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Lecture-Alcoholic Beverages PowerPoint Presentation

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  • Slide 1 - Lecture 20 – Alcoholic Beverages Reading: Textbook, Chapter 14
  • Slide 2 - Alcohol Source = Yeast
  • Slide 3 - Alcohol Source = Yeast Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts)
  • Slide 4 - Alcohol Source = Yeast Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts) microorganism - fungus
  • Slide 5 - Alcohol Source = Yeast Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts) microorganism - fungus reproduce by fission (budding)
  • Slide 6 - Alcohol Source = Yeast Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts) microorganism - fungus reproduce by fission (budding) food = simple sugars only
  • Slide 7 - Alcohol Source = Yeast Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts) microorganism - fungus reproduce by fission (budding) food = simple sugars only anaerobic conditions  degrade sugars to alcohol
  • Slide 8 - Alcohol - Chemistry Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl group (-OH)
  • Slide 9 - Alcohol - Chemistry Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl group (-OH) Many different compounds that are alcohols
  • Slide 10 - Alcohol - Chemistry Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl group (-OH) Many different compounds that are alcohols Beverage alcohol – specifically ethyl alcohol (ethanol) CH3-CH2OH
  • Slide 11 - Alcohol - Chemistry Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl group (-OH) Many different compounds that are alcohols Beverage alcohol – specifically ethyl alcohol (ethanol) CH3-CH2OH Other common alcohols: Methyl alcohol, methanol (wood alcohol): CH3OH
  • Slide 12 - Alcohol - Chemistry Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl group (-OH) Many different compounds that are alcohols Beverage alcohol – specifically ethyl alcohol (ethanol) CH3-CH2OH Other common alcohols: Methyl alcohol, methanol (wood alcohol): CH3OH Isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol (rubbing alcohol): CH3CH3CHOH
  • Slide 13 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses
  • Slide 14 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant
  • Slide 15 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant interferes with specific neuroreceptors
  • Slide 16 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant interferes with specific neuroreceptors Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor  prevents firing of neurons that produce tenseness  calming effect
  • Slide 17 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant interferes with specific neuroreceptors Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor  prevents firing of neurons that produce tenseness  calming effect Increases dopamine, endorphines  feeling of well-being
  • Slide 18 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant interferes with specific neuroreceptors Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor  prevents firing of neurons that produce tenseness  calming effect Increases dopamine, endorphines  feeling of well-being Interference with glutamate receptors  disrupts signals that control muscles  feeling of relaxation + lethargy + inability to control muscles  can slow heart and breathing rates and cause death
  • Slide 19 - Alcohol – As a Drug Effects of alcohol on human physiology complex set of responses nervous system depressant interferes with specific neuroreceptors Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor  prevents firing of neurons that produce tenseness  calming effect Increases dopamine, endorphines  feeling of well-being Interference with glutamate receptors  disrupts signals that control muscles  feeling of relaxation + lethargy + inability to control muscles  can slow heart and breathing rates and cause death - NMDA, type of glutamate receptor involved with memory  interferes with short term memory formation
  • Slide 20 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine
  • Slide 21 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized
  • Slide 22 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver
  • Slide 23 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver >Water content  greater absorption
  • Slide 24 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver >Water content  greater absorption > Fat Content  less absorption
  • Slide 25 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver >Water content  greater absorption > Fat Content  less absorption Liver – enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase, breaks down ethanol
  • Slide 26 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver >Water content  greater absorption > Fat Content  less absorption Liver – enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase, breaks down ethanol NOTE: Women less tolerant to alcohol than men: Smaller body size; 2. More rapid emptying of stomach; 3. Higher proportion of fat in body tissues
  • Slide 27 - Alcohol – Physiology Absorption – 20% in stomach; 80% in intestine absorption through stomach is slower, if food is present, alcohol moves more slowly into intestine, and some is also oxidized Bloodstream – BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Circulated to all parts of body; broken down only in liver >Water content  greater absorption > Fat Content  less absorb. Liver – enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase, breaks down ethanol NOTE: Women less tolerant to alcohol than men: Smaller body size; 2. More rapid emptying of stomach; 3. Higher proportion of fat in body tissues Carbonation:  alcohol enters intestines more rapidly
  • Slide 28 - Alcohol – Positive Health Effects
  • Slide 29 - Alcohol – Positive Health Effects Low to moderate doses: no evidence of persistent, harmful effects
