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Slide 1 - Do all Hispanics Eat Tacos? Similarities and differences among Hispanic cultures By Mercedes Muñiz-Peredo
Slide 2 - Objectives Understand that: Hispanic and Latino = umbrella words Cover an incredibly rich and colorful collection of cultures and traditions From Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Colombia, Argentina, etc… These cultures have a lot in common… but…. They can be quite different and unique
Slide 3 - First Things FirstRace vs Ethnicity Ethnicity is cultural Membership with a group of people who share similar customs and traditions Race is biological and anthropological The ethnicity that you identify yourself with can change over the course of your life, but your racial composition cannot be altered Latino and Hispanic define an ethnicity, not race
Slide 4 - Difference betweenLatino and Hispanic Latino term related to the languages that developed from Latin or to the peoples that speak them Spanish, French, Italian, etc A member of any of the Latin peoples, or those speaking chiefly Romance languages; a native of Latin America Hispanic term describes cultures or countries that were once under Spanish rule Mexico, Central America, and most of South America -- where Spanish is the primary language Brazilians are considered to be Latino, but are not considered to be Hispanic.
Slide 5 - Who is a Hispanicaccording to the U.S. Government? “The term Hispanic was introduced as a new category in the 1980 federal census to identify Latinos who trace their origins to countries that speak Spanish and uses the term to describe any person, regardless of race, creed, or color” All Hispanics are Latinos, but not all Latinos are considered to be Hispanic
Slide 6 - How do Hispanics/Latinos Call Themselves? ¿Hispanic or Latino? *Pew Hispanic Survey, 2002
Slide 7 - Current Key Numbersabout Hispanics in the U.S. Over the last census period the Hispanic population grew 57%, vs. 13% for the general population 1/2 the population growth in the US has been Latino There are 52 million Hispanics in this country In TX, CA, NM, the non-Hispanic white population is less than 50% U.S. Census Bureau, Public Information Office Geoscape International, American Marketscape DataStream: 2005
Slide 8 - Latino Diversity U.S. Census Bureau (American Community Survey, Released August 2006) Mexican 63.9% Puerto Rican 9.0% Cuban 3.5% Salvadoran 2.9% Dominican 2.7% Guatemalan 1.7% Colombian 1.8% ALL OTHERS 14.3%
Slide 9 - SomeHispanic Subgroups Spanish Mexican Americans Puerto Ricans Cuban Americans
Slide 10 - Spain The history of Spain is a compendium of influences from the different cultures that have lived in the country First settlers were the Celts and the Iberians Later, the presence of the Romans lasted for seven centuries, Institutions inherited from Rome included Latin as a language, religion and law Then came the Visigoths and Swabians Later, Spain was invaded by the Arabs, and stayed there for almost 7 centuries, until they were expelled In 1492, Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain marked the beginning of the golden era of Spain 1931 Spain becomes a republic - the end of the monarchy. Today they are a constitutional monarchy
Slide 11 - In Case You Did Not Know Words of Spanish origin have entered many European languages Many English words beginning with "al" were originally Arabic, and many may have had a Spanish-language connection in becoming English alcove (from Spanish alcoba, orig. Arabic al-qubba) alfalfa (originally Arabic al-fasfasah. ) alligator (from el lagarto, "the lizard") armadillo (literally, "the little armed one") booby (from bobo, meaning "silly" or "selfish") bronco (means "wild" or "rough" in Spanish) buckaroo (possibly from vaquero, "cowboy") canary (Old Spanish canario entered English by way of French canarie) canyon (from cañon) cargo (from cargar, "to load") cigar, cigarette (from cigarro) embargo (from embargar, to bar) matador (literally, "killer") mesa (from "table”) Mosquito mustang (from mestengo, "stray") negro (comes from the Spanish or Portuguese word for the color black) patio (In Spanish, the word refers to a courtyard.) pinto (Spanish for "spotted" or "painted") tornado (from tronada, thunderstorm) savvy (from sabe, a form of the verb saber, "to know") vigilante (from adjective for "vigilant") …….AND MANY MORE
Slide 12 - Mexico Mexican culture reflects Mexico’s history through the blending of pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican civilizations and the culture of Spain Moctezuma II is the last Aztec emperor defeated by Cortes Native conversion to Catholicism – Our Lady of Guadalupe apparitions 1810 War of Independence starts and ends in 1821 1846-1848 Mexican American War – Mexico cedes half of its territory to the U.S. 1862 Cinco de mayo – Mexicans defeat invading French army 1863 - French army captured Mexico City and Archduke Maximilian of Austria is proclaimed Emperor of Mexico 1877-1911 Porfirio Diáz dictator of Mexico 1910-1920 Mexican Revolution - Madero, Huerta, Carranza, Villa and Zapata “Cristero War” Catholics vs Mexican Government Mexico still struggles to find its true identity
