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Slide 1 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2
Slide 2 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 3 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 4 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 5 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 6 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 7 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 8 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 9 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 10 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 11 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 12 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 13 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 14 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 15 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 16 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 17 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 18 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 19 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 20 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 21 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 22 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 23 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 24 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 25 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 26 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 27 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 28 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 29 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 30 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 31 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 32 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 33 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 34 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 35 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 36 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 37 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger
Slide 38 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 39 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 40 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 41 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 42 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 43 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 44 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 45 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 46 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration The Proposal is presented by physicists of the international collaboration DEAR/SIDDHARTA, which are working on DANE since 1996 and where they will be still engaged for the next three years. To the DEAR/SIDDHARTA collaboration belong 11 institutions from 8 different countries. The interest raised in the international community by kaonic atoms physics at DANE involved, since the beginning, also scientists from outside Europe, like Japan, USA and Canada, which actively participated and are participating to the experiments at DANE. =>“hard core” of an international collaboration does already exist. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 47 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration The Proposal is presented by physicists of the international collaboration DEAR/SIDDHARTA, which are working on DANE since 1996 and where they will be still engaged for the next three years. To the DEAR/SIDDHARTA collaboration belong 11 institutions from 8 different countries. The interest raised in the international community by kaonic atoms physics at DANE involved, since the beginning, also scientists from outside Europe, like Japan, USA and Canada, which actively participated and are participating to the experiments at DANE. =>“hard core” of an international collaboration does already exist. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration Other considerations support the strong appealing of the new initiative and consequently a potentially large interested community: The DANE2 with AMADEUS would represent the only facility in the world where K—induced reactions at rest are studied. Moreover, after the GSI merging into FAIR, Frascati would be the only laboratory in Europe to go along this line of research. The fact to become the European counterpart with respect to the Japanese programmes at J-PARC reinforces the plan to apply to the Seventh Framework Programme of EU to obtain a substantial economical support both for developments of detectors and for the upgrading of the actual machine. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Dec. 21-22, 2005 Workshop on “Antikaon Mediated Bound Systems – Doorway to Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars”
Slide 48 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration The Proposal is presented by physicists of the international collaboration DEAR/SIDDHARTA, which are working on DANE since 1996 and where they will be still engaged for the next three years. To the DEAR/SIDDHARTA collaboration belong 11 institutions from 8 different countries. The interest raised in the international community by kaonic atoms physics at DANE involved, since the beginning, also scientists from outside Europe, like Japan, USA and Canada, which actively participated and are participating to the experiments at DANE. =>“hard core” of an international collaboration does already exist. