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Slide 1 - A guide for healthcare professionals Measuring Blood Pressure at Home Michigan Department of Community Health Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Unit Eileen Worden, Nurse Consultant July 18, 2012
Slide 2 - Disclosures I have no financial relationships to disclose. I will not discuss off label use and or any investigational use in my presentation.
Slide 3 - Objectives Rationale for blood pressure monitoring at home Equipment Patient education Home Blood Pressure Values Resources
Slide 4 - Rationale In 2009 an estimated 29.7% of Michigan adults reported ever being diagnosed with high blood pressure. One in two patients have their blood pressure controlled. Costs related to hypertension in Michigan are estimated at $1.5 billion (2007) Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) can be a significant adjunct to assessment and treatment of hypertension. Michigan BRFSS Surveillance Brief 2011 Michigan CVD Fact Sheet AHA-Hypertension 2008;52:10-29
Slide 5 - Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey 2010
Slide 6 - Support for Home Blood Pressure measurement Measurements taken by patients at home are often lower than readings taken in the office and closer to the average blood pressure recorded by 24 hour ambulatory monitors. Home BP readings predicts risk better than office BP’s In a 2005 Gallup poll: 35% of hypertensive patients now check their blood pressure at least once per week 86% of patients who had been advised to purchase a blood pressure monitor had done so. 55% of patients were monitoring their blood pressure an increase of 17 % from 2000. AHA-Hypertension 2008
Slide 7 - Equipment Fully automated monitors that use the brachial artery for measurements are the most reliable. Documentation can be improved if patients use monitors capable of printing and storing readings. Oscillometric devices may not work well with patients who have atrial fibrillation or other arrhythmias. Patients monitor should be checked against mercury sphygmomanometer.
Slide 8 - Validated equipment An up-to-date list of validated monitors can be found at: British Hypertension Society Dabl Education Trust
Slide 9 - Help patients determine their correct cuff size Based on AHA Guidelines
Slide 10 - Correct Technique for home blood pressure readings Sit calmly with back support, feet flat on floor for 5 minutes before taking a reading. Upper arm should be bare. When taking a reading the arm with cuff should be supported on a firm surface at heart level. Caffeine, smoking, and exercise should be avoided for at least 30 minutes before the reading is taken. The cuff should fit snugly.
Slide 11 - Readings Patients should take at least two, preferably three readings, and record them all. The interval between can be as little as a minute. Readings should be routinely taken in the morning (before medication) and at night before bed. Patients need to be educated about the variability of readings. The recommendation is to take ≥ 2 morning readings and 2 evening readings every day for 1 week (discarding the readings of the first day. This gives a total of 12 readings on which to make clinical decisions on.
Slide 12 - Teach back Have patients bring in monitor, observe if readings are done correctly Confirm monitor is accurate Reinforce education regarding timing of readings, risk factor management, accurate recording of blood pressure
Slide 13 - The upper limit of normal for home pressure is 135/85 mm Hg. This corresponds to an office blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg
Slide 14 - Value of Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Five prospective studies have compared home and office BP for predicting cardiovascular outcomes. All 5 found that home BP is a significant predictor, and 4/5 that it is stronger than office BP. Other studies have shown that home BP predicts target organ damage better than office BP. Patients who monitor their home BP may be more likely to take their medications regularly. AHA-Hypertension 2008
Slide 15 - Special populations who may benefit from Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Elderly: BP variability tends to be high, and white coat hypertension is common. Diabetics: Tight BP control is important and home monitoring may help achieve this. Pregnancy: The early detection of pre-eclampsia might be facilitated by HBPM. Chronic Kidney Disease: BP may fluctuate a lot and home monitors help with management. Children: White coat hypertension occurs in children, and there are some data on normal home BP levels at different ages.
Slide 16 - Training ResourcesOnline Resources AHA 2008 Scientific Statement “Call to Action on Use and Reimbursement for Home Blood Pressure Monitoring.” Hypertension 2008; 52:10-29 Step Counts has a HBPM video showing how to measure BP, choose monitors, report results. Heart 360 has a tracking program for clinical results. videos on several topics including how patient should measure BP with an automatic and manual device. High Blood Pressure has a range of resources for professional and public on high blood pressure. Shared Care Inc.- is a blood pressure training and consultation group who has HBPM training material.
Slide 17 - Summary HBPM is very common and beneficial. HBPM can assist with diagnosis, management and control. HBPM resources for training and program guidance are available HBPM has minimal cost, enhances self- care and compliance
Slide 18 - Questions?