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Slide 1 - Lecture 20 – Alcoholic Beverages Reading: Textbook, Chapter 14
Slide 2 - Alcohol Source = Yeast
Slide 3 - Alcohol Source = Yeast Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts)
Slide 4 - Alcohol Source = Yeast Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts) microorganism - fungus
Slide 5 - Alcohol Source = Yeast Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts) microorganism - fungus reproduce by fission (budding)
Slide 6 - Alcohol Source = Yeast Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts) microorganism - fungus reproduce by fission (budding) food = simple sugars only
Slide 7 - Alcohol Source = Yeast Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts) microorganism - fungus reproduce by fission (budding) food = simple sugars only anaerobic conditions  degrade sugars to alcohol
Slide 8 - Alcohol - Chemistry Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl group (-OH)
Slide 9 - Alcohol - Chemistry Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl group (-OH) Many different compounds that are alcohols
Slide 10 - Alcohol - Chemistry Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl group (-OH) Many different compounds that are alcohols Beverage alcohol – specifically ethyl alcohol (ethanol) CH3-CH2OH
Slide 11 - Alcohol - Chemistry Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl group (-OH) Many different compounds that are alcohols Beverage alcohol – specifically ethyl alcohol (ethanol) CH3-CH2OH Other common alcohols: Methyl alcohol, methanol (wood alcohol): CH3OH
Slide 12 - Alcohol - Chemistry Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl group (-OH) Many different compounds that are alcohols Beverage alcohol – specifically ethyl alcohol (ethanol) CH3-CH2OH Other common alcohols: Methyl alcohol, methanol (wood alcohol): CH3OH Isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol (rubbing alcohol): CH3CH3CHOH
Slide 13 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses
Slide 14 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant
Slide 15 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant interferes with specific neuroreceptors
Slide 16 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant interferes with specific neuroreceptors Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor  prevents firing of neurons that produce tenseness  calming effect
Slide 17 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant interferes with specific neuroreceptors Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor  prevents firing of neurons that produce tenseness  calming effect Increases dopamine, endorphines  feeling of well-being
Slide 18 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant interferes with specific neuroreceptors Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor  prevents firing of neurons that produce tenseness  calming effect Increases dopamine, endorphines  feeling of well-being Interference with glutamate receptors  disrupts signals that control muscles  feeling of relaxation + lethargy + inability to control muscles  can slow heart and breathing rates and cause death
Slide 19 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant interferes with specific neuroreceptors Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor  prevents firing of neurons that produce tenseness  calming effect Increases dopamine, endorphines  feeling of well-being Interference with glutamate receptors  disrupts signals that control muscles  feeling of relaxation + lethargy + inability to control muscles  can slow heart and breathing rates and cause death - NMDA, type of glutamate receptor involved with memory  interferes with short term memory formation
Slide 20 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine
Slide 21 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized
Slide 22 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver
Slide 23 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver >Water content  greater absorption
Slide 24 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver >Water content  greater absorption > Fat Content  less absorption
Slide 25 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver >Water content  greater absorption > Fat Content  less absorption Liver – enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase, breaks down ethanol
Slide 26 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver >Water content  greater absorption > Fat Content  less absorption Liver – enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase, breaks down ethanol NOTE: Women less tolerant to alcohol than men: Smaller body size; 2. More rapid emptying of stomach; 3. Higher proportion of fat in body tissues
Slide 27 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver >Water content  greater absorption > Fat Content  less absorb. Liver – enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase, breaks down ethanol NOTE: Women less tolerant to alcohol than men: Smaller body size; 2. More rapid emptying of stomach; 3. Higher proportion of fat in body tissues Carbonation:  alcohol enters intestines more rapidly
Slide 28 - Alcohol – Positive Health Effects
Slide 29 - Alcohol – Positive Health Effects Low to moderate doses: no evidence of persistent, harmful effects
Slide 30 - Alcohol – Positive Health Effects Low to moderate doses: no evidence of persistent, harmful effects epidemiology (what is this?): 2 drinks/day  lowers risk of heart disease (mechanism: raises level of high-density lipoproteins in blood