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration Other considerations support the strong appealing of the new initiative and consequently a potentially large interested community: The DANE2 with AMADEUS would represent the only facility in the world where K—induced reactions at rest are studied. Moreover, after the GSI merging into FAIR, Frascati would be the only laboratory in Europe to go along this line of research. The fact to become the European counterpart with respect to the Japanese programmes at J-PARC reinforces the plan to apply to the Seventh Framework Programme of EU to obtain a substantial economical support both for developments of detectors and for the upgrading of the actual machine. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Dec. 21-22, 2005 Workshop on “Antikaon Mediated Bound Systems – Doorway to Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars” The scientific case of the study of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states deals with one of the most important, yet unsolved, problems in hadron physics: how the hadron masses and hadron interaction change in the nuclear medium and what is the structure of cold dense hadronic matter. After the shutdown of KEK in December 2005, two facilities will be active in the field: J-PARC in Japan, and GSI (FOPI) in Europe. The first one will produce kaonic nuclear clusters with K--induced reactions in flight. GSI will follow, before being absorbed in the new complex of facilities FAIR, an alternative approach, represented by nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleon collisions. DANE2 can become the world-scientific pole to study the K- induced processes at rest, which were indicated as the more direct way to investigate the clusters in nuclear matter. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Conclusions (1)
Slide 49 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration The Proposal is presented by physicists of the international collaboration DEAR/SIDDHARTA, which are working on DANE since 1996 and where they will be still engaged for the next three years. To the DEAR/SIDDHARTA collaboration belong 11 institutions from 8 different countries. The interest raised in the international community by kaonic atoms physics at DANE involved, since the beginning, also scientists from outside Europe, like Japan, USA and Canada, which actively participated and are participating to the experiments at DANE. =>“hard core” of an international collaboration does already exist. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration Other considerations support the strong appealing of the new initiative and consequently a potentially large interested community: The DANE2 with AMADEUS would represent the only facility in the world where K—induced reactions at rest are studied. Moreover, after the GSI merging into FAIR, Frascati would be the only laboratory in Europe to go along this line of research. The fact to become the European counterpart with respect to the Japanese programmes at J-PARC reinforces the plan to apply to the Seventh Framework Programme of EU to obtain a substantial economical support both for developments of detectors and for the upgrading of the actual machine. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Dec. 21-22, 2005 Workshop on “Antikaon Mediated Bound Systems – Doorway to Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars” The scientific case of the study of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states deals with one of the most important, yet unsolved, problems in hadron physics: how the hadron masses and hadron interaction change in the nuclear medium and what is the structure of cold dense hadronic matter. After the shutdown of KEK in December 2005, two facilities will be active in the field: J-PARC in Japan, and GSI (FOPI) in Europe. The first one will produce kaonic nuclear clusters with K--induced reactions in flight. GSI will follow, before being absorbed in the new complex of facilities FAIR, an alternative approach, represented by nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleon collisions. DANE2 can become the world-scientific pole to study the K- induced processes at rest, which were indicated as the more direct way to investigate the clusters in nuclear matter. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Conclusions (1)   Conclusions (2) As far as the experimental setup is concerned, the 4p KLOE detector, implemented for AMADEUS program, operated in DAFNE2, satisfies the requirements to study the characteristic features of the K-nuclear clusters, which must consists both in observing the production stage of a K-nuclear clusters and detecting the decay products. First steps towards the realization: Monte Carlo intensive simulations Measurement (KLOE+SIDDHARTA) of KLOE calorimeter for n-efficiency Feasibility of AMADEUS in KLOE Possibility to participate to KLOE2 – new parts Spring 2006 -> Letter of Intent 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 50 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration The Proposal is presented by physicists of the international collaboration DEAR/SIDDHARTA, which are working on DANE since 1996 and where they will be still engaged for the next three years. To the DEAR/SIDDHARTA collaboration belong 11 institutions from 8 different countries. The interest raised in the international community by kaonic atoms physics at DANE involved, since the beginning, also scientists from outside Europe, like Japan, USA and Canada, which actively participated and are participating to the experiments at DANE. =>“hard core” of an international collaboration does already exist. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration Other considerations support the strong appealing of the new initiative and consequently a potentially large interested community: The DANE2 with AMADEUS would represent the only facility in the world where K—induced reactions at rest are studied. Moreover, after the GSI merging into FAIR, Frascati would be the only laboratory in Europe to go along this line of research. The fact to become the European counterpart with respect to the Japanese programmes at J-PARC reinforces the plan to apply to the Seventh Framework Programme of EU to obtain a substantial economical support both for developments of detectors and for the upgrading of the actual machine. