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Slide 1 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10
Slide 2 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu
Slide 3 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries
Slide 4 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity
Slide 5 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors
Slide 6 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis
Slide 7 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis Histology of a normal artery http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/cvguide.htm The medial layer contributes most to the mechanical strength of an artery
Slide 8 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis Histology of a normal artery http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/cvguide.htm The medial layer contributes most to the mechanical strength of an artery Stresses in the vasculature
Slide 9 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis Histology of a normal artery http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/cvguide.htm The medial layer contributes most to the mechanical strength of an artery Stresses in the vasculature Effect of shear stress of endothelial cell orientation
Slide 10 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis Histology of a normal artery http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/cvguide.htm The medial layer contributes most to the mechanical strength of an artery Stresses in the vasculature Effect of shear stress of endothelial cell orientation Hemodynamics within arterial lesions: A longstanding bioengineering problem Malek AM et al (1999) Flow pattern Arteriogram of a stroke patient Velocity map of flow
Slide 11 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis Histology of a normal artery http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/cvguide.htm The medial layer contributes most to the mechanical strength of an artery Stresses in the vasculature Effect of shear stress of endothelial cell orientation Hemodynamics within arterial lesions: A longstanding bioengineering problem Malek AM et al (1999) Flow pattern Arteriogram of a stroke patient Velocity map of flow Streamlines at a carotid bifurcation Lifeforcehospital.org
Slide 12 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis Histology of a normal artery http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/cvguide.htm The medial layer contributes most to the mechanical strength of an artery Stresses in the vasculature Effect of shear stress of endothelial cell orientation Hemodynamics within arterial lesions: A longstanding bioengineering problem Malek AM et al (1999) Flow pattern Arteriogram of a stroke patient Velocity map of flow Streamlines at a carotid bifurcation Lifeforcehospital.org Young’s modulus: measuring stiffness or
Slide 13 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis Histology of a normal artery http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/cvguide.htm The medial layer contributes most to the mechanical strength of an artery Stresses in the vasculature Effect of shear stress of endothelial cell orientation Hemodynamics within arterial lesions: A longstanding bioengineering problem Malek AM et al (1999) Flow pattern Arteriogram of a stroke patient Velocity map of flow Streamlines at a carotid bifurcation Lifeforcehospital.org Young’s modulus: measuring stiffness or Young’s modulus of soft tissues Modified from Levental, et al. Soft Matter 2007 Atherosclerotic artery Normal liver Normal artery Fat Mammary gland Premalignant breast Breast tumor Lymph node Brain 100 1000 10000 Young’s Modulus (Pa)
Slide 14 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis Histology of a normal artery http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/cvguide.htm The medial layer contributes most to the mechanical strength of an artery Stresses in the vasculature Effect of shear stress of endothelial cell orientation Hemodynamics within arterial lesions: A longstanding bioengineering problem Malek AM et al (1999) Flow pattern Arteriogram of a stroke patient Velocity map of flow Streamlines at a carotid bifurcation Lifeforcehospital.org Young’s modulus: measuring stiffness or Young’s modulus of soft tissues Modified from Levental, et al. Soft Matter 2007 Atherosclerotic artery Normal liver Normal artery Fat Mammary gland Premalignant breast Breast tumor Lymph node Brain 100 1000 10000 Young’s Modulus (Pa) We can mimic blood vessel stiffness using gels Monomer Crosslinker + Polymer or gel
Slide 15 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis Histology of a normal artery http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/cvguide.htm The medial layer contributes most to the mechanical strength of an artery Stresses in the vasculature Effect of shear stress of endothelial cell orientation Hemodynamics within arterial lesions: A longstanding bioengineering problem Malek AM et al (1999) Flow pattern Arteriogram of a stroke patient Velocity map of flow Streamlines at a carotid bifurcation Lifeforcehospital.org Young’s modulus: measuring stiffness or Young’s modulus of soft tissues Modified from Levental, et al. Soft Matter 2007 Atherosclerotic artery Normal liver Normal artery Fat Mammary gland Premalignant breast Breast tumor Lymph node Brain 100 1000 10000 Young’s Modulus (Pa) We can mimic blood vessel stiffness using gels Monomer Crosslinker + Polymer or gel The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis
Slide 16 - Atherosclerosis: a bioengineer’s perspective 2/24/10 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) #1 cause of death in the United States In 2006, claimed more lives than cancer, car accidents, and HIV (AIDS) combined About 25% of Americans have some form of CVD 100% of people exhibit vessel stiffening which correlates with risk of CVD americanheart.org foodnetwork.com med.cornell.edu Atherosclerosis What is it? Where does it occur? Primarily in arteries Risk Factors High Cholesterol Hypertension Diabetes Smoking Inactivity Obesity Detection? Atherosclerosis is typically asymptomatic! It is most often found after it manifests itself as a heart attack or stroke Measure of LDL within the blood as a predictor 20% of events occur in individuals with no major risk factors The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis Histology of a normal artery http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/cvguide.htm The medial layer contributes most to the mechanical strength of an artery Stresses in the vasculature Effect of shear stress of endothelial cell orientation Hemodynamics within arterial lesions: A longstanding bioengineering problem Malek AM et al (1999) Flow pattern Arteriogram of a stroke patient Velocity map of flow Streamlines at a carotid bifurcation Lifeforcehospital.org Young’s modulus: measuring stiffness or Young’s modulus of soft tissues Modified from Levental, et al. Soft Matter 2007 Atherosclerotic artery Normal liver Normal artery Fat Mammary gland Premalignant breast Breast tumor Lymph node Brain 100 1000 10000 Young’s Modulus (Pa) We can mimic blood vessel stiffness using gels Monomer Crosslinker + Polymer or gel The major cellular events in the progression of atherosclerosis The next two days… Polymer lab Learn to make gels of varying stiffness Explore the viscoelastic properties of gels Blood vessel lab Learn how blood vessels control the continuous flow of blood Explore how the mechanical properties of blood vessels affect blood flow