  • Slide 30 - Alcohol – Positive Health Effects Low to moderate doses: no evidence of persistent, harmful effects epidemiology (what is this?): 2 drinks/day  lowers risk of heart disease (mechanism: raises level of high-density lipoproteins in blood
  • Slide 31 - Alcohol – Positive Health Effects Low to moderate doses: no evidence of persistent, harmful effects epidemiology (what is this?): 2 drinks/day  lowers risk of heart disease (mechanism: raises level of high-density lipoproteins in blood inhibition releaser low levels  promotes laughter, playful behavior, socialization
  • Slide 32 - Alcohol – Positive Health Effects Low to moderate doses: no evidence of persistent, harmful effects epidemiology (what is this?): 2 drinks/day  lowers risk of heart disease (mechanism: raises level of high-density lipoproteins in blood inhibition releaser low levels  promotes laughter, playful behavior, socialization Recent research – results that indicate in women over the age of 60, regular low consumption of alcohol helps with memory retention
  • Slide 33 - Alcohol – Negative Health Effects Acute toxicity – can cause death through depression of central brain stem See Fig. 14.2, p. 336
  • Slide 34 - Alcohol – Negative Health Effects Acute toxicity – can cause death through depression of central brain stem Accidents through impaired thought and coordination – U.S. estimated 20,000 deaths/year See Fig. 14.2, p. 336
  • Slide 35 - Alcohol – Negative Health Effects Acute toxicity – can cause death through depression of central brain stem Accidents through impaired thought and coordination – U.S. estimated 20,000 deaths/year Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – correlated with drinking during pregnancy, leads to fetal abnormalities (reduced brain size, small eyeballs, malformations of lips and jaw). Effects can be persistent See Fig. 14.2, p. 336
  • Slide 36 - Alcohol – Negative Health Effects Acute toxicity – can cause death through depression of central brain stem Accidents through impaired thought and coordination – U.S. estimated 20,000 deaths/year Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – correlated with drinking during pregnancy, leads to fetal abnormalities (reduced brain size, small eyeballs, malformations of lips and jaw). Effects can be persistent Alcoholism – alcohol can be an addictive drug; may be a genetic basis. Prolonged use of alcohol  liver damage, permanent brain damage, severe malnutrition See Fig. 14.2, p. 336
  • Slide 37 - Alcohol – Negative Health Effects Acute toxicity – can cause death through depression of central brain stem Accidents through impaired thought and coordination – U.S. estimated 20,000 deaths/year Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – correlated with drinking during pregnancy, leads to fetal abnormalities (reduced brain size, small eyeballs, malformations of lips and jaw). Effects can be persistent Alcoholism – alcohol can be an addictive drug; may be a genetic basis. Prolonged use of alcohol  liver damage, permanent brain damage, severe malnutrition NOTE: alcohol + other drugs  dangerous interactions can occur See Fig. 14.2, p. 336
  • Slide 38 - Fermentation
  • Slide 39 - Fermentation Notes: requires simple sugar, or disaccharides, as input (starch not used)
  • Slide 40 - Fermentation Notes: requires simple sugar, or disaccharides, as input (starch not used) requires anaerobic conditions
  • Slide 41 - Fermentation Notes: requires simple sugar, or disaccharides, as input (starch not used) requires anaerobic conditions step-wise set of reactions (not shown here – see Fig. 14.3, p. 336)
  • Slide 42 - Fermentation Notes: requires simple sugar, or disaccharides, as input (starch not used) requires anaerobic conditions step-wise set of reactions (not shown here – see Fig. 14.3, p. 336) produces ethanol and carbon dioxide (gas)
  • Slide 43 - Fermentation Notes: requires simple sugar, or disaccharides, as input (starch not used) requires anaerobic conditions step-wise set of reactions (not shown here – see Fig. 14.3, p. 336) produces ethanol and carbon dioxide (gas) utilizes only a fraction of the energy available in the sugar
  • Slide 44 - Types of Alcoholic Beverages Wine: fermented fruit juice
  • Slide 45 - Types of Alcoholic Beverages Wine: fermented fruit juice Mead: fermented honey
  • Slide 46 - Types of Alcoholic Beverages Wine: fermented fruit juice Mead: fermented honey Beer: fermented grain
  • Slide 47 - Types of Alcoholic Beverages Wine: fermented fruit juice Mead: fermented honey Beer: fermented grain Other beverages require either distillation or addition of alcohol from distillation
  • Slide 48 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains
  • Slide 49 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains Lager beers – bottom-fermenting yeasts
  • Slide 50 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains Lager beers – bottom-fermenting yeasts Ales, bitters - top-fermenting yeasts
  • Slide 51 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains Lager beers – bottom-fermenting yeasts Ales, bitters - top-fermenting yeasts Sake: rice “wine” – made from rice, Aspergillus fungus  liberates sugar  higher concentration of alcohol (18%)
  • Slide 52 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains Lager beers – bottom-fermenting yeasts Ales, bitters - top-fermenting yeasts Sake: rice “wine” – made from rice, Aspergillus fungus  liberates sugar  higher concentration of alcohol (18%) Chicha: starts with chewed kernels of corn
  • Slide 53 - Beer, Ale, Sake Beers – made from fermented grains Lager beers – bottom-fermenting yeasts Ales, bitters - top-fermenting yeasts Sake: rice “wine” – made from rice, Aspergillus fungus  liberates sugar  higher concentration of alcohol (18%) Chicha: starts with chewed kernels of corn Pulque: uses sap of Agave (compare to tequila, below)
  • Slide 54 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago?
