochester Nanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08 William Doolittle Georgia Tech Next Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08 Jimmy Xu Brown Univ. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography Biological agent detection PCR-free bioagent recognition DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution 30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) Sensitivity: <10 femtomole Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate Agent binds Au cluster Ag: 105 amplification Amount: grey scale Tested Dugway PG, 2001 32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered MaterialsChad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without “paddle” for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT)P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, mrz@me.umn.eduhttp://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells 2.1V -.05V Input A time (s) 0 60.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time (s) 0 60.0 W0 W1 R1 R0 RW0 RW1 RD0 RD1 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R1, R2 = H, NO2, NH2 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaNStrain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiCProf. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are “stress concentrators”, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and DevicesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillURL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm2) Performed the first 13C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering MethodsUniversity of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 Apache Hellfire Nanometric Energetic MaterialsResearch at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements Complete Burning of Fuel Particles Accelerated Burn Rates Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m2/g Surface Area = 74 m2/g 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle 30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesProf. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02 CMOS Scaling Challenges Source: Jim Hutchby, SRC Moore’s Law: Scaling and Microelectronics Brick Wall Barrier Optical Lithography EUV, e-beam, x-Ray Time Source: Bob Trew, NC State Microelectronics Nanoelectronics Evolutionary Revolutionary Two Paths (Including photonics, optics, magnetics, etc.) On the Evolutionary Path Silicon technology will continue down the scaling path for at least another decade if not two. In reality, we are already in the regime of nanoelectronics. New techniques will be invented to overcome some of the limitations of optical lithography, short channel effects, etc. New device architecture will be invented to continue the down-scaling, e.g. vertical devices. However, scaling cannot continue forever. Still a lot of work on circuit and system architectures to exploit the gazillions of devices on a chip. Then there are multichip modules, flip chip, 3-D, etc. Silicon technology is not going away for a long time. DARPA HGI Program, PI - K. Saraswat (Stanford U.) N+/P + poly Insulating Substrate Gate Drain Source L Channel Film Gate Dielectric Gate Electrode N+/P + poly or Silicide Transistor 9 nm Vertical Field Effect Transistor Revolutionary Path Molecular electronics Spintronics Single Electron Transistors Quantum Cellular Automatons Nanotube transistors Carbon nanotube switching devices Quantum nanodots Nanophotonics Nanomagnetics Entangled photon memories Others Carbon Nanotube Transistors Single nanotube transistor that operates at room temperature. This three-terminal device consists of an individual semiconducting nanotube on two metal nanoelectrodes with the substrate as a gate electrode. The nanotube is ~5 nm in diameter Nanotube Field Effect Transistor IBM Research Fabricated, tested, and functional Delft University of Technology, Professor Cees Dekker Figure 1. Suspended nanotube device architecture. (a) Schematic illustrating a periodic suspended nanotube crossbar array with a device element at each crossing point. The substrate consists of a conductor (e.g., highly doped silicon, dark-grey) that terminates in a thin dielectric layer (e.g., SiO2, light grey). The lower nanotubes (dark grey cylinders) are supported directly on the dielectric film, while the upper nanotubes are suspended by patterned inorganic or organic supports (dark grey blocks). The device elements at each crossing have two stable states: off and on. The off state (b) corresponds to the case where the nanotubes are separated, while the on state (c) is when the tubes are in vdW contact. A device element is switched between off and on states by applying voltage pulses that transiently charge the nanotubes to produce attractive or repulsive forces. After switching, the junction resistance can be read by measuring the current through the junction at a bias voltage much smaller than the voltage necessary for switching. (b) and (c) correspond to the calculated shapes (see text and Fig. 2) of off and on states for a 20 nm (10,10) SWNT, where the initial separation is 2.0 nm. Lieber, Harvard U. On the Revolutionary Path Revolutionary nanoelectronic devices (chips) are a long way off. Devices/chips must be stable, reproducible, and low cost in mass production. Devices/chips must have reliable input/output signals and interconnections. New circuit and system architectures must be developed to match the nanoelectronic devices. Devices/chips must be designable, testable, verifiable, and easy to package. Devices/chips must allow for heat dissipation and removal. First generation revolutionary nanoelectronics, if and when it is realizable, will be nitch applications, e.g. high density memories. For random logics, silicon technology will be hard to displace. Reliability and manufacturability are as important if not more so as speed and performance. CNT FED Display; Zhou, UNC GMR Reading Head; IBM INFORMATION NANOTECHNOLOGY STORAGE DISPLAY LOGIC CNT FET; Avouris, IBM TRANSMISSION Superlattice VCSEL; Honeywell AU Nanocluster Vapor Sensor; Snow NRL, MSI/SAWTEK SENSE Hutchby, SRC Commercial Products Tools for characterization (FM, SPM, STM, etc.) Tools for fabrication (NIL, DPL, etc.) Carbon nanotubes by the pound 65nm VLSI chips Corrosion resistant ceramic nanoparticle coatings Embedded nanotube polymer matrix materials Sunscreen with TiO2 nanoparticles Nanoenergetic particles NEMS devices Flat panel displays (soon) Nanotechnology is here to stay Worldwide investment on nanotechnology Continues to increase Basic research is leading to Commercial products Frontier for next industrial revolution Summary