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Slide 1 - 台 北 榮 總 肺 癌 診 療 共 識 V.2.0 2008 台北榮總肺癌團隊 Revised on 2008/02/25 Released on 2008/03/17
Slide 2 - 台 北 榮 總 肺 癌 診 療 共 識 Multidisciplinary Team Taipei VGH Lung Cancer Panel Members TNM staging Taipei VGH supplement to TNM staging Table of stage grouping Evaluation and treatment Stage o (Tis) Stage I (T1-2,N0) and Stage II (T1-2, N1) Stage IIB (T3,N0) and stage IIIA (T3,N1) Stage IIIA (T1-3,N3) and stage IIIB (T4, N0-1) Stage IIIB (T1-3,N3) Stage IIIB (T4,N2-3) (T4: pleural effusion or pericardial effusion) Stage IV (M1: solitary site or disseminated) Surveillance Therapy for Recurrence and Metastases Occult (Tx,N0,M0),Evaluation and Treatment Second Lung Primary, Evaluation, and Treatment Principles of Surgical Resection Principles of Pathology Principles of Radiation Therapy - Recommended Radiation Doses - Dose Volume Data for Radiation Pneumonitis Principles of CCRT Principles of Chemotherapy - Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Small Cell Lung Cancer Adjuvant Chemotherapy Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Clinical Trials for Advanced/ Metastatic NSCLC Tracheal cancer References 關於此臨床指引:肺癌的診療仍在發展階段,本指引主要在呈現目前肺癌診療的進展與共識,醫師應鼓勵病患參與臨床試驗 ,使其有機會得到最好的治療。
Slide 3 - 癌委會 胸內 核心成員 召集人:蔡俊明、許文虎 副召集人:賴信良、吳玉琮 肺癌委員會暨肺癌多專科團隊 非核心成員 胸外 放射 病理 骨科 核醫 社工 營養 放療 台北榮總肺癌委員會暨肺癌多專科團隊組織架構
Slide 4 - 台北榮總肺癌多專科團隊核心人員 胸腔內科 陳育民 賴信良 李毓芹 蔡俊明 彭瑞鹏 胸外 吳玉琮 許文虎 放射 吳美翰 許明輝 病理 李永賢 周德盈 放療 陳一瑋 顏上惠 邱昭華
Slide 5 - NSCLC TNM Staging Lababede, O. et al. Chest 1999;115:233-235
Slide 6 - Clifton F. Mountain, CHEST1997 Regional Lymph Node Classification for Lung Cancer Staging - Extended mediastinoscopy - Mediastinotomy - VATS - EUS-FNA - VATS - EBUS-TBNA - VATS (limited to 10 and 11) - Mediastinoscopy EUS-FNA EBUS-TBNA VATS - Mediastinoscopy; EUS-FNA, EBUS-TBNA N1=Ipisilateral hilar nodes N2=Subcarinal, ipisilateral mediastinal nodes N3=Contralateral hilar/ mediastinal, or supraclavicular or scalene nodes How to Approach EUS: Endoscopic Ultrasound; EBUS: Endobronchoscopic ultrasound; FNA: Fine Needle Aspiration; TBNA: Transbronchoscopic Needle Aspiration; VATS: Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery
Slide 7 - Summary of Evaluation and Treatment PFT: Necessary for all operable stages PET (PET/CT) : recommend for all clinical stages, except stage IV, disseminate M1 Mediastinoscopy: recommend for all clinical stages, except Peripheral T1 Stage IV, disseminate M1 Brain MRI: recommend for Stage II T1-2, N1, non-squamous histology Stage II T3, N0 All stage III Stage IV, solitary M1
Slide 8 - Routine PET plus selective Mediastinoscopy - Stage I and II (T1-2 N0-1) lesion PET Mediastinal nodes uptake Central located tumor or mediastinal nodes > 1cm Negative and Chest CT scan
Slide 9 - ppt slide no 9 content not found