Slide 31 - Alcohol – Positive Health Effects Low to moderate doses: no evidence of persistent, harmful effects epidemiology (what is this?): 2 drinks/day  lowers risk of heart disease (mechanism: raises level of high-density lipoproteins in blood inhibition releaser low levels  promotes laughter, playful behavior, socialization
Slide 32 - Alcohol – Positive Health Effects Low to moderate doses: no evidence of persistent, harmful effects epidemiology (what is this?): 2 drinks/day  lowers risk of heart disease (mechanism: raises level of high-density lipoproteins in blood inhibition releaser low levels  promotes laughter, playful behavior, socialization Recent research – results that indicate in women over the age of 60, regular low consumption of alcohol helps with memory retention
Slide 33 - Alcohol – Negative Health Effects Acute toxicity – can cause death through depression of central brain stem See Fig. 14.2, p. 336
Slide 34 - Alcohol – Negative Health Effects Acute toxicity – can cause death through depression of central brain stem Accidents through impaired thought and coordination – U.S. estimated 20,000 deaths/year See Fig. 14.2, p. 336
Slide 35 - Alcohol – Negative Health Effects Acute toxicity – can cause death through depression of central brain stem Accidents through impaired thought and coordination – U.S. estimated 20,000 deaths/year Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – correlated with drinking during pregnancy, leads to fetal abnormalities (reduced brain size, small eyeballs, malformations of lips and jaw). Effects can be persistent See Fig. 14.2, p. 336
Slide 36 - Alcohol – Negative Health Effects Acute toxicity – can cause death through depression of central brain stem Accidents through impaired thought and coordination – U.S. estimated 20,000 deaths/year Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – correlated with drinking during pregnancy, leads to fetal abnormalities (reduced brain size, small eyeballs, malformations of lips and jaw). Effects can be persistent Alcoholism – alcohol can be an addictive drug; may be a genetic basis. Prolonged use of alcohol  liver damage, permanent brain damage, severe malnutrition See Fig. 14.2, p. 336
Slide 37 - Alcohol – Negative Health Effects Acute toxicity – can cause death through depression of central brain stem Accidents through impaired thought and coordination – U.S. estimated 20,000 deaths/year Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – correlated with drinking during pregnancy, leads to fetal abnormalities (reduced brain size, small eyeballs, malformations of lips and jaw). Effects can be persistent Alcoholism – alcohol can be an addictive drug; may be a genetic basis. Prolonged use of alcohol  liver damage, permanent brain damage, severe malnutrition NOTE: alcohol + other drugs  dangerous interactions can occur See Fig. 14.2, p. 336
Slide 38 - Fermentation
Slide 39 - Fermentation Notes: requires simple sugar, or disaccharides, as input (starch not used)
Slide 40 - Fermentation Notes: requires simple sugar, or disaccharides, as input (starch not used) requires anaerobic conditions
Slide 41 - Fermentation Notes: requires simple sugar, or disaccharides, as input (starch not used) requires anaerobic conditions step-wise set of reactions (not shown here – see Fig. 14.3, p. 336)
Slide 42 - Fermentation Notes: requires simple sugar, or disaccharides, as input (starch not used) requires anaerobic conditions step-wise set of reactions (not shown here – see Fig. 14.3, p. 336) produces ethanol and carbon dioxide (gas)
Slide 43 - Fermentation Notes: requires simple sugar, or disaccharides, as input (starch not used) requires anaerobic conditions step-wise set of reactions (not shown here – see Fig. 14.3, p. 336) produces ethanol and carbon dioxide (gas) utilizes only a fraction of the energy available in the sugar
Slide 44 - Types of Alcoholic Beverages Wine: fermented fruit juice
Slide 45 - Types of Alcoholic Beverages Wine: fermented fruit juice Mead: fermented honey
Slide 46 - Types of Alcoholic Beverages Wine: fermented fruit juice Mead: fermented honey Beer: fermented grain
Slide 47 - Types of Alcoholic Beverages Wine: fermented fruit juice Mead: fermented honey Beer: fermented grain Other beverages require either distillation or addition of alcohol from distillation
Slide 48 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains
Slide 49 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains Lager beers – bottom-fermenting yeasts
Slide 50 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains Lager beers – bottom-fermenting yeasts Ales, bitters - top-fermenting yeasts
Slide 51 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains Lager beers – bottom-fermenting yeasts Ales, bitters - top-fermenting yeasts Sake: rice “wine” – made from rice, Aspergillus fungus  liberates sugar  higher concentration of alcohol (18%)
Slide 52 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains Lager beers – bottom-fermenting yeasts Ales, bitters - top-fermenting yeasts Sake: rice “wine” – made from rice, Aspergillus fungus  liberates sugar  higher concentration of alcohol (18%) Chicha: starts with chewed kernels of corn
Slide 53 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains Lager beers – bottom-fermenting yeasts Ales, bitters - top-fermenting yeasts Sake: rice “wine” – made from rice, Aspergillus fungus  liberates sugar  higher concentration of alcohol (18%) Chicha: starts with chewed kernels of corn Pulque: uses sap of Agave (compare to tequila, below)
Slide 54 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago?