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Dec. 21-22, 2005 Workshop on “Antikaon Mediated Bound Systems – Doorway to Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars” The scientific case of the study of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states deals with one of the most important, yet unsolved, problems in hadron physics: how the hadron masses and hadron interaction change in the nuclear medium and what is the structure of cold dense hadronic matter. After the shutdown of KEK in December 2005, two facilities will be active in the field: J-PARC in Japan, and GSI (FOPI) in Europe. The first one will produce kaonic nuclear clusters with K--induced reactions in flight. GSI will follow, before being absorbed in the new complex of facilities FAIR, an alternative approach, represented by nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleon collisions. DANE2 can become the world-scientific pole to study the K- induced processes at rest, which were indicated as the more direct way to investigate the clusters in nuclear matter. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Conclusions (1)   Conclusions (2) As far as the experimental setup is concerned, the 4p KLOE detector, implemented for AMADEUS program, operated in DAFNE2, satisfies the requirements to study the characteristic features of the K-nuclear clusters, which must consists both in observing the production stage of a K-nuclear clusters and detecting the decay products. First steps towards the realization: Monte Carlo intensive simulations Measurement (KLOE+SIDDHARTA) of KLOE calorimeter for n-efficiency Feasibility of AMADEUS in KLOE Possibility to participate to KLOE2 – new parts Spring 2006 -> Letter of Intent 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From kaonic atoms to kaonic-nuclei Continuity and innovation An unique opportunity ONLY AT DAFNE2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 51 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration The Proposal is presented by physicists of the international collaboration DEAR/SIDDHARTA, which are working on DANE since 1996 and where they will be still engaged for the next three years. To the DEAR/SIDDHARTA collaboration belong 11 institutions from 8 different countries. The interest raised in the international community by kaonic atoms physics at DANE involved, since the beginning, also scientists from outside Europe, like Japan, USA and Canada, which actively participated and are participating to the experiments at DANE. =>“hard core” of an international collaboration does already exist. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration Other considerations support the strong appealing of the new initiative and consequently a potentially large interested community: The DANE2 with AMADEUS would represent the only facility in the world where K—induced reactions at rest are studied. Moreover, after the GSI merging into FAIR, Frascati would be the only laboratory in Europe to go along this line of research. The fact to become the European counterpart with respect to the Japanese programmes at J-PARC reinforces the plan to apply to the Seventh Framework Programme of EU to obtain a substantial economical support both for developments of detectors and for the upgrading of the actual machine. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Dec. 21-22, 2005 Workshop on “Antikaon Mediated Bound Systems – Doorway to Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars” The scientific case of the study of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states deals with one of the most important, yet unsolved, problems in hadron physics: how the hadron masses and hadron interaction change in the nuclear medium and what is the structure of cold dense hadronic matter. After the shutdown of KEK in December 2005, two facilities will be active in the field: J-PARC in Japan, and GSI (FOPI) in Europe. The first one will produce kaonic nuclear clusters with K--induced reactions in flight. GSI will follow, before being absorbed in the new complex of facilities FAIR, an alternative approach, represented by nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleon collisions. DANE2 can become the world-scientific pole to study the K- induced processes at rest, which were indicated as the more direct way to investigate the clusters in nuclear matter. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Conclusions (1)   Conclusions (2) As far as the experimental setup is concerned, the 4p KLOE detector, implemented for AMADEUS program, operated in DAFNE2, satisfies the requirements to study the characteristic features of the K-nuclear clusters, which must consists both in observing the production stage of a K-nuclear clusters and detecting the decay products. First steps towards the realization: Monte Carlo intensive simulations Measurement (KLOE+SIDDHARTA) of KLOE calorimeter for n-efficiency Feasibility of AMADEUS in KLOE Possibility to participate to KLOE2 – new parts Spring 2006 -> Letter of Intent 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From kaonic atoms to kaonic-nuclei Continuity and innovation An unique opportunity ONLY AT DAFNE2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 52 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration The Proposal is presented by physicists of the international collaboration DEAR/SIDDHARTA, which are working on DANE since 1996 and where they will be still engaged for the next three years. To the DEAR/SIDDHARTA collaboration belong 11 institutions from 8 different countries. The interest raised in the international community by kaonic atoms physics at DANE involved, since the beginning, also scientists from outside Europe, like Japan, USA and Canada, which actively participated and are participating to the experiments at DANE. =>“hard core” of an international collaboration does already exist. