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MENOPAUSE PowerPoint Presentation

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On : Jan 08, 2015

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  • Slide 1 - 1 PERIMENOPAUSE/MENOPAUSE Bonnie Lee Josh Stern Julie Ting
  • Slide 2 - 2 Objectives Describe and recognize the following regarding menopause: Age of presentation, physiologic changes, signs and symptoms an Investigations. Describe and recognize the following regarding menopause: Non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic management, including effects on other organ systems. List common signs and symptoms of menopause.
  • Slide 3 - 3 Case A 50 yo woman complains of irregular menses over the past year. It has now been 6 months since her last cycle. She describes mood changes, feelings of inadequacy, vaginal dryness, difficulty sleeping with episodes of warmth and sweating that awaken her. On examination, her blood pressure is 120/68, heart rate is 90 bpm, and temperature 37.6 degree Celsius. Cardiac and lung examination are unremarkable. Breast examination is normal. Examination of external genitalia is normal.
  • Slide 4 - 4 Is this Menopause? No
  • Slide 5 - 5 Perimenopause: transition period leading up to menopause, associated with fluctuations in ovarian hormone production (symptoms of both estrogen deficiency and excess within the same cycle). symptoms of estrogen deficiency: shortened cycles → irregular cycles symptoms of estrogen excess: breast tenderness, etc.
  • Slide 6 - 6 Menopause: a cessation of menses for ≥12 mo. in a woman ≥40 y.o., the result of depletion of ovarian follicles mean age 51.4 Premature ovarian failure: a cessation of menses for ≥12 months in a woman <40 y.o., the result of depletion of ovarian follicles.
  • Slide 7 - 7 Back to the case… A 50 yo woman complains of irregular menses over the past year. It has now been 6 months since her last cycle. She describes mood changes, feelings of inadequacy, vaginal dryness, difficulty sleeping with episodes of warmth and sweating that awaken her. On examination, her blood pressure is 120/68, heart rate is 90 bpm, and temperature 37.6 degree Celcius. Cardiac and lung examination are unremarkable. Breast examination is normal. Examination of external genitalia is normal.
  • Slide 8 - 8 Back to the case… A 50 yo woman complains of irregular menses over the past year. It has now been 6 months since her last cycle. She describes mood changes, feelings of inadequacy, vaginal dryness, difficulty sleeping with episodes of warmth and sweating that awaken her. On examination, her blood pressure is 120/68, heart rate is 90 bpm, and temperature 37.6 degree Celcius. Cardiac and lung examination are unremarkable. Breast examination is normal. Examination of external genitalia is normal.
  • Slide 9 - 9 Signs/Symptoms (Hx, Physical) Tissues affected by menopause are the ones with estrogen receptors CV: atherosclerosis, stroke vitals, abdo circumference/BMI, cardio, resp exam Brain: vasomotor symptoms/hot flashes/night sweats sleep disturbance, fatigue, poor memory and concentration depression, irritability/emotional lability diminished sexual drive and response
  • Slide 10 - 10 Signs/Symptoms (Hx, Physical) Urinary tract: urinary frequency, urgency, & incontinence Breasts: atrophy breast exam Genital: atrophy, dryness, increased infectious disease abdo, PAP, pelvic exam to look for pelvic masses, vulvovaginal atrophy, decreased vaginal calibre MSK: myalgias & arthralgias osteoporosis
  • Slide 11 - 11 DDx Hyperthyroidism Flushing, sweating, missed periods Pregnancy Hyperprolactinemia Amenorrhea Meds (Tamoxifen, SERMs) Blocked estrogen; mimics menopause Carcinoid Pheochromocytoma Malignancy
  • Slide 12 - 12 Investigations CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS! FSH, LH, estradiol Wide variation during transition period After 12mos of amenorrhea: FSH > 25 IU/L x 2 Estradiol < 50 pg/mL Consider: TSH b-hCG PRL Ultrasound? Biopsy? BMD?
  • Slide 13 - 13 Management We can treat the following: 1. Vasomotor instability 2. Vaginal atrophy 3. Decreased libido 4. Urogenital health 5. Osteoporosis 6. Cardiovascular disease 7. Mood and memory
  • Slide 14 - 14 Management
  • Slide 15 - 15 Management
  • Slide 16 - 16 Management
  • Slide 17 - 17 HRT
  • Slide 18 - 18 Side Effects of HRT Abnormal uterine bleeding Mastodynia – breast tenderness Edema, bloating, heartburn, nausea Mood changes (progesterone) CVD: no evidence of increased CVD in newly menopausal women, use in premature ovarian failure or early menopause, don’t use in asymptomatic elderly VTE: risk less in low doses and transdermal Stroke/dementia: better if given earlier, use lower doses Breast CA: estrogen alone and low dose/transdermal combo therapy have lesser impact on breast density
  • Slide 19 - 19 Contraindications to HRT Absolute - acute liver disease - undiagnosed vaginal bleeding - known/suspected uterine cancer/breast cancer - acute vascular thrombosis or Hx of severe thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disease - CVD Relative - pre-existing uncontrolled HTN - uterine fibroids and endometriosis - familial hyperlipidemias - migraine headaches - FHx of estrogen-dependent cancer - chronic thrombophlebitis - diabetes mellitus (with vascular disease) gallbladder disease, hypertriglyceridemia, impaired liver function (consider transdermal estrogen) fibrocystic disease of the breasts
  • Slide 20 - 20 Summary Menopause is a natural process It is important to rule out other disease processes Medical management of menopause is not necessary but may significantly improve patient QoL HRT is the best available therapy for menopausal symptoms
  • Slide 21 - 21 Questions?
  • Slide 22 - 22 References http://sogc.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/gui311CPG1409Eabstract1.pdf Hoffman, Barbara L., John O. Schorge, Joseph I. Schaffer, Lisa M. Halvorson, Karen D. Bradshaw, and F. Gary Cunningham. Williams Gynecology. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2012. Print.

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