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Slide 1 - Keep it real: how one pediatrician makes medical home work for children exposed to violence Nadine J. Burke, MD, MPH, FAAP CEO, Center for Youth Wellness November 30, 2012
Slide 2 - Disclaimer This presentation was produced by the American Academy of Pediatrics under award #2010-VF-GX-K009, awarded by the Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this presentation are those of the contributors and do not necessarily represent the official position nor policies of the US Department of Justice.
Slide 3 - Intro to ACEs: Health Impacts of Trauma Introduction Review of Adverse Childhood Experiences The CPMC Bayview Child Health Center Experience
Slide 4 - CPMC Bayview Child Health Center
Slide 5 - The ACEs Study Vincent J. Felitti, MD and Robert J. Anda, MD, MS Asked 26,000 adults at Kaiser, San Diego’s Dept of Preventive Medicine. 17,421 participated in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire.
Slide 6 - ACEs Criteria Recurrent physical abuse Recurrent emotional abuse Contact sexual abuse An alcohol or drug abuser in the household An incarcerated household member Someone who was chronically depressed, institutionalized, or suicidal Mother treated violently One or no parents, or parents divorced. Emotional or physical neglect
Slide 7 - Results 12.6% of the population had ACEs ≥ 4 Dose-Response relationship between adverse childhood events and numerous organic diseases.
Slide 8 - Headaches Each of the ACEs was associated with an increased prevalence and risk of frequent headaches. As the ACE score increased the prevalence and risk of frequent headaches increased in a "dose-response" fashion. The risk of frequent headaches increased more than 2-fold (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.8-2.4) in persons with an ACE score ≥5, compared to persons with and ACE score of 0. The dose-response relationship of the ACE score to frequent headaches was seen for both men and women.
Slide 9 - COPD Compared to people with an ACE Score of 0, those with an ACE Score of ≥ 4 had 2.6 times the risk of prevalent COPD, 2.0 times the risk of incident hospitalizations, and 1.6 times the rates of prescriptions (p<0.01 for all comparisons). These associations were only modestly reduced by adjustment for smoking. The mean age at hospitalization decreased as the ACE Score increased (p<0.01). Anda RF, Brown DW, Dube SR, Bremner JD, Felitti VJ, Giles WH. Adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. Am J Prev Med 2008;34(5):396-403.
Slide 10 - Lung Cancer Compared to persons without ACEs, the risk of lung cancer for those with ≥ 6 ACEs was increased approximately 3-fold. After a priori consideration of a causal pathway (i.e., ACEs --> smoking --> lung cancer), risk ratios were attenuated toward the null, although not completely. For lung cancer identified through hospital or mortality records, persons with ≥ 6 ACEs were roughly 13 years younger on average at presentation than those without ACEs. Brown DW, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Edwards VJ, Malarcher AM, Croft JB, Giles WH. Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of lung cancer. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:20.
Slide 11 - Liver Disease Each of 10 ACEs increased the risk of liver disease 1.2 to 1.6 times (P<.001). The number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to liver disease (P<.001). Compared with persons with no ACEs, the adjusted odds ratio of ever having liver disease among persons with 6 or more ACEs was 2.6 (P<.001). The ACE score also had a strong graded relationship to risk behaviors for liver disease. The strength of the ACEs-liver disease association was reduced 38% to 50% by adjustment for these risk behaviors, suggesting they are mediators of this relationship. Dong M, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Giles WH. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Self- reported Liver Disease: New Insights into a Causal Pathway. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003;163:1949–1956.
Slide 12 - Ischemic Heart Disease Nine of 10 categories of ACEs significantly increased the risk of IHD by 1.3- to 1.7-fold versus persons with no ACEs. The adjusted odds ratios for IHD among persons with ≥ 7 ACEs was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.4 to 5.3). The ACE-IHD relation was mediated more strongly by individual psychological risk factors commonly associated with ACEs than by traditional IHD risk factors. Significant association was observed between increased likelihood of reported IHD (adjusted ORs) and depressed affect (2.1, 1.9 to 2.4) and anger (2.5, 2.1 to 3.0) as well as traditional risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes and hypertension), with ORs ranging from 1.2 to 2.7 Dong M, Giles WH, Felitti VJ, Dube, SR, Williams JE, Chapman DP, Anda RF. Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease: Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Circulation 2004;110:1761–1766.
Slide 13 - Autoimmune Disease First hospitalizations for any autoimmune disease increased with increasing number of ACEs (p < .05). Compared with persons with no ACEs, persons with ≥ 2 ACEs were at a 70% increased risk for hospitalizations with Th1, 80% increased risk for Th2, and 100% increased risk for rheumatic diseases (p < .05). Dube SR, Fairweather D, Pearson WS, Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Croft JB. Cumulative childhood stress and autoimmune disease. Psychom Med 2009;71, 243–250.
Slide 14 - Mechanism
Slide 15 - Neurobiology Amygdala: mediates fear responses Prefrontal Cortex: mood, emotional and cognitive function including judgment. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis: stress response Hippocampus: learning and memory (high density of glucocorticoid receptors) Noradrenergic nucleus in the locus coeruleus: regulation of affect, irritability, locomotion, arousal, attention and startle
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Slide 17 - Stress Response Activation of the HPA Axis - release of ACTH, epinephrine and cortisol Increase in centrally controlled peripheral sympathetic tone Nucleus Coeruleus activation of noradrenergic tone throughout the midbrain and forebrain including the cortex
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Slide 19 - Multi-systemic Impacts Neurologic: HPA Axis Dysregulation Reward center dysregulation Hippocampal neurotoxicity Neurotransmitter and receptor dysregulation Immunologic Increased inflammatory mediators and markers of inflammation such as interleukins, TNF alpha, IFN-γ
Slide 20 - Multi-systemic Impacts Epigenetic Differential gene expression of pro-inflammatory transcription factors and neurotransmitter receptors Epigenetic modifications leading to the reduction of glucocorticoid receptors in the brain, resulting in a increased HPA activity under both basal and stressful conditions Endocrine Long-term changes in ACTH, cortisol and adrenaline levels.
