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Longitude and Latitude - Finding Locations on Planet Earth PowerPoint Presentation

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On : Jun 04, 2015

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  • Slide 1 - Latitude and Longitude: Finding Locations on Planet Earth. With thanks and credit to Step.com
  • Slide 2 - Typical Graph This is an example of a typical graph. It is made up of points that are connected by a line.
  • Slide 3 - Typical Graph Y axis X axis Each point has two values: An ‘X’ value that runs along the horizontal ‘X’ axis and....... A ‘Y’ value that runs along the vertical ‘Y’ axis Each point is expressed as an X value and a Y value with the X value written first. For example... (4,7) and........... 7,5)
  • Slide 4 - Typical Graph X Y (-X,+Y) (+X,-Y) (+X,+Y) (-X,-Y) Graphs may be divided into quadrants with the X and Y values being either positive (+) or negative (-) depending on the quadrant in which they are located. Now let’s apply the same principles to latitude and longitude.
  • Slide 5 - On the map horizontal lines are lines of latitude and.... vertical lines are lines of longitude. The X axis is the equator and the Y axis which runs through Greenwich, England is the Prime Meridian. Equator Prime Meridian
  • Slide 6 - Any location north of the equator is a NORTH LATITUDE
  • Slide 7 - Any location south of the equator is a SOUTH LATITUDE
  • Slide 8 - Any location west of the prime meridian is a WEST LONGITUDE
  • Slide 9 - Any location east of the prime meridian is an EAST LONGITUDE
  • Slide 10 - We can divide the Earth into quadrants: NE where all latitudes are NORTH and all longitudes are EAST.
  • Slide 11 - We can divide the Earth into quadrants: SE where all latitudes are SOUTH and all longitudes are EAST.
  • Slide 12 - We can divide the Earth into quadrants: SW where all latitudes are SOUTH and all longitudes are WEST.
  • Slide 13 - We can divide the Earth into quadrants: NW where all latitudes are NORTH and all longitudes are WEST. Notice that EVERY point in the United States will have a NORTH latitude and a WEST longitude since we are in the NW quadrant.
  • Slide 14 - 90°S 90°N What is latitude? Latitude is the distance from the equator along the Y axis. It is expressed in degrees. The north pole is 90° N The south pole is 90° S And remember that the equator is 0° latitude. What is the maximum possible latitude on Earth? 90° is maximum. You could be at 90°N or 90°S but there is no greater latitude on Earth (or anywhere else) 0°
  • Slide 15 - What is longitude? Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis. Just like latitude, longitude is measured in degrees. The prime meridian is 0° 0° And if you go half way around the world you will reach the 180° longitude line. 180° 180° Understand that there aren’t two 180° lines. On this FLAT map it just looks that way. It’s the SAME line. What is the maximum possible longitude on Earth? 180° is the maximum possible longitude on Earth.
  • Slide 16 - Each box on this map is 15°. With that in mind how can we identify specific locations (red dots)? Remember, write latitude first! What are the coordinates of location......A 60°N, 30°W What are the coordinates of location......B 15°S, 105°W What are the coordinates of location......C 75°S, 75°E But what about location D ? It’s in the middle of a box. What do we do now?
  • Slide 17 - Let’s use an example from the reference tables (page 3). Look at Ithaca, NY. Ithaca The latitude is more than 42°N 42°N but less than 43°N 43°N and the longitude is more than 76°W 76°W but less than 77°W 77°W Each degree is about 111 kilometers so the yellow-shaded box (1° x 1°) in which Ithaca is located covers over 12,000 square kilometers of land. We need to be more precise. We can do that by subdividing each degree into 60 smaller units called minutes.
  • Slide 18 - If there are 60 minutes in each degree then half a degree would be 30 minutes. Let’s draw in the 30 minute (30’) line. See these 2 marks? They are half way (30’) between 42°N and 43°N. Using a ruler, connect them. The line you just drew is 42°30’N. Now let’s look at lines of longitude. See these 2 marks? They are half way (30’) between 76°W and 77°W. Using a ruler, connect them. The line you just drew is 76°30’W. Now let’s see if we can locate Ithaca more precisely.
  • Slide 19 - First comes latitude. Notice that Ithaca is just south of the 42°30’N line. If it’s not quite 30’ then let’s call it 25’. Ithaca is located 42°25’N. Now we’ll do longitude which, for Ithaca is easy since it’s located right on the 76°30’W line. Ithaca’s longitude is 76°30’W. Now we’ll put latitude and longitude together to give a precise location: Ithaca is 42°25’N , 76°30’W. Let’s try another............................
  • Slide 20 - Let’s find the location of Plattsburgh, NY to the nearest minute. First draw the 44°30’ line Then, the 73°30’ line. Now let’s try to estimate the location. Plattsburgh is more than 44°30’N but less than 45°N. A good estimate would be 44°40’N. Plattsburgh is more than 73°W but less than 73°30’W. A good estimate would be 73°25’W Putting the two together, Plattsburgh is about 44°40’N, 73°25’W.
  • Slide 21 - Here are some things to remember: > Latitude is written first and must always include N (north) or S (south) of the equator. > Longitude is written next and must always include E (east) or W (west) of the prime meridian. > All latitudes in New York State are N (north), and all NYS longitudes are W (west). > Each degree of latitude or longitude can be divided into 60 minutes. > A minute, as used here, is a unit of distance on the earth’s surface. It is not a unit of time. > The map on page 3 of your reference tables is small and it is impossible to be absolutely precise. Your best estimate should be to the nearest 5 or 10 minutes. In other words, an estimate of 73°25’W is OK but 73°28’W is trying to be more accurate than is reasonably possible with this map. > As with anything else you learn you will get better with practice......... SO PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE!

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