Slide 10 - 正子掃描(PET/CT SCAN):肺癌clinical stage 的pre-treament workup,至於安排時間點是在胸腔電腦斷層(chest-CT)後。 除非Chest CT或PET SCAN都無縱膈腔異常發現且主要病灶在週邊(peripheral IA lesion)可以不做縱膈腔鏡外,否則縱膈腔鏡仍是評估縱膈腔淋巴結的gold standard Brain MRI取代brain CT建議在clinical stage II nonsquamous cell type及stage III以上的病人安排。 術中病理檢查若有R1 (microscopic residual tumor) 或R2(macroscopic residual tumor),應視實際情形考慮reresection /(+chemotherapy)或是chemoradiation /(+ chemotherapy)。
Slide 11 - NSCL-1 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 12 - NSCL-2 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 13 - NSCL-3 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 14 - NSCL-4 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 15 - NSCL-5 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 16 - NSCL-6 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 17 - NSCL-7 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 18 - NSCL-8 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 19 - NSCL-9 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 20 - NSCL-10 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 21 - NSCL-11 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 22 - NSCL-12 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 23 - NSCL-13 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 24 - NSCL-14 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 25 - NSCL-15 From NCCN guideline, V.2.2008
Slide 26 - PRINCIPLES OF SURGICAL RESECTION 非緊急狀況下,術前所需影像學檢查應完備。 是否可切除(resectablility)之決定建議應由有經驗之胸腔腫瘤外科醫師來決定。 如生理狀況許可(physiologically feasible) ,應採取lobectomy或pneumonectomy。 如生理狀況受限制(physiologically compromised) ,應採局部切除(Limited resection-segmentectomy or wedge resection) 。 在不違背標準腫瘤手術原則下,可採用VATS (Video- assisted thoracic surgery) 。
Slide 27 - PRINCIPLES OF SURGICAL RESECTION N1&N2 node resection and mapping (minimum of three N2 stations sampled or complete lymph node dissection) 如內科狀況無法開刀(medically inoperable) ,clinical stage I& II病人應接受potential curative radiotherapy。 假如解剖位置適當與邊緣可切除乾淨(anatomically appropriate and margin-negative resection) ,採取肺葉保存術式比全肺切除好( lung sparing anatomic resection-sleeve lobectomy preferred over pneumonectomy) 。
Slide 28 - PRINCIPLES OF PATHOLOGICAL REVIEW Pathological review的目的包括: classify lung cancer; determine the extent of invasion; establish status of cancer involvement of surgical margins; determine molecular abnormalities (EGFR) 所有手術病理報告都應該有肺癌WHO分類。 Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC): 越來越多證據顯示EGFR mutation與bronchioloalveolar differentiation相關;Pure BAC應無stroma、pleura與lymphatic spaces之侵犯。 Nonmucinous BAC: TTF-1 (+) CK7 (+) CK20 (-) Mucinuous BAC: TTF-1 (-) CK7 (+) CK20 (+) TTF-1: Thyroid transcription factor-1
Slide 29 - PRINCIPLES OF PATHOLOGICAL REVIEW TTF-1對區分原發或轉移肺腫瘤很重要。大部分原發肺腫瘤TTF-1為陽性,轉移為陰性反應。 Primary lung adenocarcinoma: TTF-1(+) CK7(+) CK20(-) Metastatic colorectal carcinoma: TTF-1(-) CK7(-) CK20(+) EGFR mutation之有無與預後相關;如TKI 對exon19 deletion效果良好。 K-ras與吸煙相關;K-ras與EGFR mutation為mutually exclusive;亦即有K-ras mutation對TKI治療效果不佳(K-ras with intrinsic resistance to TKI) 。 TKI: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor EGFR: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