Slide 21 - CPMC Bayview Child Health Center
Slide 22 - Trauma-Informed System of Care Step 1: Recognition of the impacts of trauma On your clients On your staff On YOU Step 2: Put your own oxygen mask on Step 3: Create a system and a plan Step 4: Take the long-term view
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Slide 24 - CPMC Bayview Child Health Center N.J. Burke et al/ Child Abuse and Neglect 35(2011) 408-413
Slide 25 - Example of Adverse Affects on Educational Outcomes
Slide 26 - Multidisciplinary Rounds (MDR) Weekly team meeting including: Medical team Mental Health Case Management Reception
Slide 27 - BCHC Protocol Every child screened for ACEs at the WCC ACEs = 0 → Yah! Nothing to do. ACEs = 1-3 w/o symptoms → anticipatory guidance ACEs = 1-3 w/ symptoms → Refer to MDR. ACEs ≥ 4 → Refer to MDR.
Slide 28 - Gateway Questions Do you notice any learning or behavior problems with your child either at home or at school? Who lives at home? Has anyone come or gone from the household recently? Any concerns about sleep or bedwetting? Has your child ever witnessed any violence either at home or in the community?
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Slide 30 - Sample Case 7 y/o female is accompanied by her mother for her well-child exam. Mom has no complaints and is in a hurry to get to her next appointment. While the patient is getting her vision and hearing tested by the medical assistant, the provider asks mom the ACEs screening questions. Mom reveals that the child has witnessed extensive domestic violence (including watching her parents brandish firearms during arguments) and that the police have been called on several occasions. She is having secondary enuresis and behavior problems in school. She has an IEP for “ADHD”.
Slide 31 - Multidisciplinary Plan of Care Medical: Enuresis alarm, consider medication if warranted. Anticipatory guidance. Referral/introduction to the multidisciplinary team. Mental Health: Make sure that the mental health practitioner has expertise in the developmental impacts of trauma. If ADHD is the only diagnosis, ask about the role of trauma. Consider psychiatry consult if patient on medications. Case Management: Contract for safety of kids and school attendance. Scheduling: Awareness that family is likely to no-show. Consider flagging the chart when mom comes in with a sibling.
Slide 32 - Treatments Exercise Regulation of HR and BP Regulation of HPA Axis Decrease depression and anxiety Regulation of cerebral neurotransmitters including dopamine and serotonin Endorphin release Opportunity for healthy adult relationships Wide community acceptance
Slide 33 - Treatments Mindfulness Based Awareness Regulation of HR and BP Anti-inflammatory effects Regulation of HPA Axis Decrease depression and anxiety Decrease in post-traumatic symptoms
Slide 34 - Center for Youth Wellness Multidisciplinary Approach Trauma informed medical care Psychiatric and psychological services Case Management Educational Advocacy Evaluation of promising evidence-based supplemental therapies: mindfulness based awareness biofeedback
Slide 35 - Center for Youth Wellness Wellness and urgent pediatric care DevelopmentEvaluation Case manage-ment Legal advocacy Nutrition services Mental health Holistic health Dental Educa-tional advocacy CYW Data Gathering Analysis Best practice development Training Seamless interaction Community Education SOURCE: Core Team
Slide 36 - Thank You!
Slide 37 - References “The Relationship of Adverse Childhood Experiences to Adult Health: Turning gold into lead” Felitti, VJ “Insights Into Causal Pathways for Ischemic Heart Disease: Adverse Childhood Experiences Study” Dong et al, Circulation. 2004;110:1761-1776 “Adverse Childhood Experiences and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Adults” Anda et al, Am J Prev Med. 2008 May; 34(5):396-403 “Stress Predicts Brain Changes in Children: A Pilot Longitudinal Study on Youth Stress, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and the Hippocampus” Carrion et al, Pediatrics 2007;119:509-516 “Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Plasma Levels Directly Correlate with Childhood Neglect and Depression Measures in Addicted Patients” Gerra et al, Addiction Biology, 13:95-104 “Adrenergic Receptor Regulation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder” Perry et al, Advances is Psychiatry: Biological Assessment and Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (EL Giller, Ed) American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, 87-115, 1990
Slide 38 - References Childhood maltreatment predicts adult inflammation in a life-course study Danese et al, PNAS, January 2007, 1319-1324 “Treatment o f Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Postwar Kosovo High School Students Using Mind-Body Skills Groups: A Pilot Study” Gordon et al, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(2):143-147 “Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Relation to Quality of Life, Mood, Symptoms of Stress, and Immune Parameters in Breast and Prostate Cancer Outpatients” Carlson et al, Psychosom Med. 2003 Jul-Aug; 65(4):571-81. “Usefulness of the transcendental meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease.” Zamarra et al, Am J Card 1996 Apr 15;77(10):867-70 “Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation” Davidson et al, Psychosomatic Medicine 65:564-570 (2003) Effect of buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time. Sudsuang et al, Physiology & Behavior, Volume 50, Issue 3 September 1991, Pages 543-548