Slide 55 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago? Sumerians – used much of their grain to make beer
Slide 56 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago? Sumerians – used much of their grain to make beer Early brewing – linked to bread making - Barley breads – made from sprouted grain  dough was logical place for fermentation to occur
Slide 57 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago? Sumerians – used much of their grain to make beer Early brewing – linked to bread making - Barley breads – made from sprouted grain  dough was logical place for fermentation to occur Source of microbes not controlled  not always Saccharomyces, so batches could vary greatly
Slide 58 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago? Sumerians – used much of their grain to make beer Early brewing – linked to bread making - Barley breads – made from sprouted grain  dough was logical place for fermentation to occur Source of microbes not controlled  not always Saccharomyces, so batches could vary greatly Relatively Recent – Standardization of methods to produce beer of consistently uniform quality
Slide 59 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago? Sumerians – used much of their grain to make beer Early brewing – linked to bread making - Barley breads – made from sprouted grain  dough was logical place for fermentation to occur Source of microbes not controlled  not always Saccharomyces, so batches could vary greatly Relatively Recent – Standardization of methods to produce beer of consistently uniform quality NOTE: beers made the traditional way can be highly nutritious – “liquid bread” – have significant proteins, vitamins
Slide 60 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars
Slide 61 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars Malting: causing the grain to sprout, then drying it
Slide 62 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars Malting: causing the grain to sprout, then drying it grain is washed 8-10 hrs  absorbs water
Slide 63 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars Malting: causing the grain to sprout, then drying it grain is washed 8-10 hrs  absorbs water grain sits in water ca 40 hrs
Slide 64 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars Malting: causing the grain to sprout, then drying it grain is washed 8-10 hrs  absorbs water grain sits in water ca 40 hrs water is drained; grain sits controlled room 6 days  production of amylases, enzymes that break down starch; other processes  reduce cloudiness
Slide 65 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars Malting: causing the grain to sprout, then drying it grain is washed 8-10 hrs  absorbs water grain sits in water ca 40 hrs water is drained; grain sits controlled room 6 days  production of amylases, enzymes that break down starch; other processes  reduce cloudiness germination process stopped by heating
Slide 66 - Beer Ingredients Hops – Humulus lupulus (Cannabaceae) Dioecious vine – female flowering structures utilized - provides flavor associated with beer - adds enzymes  coagulate proteins, reduce cloudiness appears to have antibacterial activity NOTE: other plants have been used to flavor beers
Slide 67 - Beer Ingredients Adjuncts Unmalted grains – barley, rice, wheat; corn syrup; potatoes – contain starches that can be converted to sugar (economic consideration – less expensive than malted barley) Light-flavored beer, preferred in U.S. Beer produced this way will also have fewer proteins Yeast – Saccharomyces uuvuram (lager beers); S. cerevisiae (ale) Water – pH, mineral content – affect taste
Slide 68 - Beer Brewing – Basic Steps Malting  Liberate enzymes (diastatic power) Mashing  Enzymes convert starch  sugar Drain liquid = wort Add hops (flavoring) Fermentation  “green beer” Aging (“lagering”) Pasteurization/filtering Re-addition of carbon dioxide Bottling
Slide 69 - Distillation Water – boils at 100 C (212 F) Ethanol – boils at 78.5 C (173.3 F)
Slide 70 - Distillation Water – boils at 100 C (212 F) Ethanol – boils at 78.5 C (173.3 F) Mixture is heated; ethanol gas is driven off at lower temperature; gathered in condenser – note, various devices added to minimize water vapor from escaping
Slide 71 - Distillation Water – boils at 100 C (212 F) Ethanol – boils at 78.5 C (173.3 F) Note: owning a still is illegal in the U.S. and Canada! Mixture is heated; ethanol gas is driven off at lower temperature; gathered in condenser – note, various devices added to minimize water vapor from escaping
Slide 72 - Distilled Alcoholic Beverages - Whiskeys Whiskey: made from malted barley, or malted barley + other grain proof = twice concentration of alcohol (90 proof = 45% alcohol) Scotch: made from barley malt; aged in charred casks Bourbon: from Bourbon Co., Kentucky – 51+% corn Tennessee sour mash: similar to bourbon; filtered through charcoal Rye: 51% rye grain Straight whiskey: <80 proof; aged 2+ years in new charred barrels
Slide 73 - Other Distilled Beverages Gin, Vodka – distilled to high percentage of alcohol Gin: flavored with juniper “berries” (fleshy cones) Vodka: malt, grains, potatoes (variously mixed) Rum: distilled from molasses or sugar cane juice Tequila, Mescal: Mexico, produced from Agave