Slide 30 - Radiation Fields for lung cancer 2D technique
Slide 31 - 3D conformal technique
Slide 32 - 按2008年NCCN guideline的精神,其所建議的放射治療已非傳統二次元定位的方式,而是因應放射治療技術的進步,以電腦斷層評估腫瘤的位置、體積和淋巴結引流的三次元定位方式,來決定照射的角度、劑量和範圍。 美國NCCN所建議的放射照射劑量並不完全適用於國人,本共識以依國內病人狀況要做適度的調整 。
Slide 33 - Recommended Radiation Doses for NSCLC (Modified doses for domestic patients)
Slide 34 - Dose Volume Data for Radiation Pneumonitis (Modified for domestic patients) MLD-Mean Lung Dose, LP: percentage of lung that received radiation (Gy)
Slide 35 - 同步化學併放射治療(CCRT)原則 ◎ NSCLC Dose: up to 60-66Gy/1.8-2Gy/day ◎ Limited SCLC 1.年齡小於等於70歲,PS:0~1,接受CCRT DOSE:50~60 Gy/1.8Gy/day 排程:放療自開始持續做至50~60 Gy,而化學治療自開始先做三個療程後休 息,須重新評估病患治療反應,之後再依實際情形安排接續的治療。 如有CR 加做预防性全腦放射治療 (prophylactic cranial irradiation, PCI) DOSE: 30Gy/ 2Gy/ day x15 fractions(一天一次共十五次) 如有PR 持續化學治療,但不做PCI 2.年齡大於70歲,PS:0~1,採用接續性化放療(sequential chemoradiotherapy) DOSE:50~60 Gy/1.8Gy/day 排程:連續的三個療程的化學治療後休息,在二週內重新評估 如有CR 加做PCI, DOSE: 30Gy/ 2Gy/ day x15 fractions(一天一次共十五次) 如有PR 加做胸腔的放療及三個療程的化學治療,但不做PCI 3.如有PD 接受第二線化療。
Slide 36 - 肺癌化學治療用藥準則 – 非小細胞肺癌 ( 臨床試驗病例除外 ) ◎ 第一線 - Gemcitabine (GC-G) G (1000-1250mg/m2) + Cisplatin (60-75mg/m2), Q3-4W. - Vinorelbine (NC-N) Vinorelbine (25-30 mg/m2) + Cisplatin (60-75 mg/m2), Q3-4W. ※Oral Vinorelbine 劑量 = (IV Vinorelbine劑量) x 2.5 - Paclitaxel (TaC or TaC-Ta-Ta) 1. Paclitaxel (160-175 mg/m2)-D1 + Cisplatin (60- 75 mg/m2)-D1, Q3W. 2. Paclitaxel (60-80 mg/m2) -D1,8,15 + Cisplatin (60-75 mg/m2) -D1, Q4W. - Docetaxel (TC or TC-T) 1. Docetaxel (60-75 mg/m2)-D1 + Cisplatin (60-75 mg/m2)-D1, Q3W. 2. Docetaxel (30-35 mg/m2)-D1,8 + Cisplatin (60-75 mg/m2)- D1,Q3W. ※  備註:   1. Elderly or poor performance status:cisplatin omited 2. Cisplatin 若改成 Carboplatin, 劑量為 (CCr+25) x AUC, AUC = 4-6 3. Bevacizumab 7.5 mg/Kgw 可與 Gemcitabine/cisplatin或 paclitaxel/carboplatin可並用於第一線化學治療 ◎ 第二線 - Docetaxel 1. Docetaxel (60 - 75mg/m2)-D1, Q3W. 2. Docetaxel (30 - 35mg/m2)-D1,8, Q3W. - Alimta 1. Alimta (500mg/m2)-D1,Q3W.   ◎ 第三線 - Iressa 250 mg, QD. - Tarceva 150 mg, QD (self pay)
Slide 37 - 肺癌化學治療用藥準則 – 小細胞肺癌 ( 臨床試驗病例除外 ) ◎ Standard regimens (PVP): 1.  Cisplatin (60-75 mg/m2) + VP-16 (60-80 mg/m2) D1,2,3/ Q3W 2.  Carboplatin (AUC=5)D1 + VP-16 (60-80 mg/m2) D1,2,3/ Q3W ◎ Relapsed regimens: 1. Ifosfamide 1000 mg/m2 D1-3 + oral VP16 50 mg D1-10/ Q3W 2. Topotecan 1.5 mg/m2 D1-3 + epirubicin 30 mg/m2 D1/ Q3W
Slide 38 - Chemotherapy Regimens for Adjuvant Therapy-Cisplatin base Chemotherapy Regimens for Adjuvant Therapy- Alternative Cisplatin 若改成 Carboplatin, 劑量為 (CCr+25) x AUC, AUC = 4-6
Slide 39 - Chemotherapy Regimens for Neoadjuvant Therapy
Slide 40 - Staging Proposed TNM classification and staging for primary tracheal carcinoma* Primary Tracheal Cancer *Ref: Paolo Macchiarini, Lancet Oncol 2006; 7: 83–91
