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Molecular Cell Biology PowerPoint Presentation

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  • Slide 1 - Course in Molecular Biology Leuven, October – November 2002 Program Basics of molecular biology Transcription Translation Regulatory pathways DNA and diseases Biotechnology
  • Slide 2 - Lesson 1: Basics of molecular biology I. The Cell’s Organization II. Cell Cycle and Cell Division III. Cellular Molecules IV. The Genetic Dogma
  • Slide 3 - The Cell’s Organization
  • Slide 4 - All organisms: 1 or more cells
  • Slide 5 - The animal cell
  • Slide 6 - A plant cell
  • Slide 7 - A bacterium
  • Slide 8 - The Main Functions of the Membrane-bounded Compartments of a Eukaryotic Cell
  • Slide 9 - Compartimentation of the eukaryote cell: various organelles
  • Slide 10 - Cell nucleus Contains genetic information: DNA
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  • Slide 12 - Each human cell contains 46 chromosomes (except sperm or egg cells)
  • Slide 13 - Chromosomes in a cell that is about to divide
  • Slide 14 - Mitochondria: factories of energy
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  • Slide 16 - The Golgi apparatus cis trans medial  processing of secretory proteins  sorting cellular proteins
  • Slide 17 - Inside the cytosol: the cytoskeleton “microtubules” maintainance of cell shape and mobility ancor for other cellular structures
  • Slide 18 - Presentation: DNA
  • Slide 19 - Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Slide 20 - Some Eukaryotic Cell-Cycle Times
  • Slide 21 - The eukaryotic cell cycle
  • Slide 22 - Separation of sister chromatides during mitosis (mitosis = normal cell division)
  • Slide 23 - Microtubuli: assist chromosomes during cell division (mitosis)
  • Slide 24 - Different stages of the M phase during cell division (mitosis)
  • Slide 25 - The three DNA sequence elements needed to produce a eukaryotic chromosome that can be replicated and then segregated at mitosis
  • Slide 26 - Kinetochores and kinetochore microtubules
  • Slide 27 - Gametogenesis: meiosis (= specialized form of cell division giving rise to sperm and egg cells) Meiosis I
  • Slide 28 - Meiosis I (continued) Meiosis II Cell division without DNA replication  Haploid cell
  • Slide 29 - Presentation: Chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis
  • Slide 30 - Cellular Molecules
  • Slide 31 - The four main families of small organic molecules in cells
  • Slide 32 - Macromolecules are abundant in cells
  • Slide 33 - The general reaction by which a macromolecule is made Condensation reaction: H2O molecule is released
  • Slide 34 - The four main families of small organic molecules in cells
  • Slide 35 - Glucose, a simple sugar
  • Slide 36 - Monosaccharides
  • Slide 37 - Sugar ring formation in aqueous solution
  • Slide 38 - Disaccharides: formed by two sugar monomers
  • Slide 39 - Oligo- and polysaccharides
  • Slide 40 - Complex oligosaccharides
  • Slide 41 - The four main families of small organic molecules in cells
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  • Slide 45 - Phospholipid structure and orientation of phospholipids in membranes
  • Slide 46 - The four main families of small organic molecules in cells
  • Slide 47 - A simple amino acid: alanine
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  • Slide 49 - A small part of a large protein molecule
  • Slide 50 - The four main families of small organic molecules in cells
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  • Slide 53 - ATP: the energy carrier in cells
  • Slide 54 - Various functions of proteins
  • Slide 55 - Proteins as polypeptide chains
  • Slide 56 - Three types of noncovalent bonds that help proteins fold
  • Slide 57 - The size of proteins
  • Slide 58 - Several levels of protein organization
  • Slide 59 - Many protein molecules contain multiple copies of a single protein subunit
  • Slide 60 - Proteins often have highly specific binding sites
  • Slide 61 - How a set of enzyme-catalyzed reactions generates a metabolic pathway
  • Slide 62 - Phosphorylation and ATP hydrolysis drive protein functions
  • Slide 63 - Genetic information is stored in the DNA
  • Slide 64 - DNA and its building blocks
  • Slide 65 - DNA has an orientation
  • Slide 66 - DNA encodes proteins
  • Slide 67 - “Genes” encode proteins
  • Slide 68 - DNA replication
  • Slide 69 - DNA synthesis and proofreading
  • Slide 70 - Replication of eukaryotic chromosomes
  • Slide 71 - The replication fork in detail
  • Slide 72 - DNA replication can cause mutations
  • Slide 73 - DNA repair
  • Slide 74 - Mutations: possible cause of diseases and disfunctionalities
  • Slide 75 - The Genetic Dogma
  • Slide 76 - From DNA to protein
  • Slide 77 - Transcription by RNA polymerase
  • Slide 78 - RNA vs DNA
  • Slide 79 - Genes contain introns and exons
  • Slide 80 - Presentation: Heredity and inheritance

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