  • Slide 55 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago? Sumerians – used much of their grain to make beer
  • Slide 56 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago? Sumerians – used much of their grain to make beer Early brewing – linked to bread making - Barley breads – made from sprouted grain  dough was logical place for fermentation to occur
  • Slide 57 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago? Sumerians – used much of their grain to make beer Early brewing – linked to bread making - Barley breads – made from sprouted grain  dough was logical place for fermentation to occur Source of microbes not controlled  not always Saccharomyces, so batches could vary greatly
  • Slide 58 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago? Sumerians – used much of their grain to make beer Early brewing – linked to bread making - Barley breads – made from sprouted grain  dough was logical place for fermentation to occur Source of microbes not controlled  not always Saccharomyces, so batches could vary greatly Relatively Recent – Standardization of methods to produce beer of consistently uniform quality
  • Slide 59 - History of Beer Ca 6000 yrs ago? Sumerians – used much of their grain to make beer Early brewing – linked to bread making - Barley breads – made from sprouted grain  dough was logical place for fermentation to occur Source of microbes not controlled  not always Saccharomyces, so batches could vary greatly Relatively Recent – Standardization of methods to produce beer of consistently uniform quality NOTE: beers made the traditional way can be highly nutritious – “liquid bread” – have significant proteins, vitamins
  • Slide 60 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars
  • Slide 61 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars Malting: causing the grain to sprout, then drying it
  • Slide 62 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars Malting: causing the grain to sprout, then drying it grain is washed 8-10 hrs  absorbs water
  • Slide 63 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars Malting: causing the grain to sprout, then drying it grain is washed 8-10 hrs  absorbs water grain sits in water ca 40 hrs
  • Slide 64 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars Malting: causing the grain to sprout, then drying it grain is washed 8-10 hrs  absorbs water grain sits in water ca 40 hrs water is drained; grain sits controlled room 6 days  production of amylases, enzymes that break down starch; other processes  reduce cloudiness
  • Slide 65 - Beer Ingredients Barley Malt Barley – preferred because contains large amounts of enzymes that convert starches to sugars Malting: causing the grain to sprout, then drying it grain is washed 8-10 hrs  absorbs water grain sits in water ca 40 hrs water is drained; grain sits controlled room 6 days  production of amylases, enzymes that break down starch; other processes  reduce cloudiness germination process stopped by heating
  • Slide 66 - Beer Ingredients Hops – Humulus lupulus (Cannabaceae) Dioecious vine – female flowering structures utilized - provides flavor associated with beer - adds enzymes  coagulate proteins, reduce cloudiness appears to have antibacterial activity NOTE: other plants have been used to flavor beers
  • Slide 67 - Beer Ingredients Adjuncts Unmalted grains – barley, rice, wheat; corn syrup; potatoes – contain starches that can be converted to sugar (economic consideration – less expensive than malted barley) Light-flavored beer, preferred in U.S. Beer produced this way will also have fewer proteins Yeast – Saccharomyces uuvuram (lager beers); S. cerevisiae (ale) Water – pH, mineral content – affect taste
  • Slide 68 - Beer Brewing – Basic Steps Malting  Liberate enzymes (diastatic power) Mashing  Enzymes convert starch  sugar Drain liquid = wort Add hops (flavoring) Fermentation  “green beer” Aging (“lagering”) Pasteurization/filtering Re-addition of carbon dioxide Bottling
  • Slide 69 - Distillation Water – boils at 100 C (212 F) Ethanol – boils at 78.5 C (173.3 F)
  • Slide 70 - Distillation Water – boils at 100 C (212 F) Ethanol – boils at 78.5 C (173.3 F) Mixture is heated; ethanol gas is driven off at lower temperature; gathered in condenser – note, various devices added to minimize water vapor from escaping
  • Slide 71 - Distillation Water – boils at 100 C (212 F) Ethanol – boils at 78.5 C (173.3 F) Note: owning a still is illegal in the U.S. and Canada! Mixture is heated; ethanol gas is driven off at lower temperature; gathered in condenser – note, various devices added to minimize water vapor from escaping
  • Slide 72 - Distilled Alcoholic Beverages - Whiskeys Whiskey: made from malted barley, or malted barley + other grain proof = twice concentration of alcohol (90 proof = 45% alcohol) Scotch: made from barley malt; aged in charred casks Bourbon: from Bourbon Co., Kentucky – 51+% corn Tennessee sour mash: similar to bourbon; filtered through charcoal Rye: 51% rye grain Straight whiskey: <80 proof; aged 2+ years in new charred barrels
  • Slide 73 - Other Distilled Beverages Gin, Vodka – distilled to high percentage of alcohol Gin: flavored with juniper “berries” (fleshy cones) Vodka: malt, grains, potatoes (variously mixed) Rum: distilled from molasses or sugar cane juice Tequila, Mescal: Mexico, produced from Agave
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