Slide 41 - H&P CBC, platelet Chemistry profile Smoking cessation counseling PFT Chest CT scan Bronchoscopy Brain MRI Stage I-III, IVA Stage IVB Metastatic cancer Multidisciplinary evaluation is encouraged PET/CT scan Consider 3D-CT reconstruction (multi-planar reconstruction, volume rendering technique, minimal intensity projector) Medical fit for surgery, resectable Medical unfit for surgery, or unresectable, or surgery not elected and patient medically able to tolerate chemotherapy Medical unfit for surgery and patient unable to tolerate chemotherapy See Primary Treatment (TRACH-1 ) See Primary Treatment (TRACH-2 ) See Primary Treatment (TRACH-2 ) See Primary Treatment (TRACH-3) WORKUP CLINICAL STAGE ADDITIONAL EVALUATION (as clinically indicated) Primary Tracheal Cancer a a Medically able to tolerate major thoracic surgery b Unresctable tumor: greater than 50% of tracheal length involved by tumor, “frozen”mediastinum, poor general condition of patient, distant metastases in squamous cell carcinoma; Oncologist 1997;2;245-253 b
Slide 42 - Primary Tracheal Cancer Medically fit for surgery, resectable PRIMARY TREATMENT Surgery ADJUNCTIVE/ADJUVANT TREATMENT Radiation Complete resection (R0): 50Gy over tumor bed and adjacent mediastinum Incomplete resection with residual margin R1: R2: >60Gy over tumor bed and 50Gy over adjacent mediastinum a a Medically able to tolerate major thoracic surgery c R0=No cancer at resection margins, R1=Microscopic residual cancer, R2=Macroscopic residual cancer TRACH-1 c c
Slide 43 - Primary Tracheal Cancer Medical unfit for surgery, or unresectable, or surgery not elected and patient medically able to tolerate chemotherapy Medical unfit for surgery and patient unable to tolerate chemotherapy RT, 60Gy + concurrent chemotherapy (Cisplatin-based) (preferred) or Best supportive care RT 60-66Gy or Best supportive care PRIMARY TREATMENT Best Supportive Care Obstruction: stent, laser, photodynamic therapy, RT (external 30-50Gy or brachytherapy) Pain control: RT and/or medications Nutrition b Unresctable tumor: greater than 50% of tracheal length involved by tumor, “frozen”mediastinum, poor general condition of patient, distant metastases in squamous cell carcinoma; Oncologist 1997;2;245-253 TRACH-2 b
Slide 44 - Primary Tracheal Cancer Stage IVB Metastatic cancer Karnofsky performance score > 60 or ECOG performance score≦2 Karnofsky performance score ≦ 60 or ECOG performance score≧3 SALVAGE THERPAY RT, 60Gy + concurrent chemotherapy (Cisplatin-based) (preferred) or Chemotherapy or Best supportive care Best supportive care Best Supportive Care Obstruction: stent, laser, photodynamic therapy, RT (external 30-50Gy or brachytherapy) Pain control: RT and/or medications Nutrition TRACH-3
Slide 45 - 台 北 榮 總 肺 癌 診 療 共 識 主要依據- NCCN2008
Slide 46 - 本治療指引將每六個月檢討修訂一次 預定下次修訂日期: 97年9月