Slide 13 - In Case You Did Not Know Words of Aztec origin have entered many European languages (mainly via Spanish) Most words of Nahuatl origin end in a form of the Nahuatl -tl, -tli, or -li, or the Spanish adaptation -te Avocado - from āhuacatl, "avocado“ Chia from chiyan Chili from chīlli Chocolate - said to be from Nahuatl xocolātl,derived from xococ "bitter" and ātl "water” Coyote from coyōtl Guacamole – from from āhuaca-, "avocado", and mōlli, "sauce" Mesquite -- from mizquitl Quetzal from quetzalli, "quetzal feather“ Shack possibly from xacalli, "grass hut", by way of Mexican Spanish Tamale from tamalli Tomato from tomatl
Slide 14 - Puerto Rico The island of Puerto Rico is a U.S. territory, not a country In 1493 Columbus reached the island, calling it San Juan Bautista In 1508, Juan Ponce de León formed the first permanent colony there 1595 Queen Elizabeth sent Drake and John Hawkins to take Puerto Rico In 1898 Autonomy was given to Puerto Rico by Spain, the Spanish-American War broke out, and the U.S. gained Puerto Rico In 1900, the U.S. declared Puerto Rico an unconsolidated U.S. territory In 1917, Woodrow Wilson granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship In 1952, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is proclaimed
Slide 15 - Cuba The story of Cuba’s struggle for liberation from 400 years of Spanish domination is one of the great epics in history. 1492. Cristóbal Colón lands in Cuba, claims island for Spain Most of the indians (Ciboneys and Taíno Arawaks) that inhabit the island are wiped out, and Cuba remains under Spanish rule for the next four centuries The rise of sugar plantations lead to the import of slaves from Africa until 1886 The sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana harbor causes the US to declare war on Spain. Spain is defeated and gives up all claims to Cuba, and cedes it to the USA Castro over throws Batista and becomes prime minister, with his brother, Raul, and Ernesto Che Guevara All US businesses in Cuba are nationalized without compensation. The US brakes off diplomatic relations 1961 Castro announces that Cuba has become a communist state and begins to ally it with the USSR
Slide 16 - In Case You Did Not Know Words of Caribbean origin have entered many European languages (mainly via Spanish) hammock (from amaca, a Caribbean word) barbecue (from barbacoa, a word of Caribbean origin) canoe (the word was originally Caribbean) hurricane (from huracán, originally an indigenous Caribbean word) iguana (originally from Arawak and Carib iwana) manatee (from manatí, originally from Carib) potato (from batata, a word of Caribbean origin) tobacco (from tabaco, a word possibly of Caribbean origin) yucca (from yuca, originally a Caribbean word)
Slide 17 - General Characteristics of Hispanics Family Oriented Bien/Mal Educado Simpatía Respeto Religion Education Language Personal Space Time Orientation Fiestas & celebrations
Slide 18 - Fiestas & Festivities Latino holidays have three main origins Culture History Religion Renew ties with Family and Friends
Slide 19 - Fall Celebrations National Hispanic Heritage Month 9/16 Nuestra Señora de la Caridad del Cobre 9/8 Cuba Nuestra Señora de la Divina Providencia 11/19 Pto Rico Día de la Raza – Columbus Day 10/12 Día de los Muertos 11/2 Mexico
Slide 20 - Winter Celebrations Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe 12/12 Latin America Las Posadas & Pastorelas -- enactment of Mary and Joseph’s search for shelter in Bethlehem December - Mexico Pesebre, Novena Colombia Parrandas, Aguinaldos Caribbean Pase del Niño Viajero, Aguinaldo Ecuador La Quema del Diablo Guatemala Dia de Reyes/Epiphany1/6 Spain and others
Slide 21 - Spring Celebrations Calle Ocho / Carnaval Cuban Americans Semana Santa / Pascua (Holy Week / Easter) Cinco de Mayo 5/5 Mexican Americans Dia de las Madres (Mother’s Day)
Slide 22 - Summer Celebrations Feast of San Juan Bautista 6/24 Puerto Rico National Puerto Rican Day Parade New York Independencia de Colombia 6/20
Slide 23 - Hispanics Are Part of the New American Mainstream…
Slide 24 - Teaching in a Culturally Diverse Classroom Learn about students’ cultures. Use this information to help students link new info to what they already know Get to know students as individuals. The more you know about your students the better you will be able to tailor their learning. Teach the “why”. Students want to know why they are learning anything new. That is even more important for students who may be unfamiliar with U.S. culture. Provide frequent, short reviews and previews. Before moving on to a new subject, give students an idea of what is coming. Get involved in your community! Know and understand your students.