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration Other considerations support the strong appealing of the new initiative and consequently a potentially large interested community: The DANE2 with AMADEUS would represent the only facility in the world where K—induced reactions at rest are studied. Moreover, after the GSI merging into FAIR, Frascati would be the only laboratory in Europe to go along this line of research. The fact to become the European counterpart with respect to the Japanese programmes at J-PARC reinforces the plan to apply to the Seventh Framework Programme of EU to obtain a substantial economical support both for developments of detectors and for the upgrading of the actual machine. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Dec. 21-22, 2005 Workshop on “Antikaon Mediated Bound Systems – Doorway to Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars” The scientific case of the study of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states deals with one of the most important, yet unsolved, problems in hadron physics: how the hadron masses and hadron interaction change in the nuclear medium and what is the structure of cold dense hadronic matter. After the shutdown of KEK in December 2005, two facilities will be active in the field: J-PARC in Japan, and GSI (FOPI) in Europe. The first one will produce kaonic nuclear clusters with K--induced reactions in flight. GSI will follow, before being absorbed in the new complex of facilities FAIR, an alternative approach, represented by nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleon collisions. DANE2 can become the world-scientific pole to study the K- induced processes at rest, which were indicated as the more direct way to investigate the clusters in nuclear matter. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Conclusions (1)   Conclusions (2) As far as the experimental setup is concerned, the 4p KLOE detector, implemented for AMADEUS program, operated in DAFNE2, satisfies the requirements to study the characteristic features of the K-nuclear clusters, which must consists both in observing the production stage of a K-nuclear clusters and detecting the decay products. First steps towards the realization: Monte Carlo intensive simulations Measurement (KLOE+SIDDHARTA) of KLOE calorimeter for n-efficiency Feasibility of AMADEUS in KLOE Possibility to participate to KLOE2 – new parts Spring 2006 -> Letter of Intent 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From kaonic atoms to kaonic-nuclei Continuity and innovation An unique opportunity ONLY AT DAFNE2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 53 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration The Proposal is presented by physicists of the international collaboration DEAR/SIDDHARTA, which are working on DANE since 1996 and where they will be still engaged for the next three years. To the DEAR/SIDDHARTA collaboration belong 11 institutions from 8 different countries. The interest raised in the international community by kaonic atoms physics at DANE involved, since the beginning, also scientists from outside Europe, like Japan, USA and Canada, which actively participated and are participating to the experiments at DANE. =>“hard core” of an international collaboration does already exist. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration Other considerations support the strong appealing of the new initiative and consequently a potentially large interested community: The DANE2 with AMADEUS would represent the only facility in the world where K—induced reactions at rest are studied. Moreover, after the GSI merging into FAIR, Frascati would be the only laboratory in Europe to go along this line of research. The fact to become the European counterpart with respect to the Japanese programmes at J-PARC reinforces the plan to apply to the Seventh Framework Programme of EU to obtain a substantial economical support both for developments of detectors and for the upgrading of the actual machine. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Dec. 21-22, 2005 Workshop on “Antikaon Mediated Bound Systems – Doorway to Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars” The scientific case of the study of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states deals with one of the most important, yet unsolved, problems in hadron physics: how the hadron masses and hadron interaction change in the nuclear medium and what is the structure of cold dense hadronic matter. After the shutdown of KEK in December 2005, two facilities will be active in the field: J-PARC in Japan, and GSI (FOPI) in Europe. The first one will produce kaonic nuclear clusters with K--induced reactions in flight. GSI will follow, before being absorbed in the new complex of facilities FAIR, an alternative approach, represented by nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleon collisions. DANE2 can become the world-scientific pole to study the K- induced processes at rest, which were indicated as the more direct way to investigate the clusters in nuclear matter. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Conclusions (1)   Conclusions (2) As far as the experimental setup is concerned, the 4p KLOE detector, implemented for AMADEUS program, operated in DAFNE2, satisfies the requirements to study the characteristic features of the K-nuclear clusters, which must consists both in observing the production stage of a K-nuclear clusters and detecting the decay products. First steps towards the realization: Monte Carlo intensive simulations Measurement (KLOE+SIDDHARTA) of KLOE calorimeter for n-efficiency Feasibility of AMADEUS in KLOE Possibility to participate to KLOE2 – new parts Spring 2006 -> Letter of Intent 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From kaonic atoms to kaonic-nuclei Continuity and innovation An unique opportunity ONLY AT DAFNE2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: phase space P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(S-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +S-pp ppnp- S- -> n p-; n < 500 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 54 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration The Proposal is presented by physicists of the international collaboration DEAR/SIDDHARTA, which are working on DANE since 1996 and where they will be still engaged for the next three years. To the DEAR/SIDDHARTA collaboration belong 11 institutions from 8 different countries. The interest raised in the international community by kaonic atoms physics at DANE involved, since the beginning, also scientists from outside Europe, like Japan, USA and Canada, which actively participated and are participating to the experiments at DANE. =>“hard core” of an international collaboration does already exist. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration Other considerations support the strong appealing of the new initiative and consequently a potentially large interested community: The DANE2 with AMADEUS would represent the only facility in the world where K—induced reactions at rest are studied. Moreover, after the GSI merging into FAIR, Frascati would be the only laboratory in Europe to go along this line of research. The fact to become the European counterpart with respect to the Japanese programmes at J-PARC reinforces the plan to apply to the Seventh Framework Programme of EU to obtain a substantial economical support both for developments of detectors and for the upgrading of the actual machine. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Dec. 21-22, 2005 Workshop on “Antikaon Mediated Bound Systems – Doorway to Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars” The scientific case of the study of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states deals with one of the most important, yet unsolved, problems in hadron physics: how the hadron masses and hadron interaction change in the nuclear medium and what is the structure of cold dense hadronic matter. After the shutdown of KEK in December 2005, two facilities will be active in the field: J-PARC in Japan, and GSI (FOPI) in Europe. The first one will produce kaonic nuclear clusters with K--induced reactions in flight. GSI will follow, before being absorbed in the new complex of facilities FAIR, an alternative approach, represented by nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleon collisions. DANE2 can become the world-scientific pole to study the K- induced processes at rest, which were indicated as the more direct way to investigate the clusters in nuclear matter. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Conclusions (1)   Conclusions (2) As far as the experimental setup is concerned, the 4p KLOE detector, implemented for AMADEUS program, operated in DAFNE2, satisfies the requirements to study the characteristic features of the K-nuclear clusters, which must consists both in observing the production stage of a K-nuclear clusters and detecting the decay products. First steps towards the realization: Monte Carlo intensive simulations Measurement (KLOE+SIDDHARTA) of KLOE calorimeter for n-efficiency Feasibility of AMADEUS in KLOE Possibility to participate to KLOE2 – new parts Spring 2006 -> Letter of Intent 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From kaonic atoms to kaonic-nuclei Continuity and innovation An unique opportunity ONLY AT DAFNE2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: phase space P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(S-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +S-pp ppnp- S- -> n p-; n < 500 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Is based on precision spectroscopy studies of light kaonic nuclei, as function of their baryon number A and isospin T. In addition, heavier nuclear targets will be studied. The first objective is to determine the quantum numbers (spin, parity, isospin) of all states, including excited ones, and their energies. A precise measurement of the energies of a T=1 multiplet would give its Coulomb energy difference (about 4 MeV) and thus information on the size of kaonic nuclei. The challenge of this programme is to reach the necessary accuracy in the determination of the mass differences of the multiplet. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 55 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration The Proposal is presented by physicists of the international collaboration DEAR/SIDDHARTA, which are working on DANE since 1996 and where they will be still engaged for the next three years. To the DEAR/SIDDHARTA collaboration belong 11 institutions from 8 different countries. The interest raised in the international community by kaonic atoms physics at DANE involved, since the beginning, also scientists from outside Europe, like Japan, USA and Canada, which actively participated and are participating to the experiments at DANE. =>“hard core” of an international collaboration does already exist. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration Other considerations support the strong appealing of the new initiative and consequently a potentially large interested community: The DANE2 with AMADEUS would represent the only facility in the world where K—induced reactions at rest are studied. Moreover, after the GSI merging into FAIR, Frascati would be the only laboratory in Europe to go along this line of research. The fact to become the European counterpart with respect to the Japanese programmes at J-PARC reinforces the plan to apply to the Seventh Framework Programme of EU to obtain a substantial economical support both for developments of detectors and for the upgrading of the actual machine. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Dec. 21-22, 2005 Workshop on “Antikaon Mediated Bound Systems – Doorway to Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars” The scientific case of the study of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states deals with one of the most important, yet unsolved, problems in hadron physics: how the hadron masses and hadron interaction change in the nuclear medium and what is the structure of cold dense hadronic matter. After the shutdown of KEK in December 2005, two facilities will be active in the field: J-PARC in Japan, and GSI (FOPI) in Europe. The first one will produce kaonic nuclear clusters with K--induced reactions in flight. GSI will follow, before being absorbed in the new complex of facilities FAIR, an alternative approach, represented by nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleon collisions. DANE2 can become the world-scientific pole to study the K- induced processes at rest, which were indicated as the more direct way to investigate the clusters in nuclear matter. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Conclusions (1)   Conclusions (2) As far as the experimental setup is concerned, the 4p KLOE detector, implemented for AMADEUS program, operated in DAFNE2, satisfies the requirements to study the characteristic features of the K-nuclear clusters, which must consists both in observing the production stage of a K-nuclear clusters and detecting the decay products. First steps towards the realization: Monte Carlo intensive simulations Measurement (KLOE+SIDDHARTA) of KLOE calorimeter for n-efficiency Feasibility of AMADEUS in KLOE Possibility to participate to KLOE2 – new parts Spring 2006 -> Letter of Intent 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From kaonic atoms to kaonic-nuclei Continuity and innovation An unique opportunity ONLY AT DAFNE2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: phase space P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(S-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +S-pp ppnp- S- -> n p-; n < 500 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Is based on precision spectroscopy studies of light kaonic nuclei, as function of their baryon number A and isospin T. In addition, heavier nuclear targets will be studied. The first objective is to determine the quantum numbers (spin, parity, isospin) of all states, including excited ones, and their energies. A precise measurement of the energies of a T=1 multiplet would give its Coulomb energy difference (about 4 MeV) and thus information on the size of kaonic nuclei. The challenge of this programme is to reach the necessary accuracy in the determination of the mass differences of the multiplet. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme The study of the spin-orbit interaction of the strange tribaryon system [(NNN)K], by measuring the spin-orbit splitting (0p1/2 – 0p3/2) which is predicted to be as large as 60 MeV (for small size kaonic nuclei). Important information on the structure of kaonic clusters is contained in their total and partial decay widths. Until now, only on upper limit of  = 21 MeV is known for a kaonic tribaryon state and no information on partial decay channels is available. For an accurate measurement of the total width of kaonic nuclei an energy resolution of ~MeV or better is required. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005
Slide 56 - From kaonic atoms to kaonic nuclei with DAFNE2   28-30 November 2005 31th LNF Scientific Committee   C. Curceanu and J. Zmeskal  DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration       Proposal of an international facility at DANE2 (pre)Letter of Intent    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states   Proposal of an international facility at DANE2    September 2005    DEAR/SIDDHARTA Collaboration   Manifestation of interest from Institutions of: -           Austria -           Canada -           France -           Germany -           Hungary -           Italy -           Japan -           Poland -           Romania -           Russia -           Sweden -           USA -           … Letter of Intent -> Spring 2006 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Antikaonic Matter At DAFNE: an Experiment Unraveling Spectroscopy AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Contents 1) Brief sketch of the scientific case of kaonic nuclear clusters 2) From kaonic atoms to K-–nuclear bound states 3) Current and future experiments => the unique features of DAFNE2 5) Features and identification of the setup and the experimental programme 6) First steps towards AMADEUS 7) Formation of an international collaboration 8) Conclusions 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 A new paradigm in strangeness nuclear physics, with important consequences in fundamental physics, is represented by the recently observed Deeply bound Kaonic Nuclear states whose first experimental indications are being produced at - KEK and - LNF - GSI - BNL => cold and dense nuclear system 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KN interaction Until 1997: Confusing situation (part due to KH puzzle) 1997 KpX experiment at KEK Iwasaki et al. PRL(1997): K-p atom shift: DE1s “repulsive-type”, Indicating the K-p interaction is strongly attractive 2002 DEAR results -> PRL 94, 212302 (2005) Consistent with the view that L(1405): 1s bound state of K-p Scattering data (no data at low energy) 2002: Akaishi-Yamazaki constructed “Nuclear K bound states in light nuclei” Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Kaonic Nuclear Bound States Believed (<2002) to be non-existing: G > EB Akaishi-Yamazaki (2002) predicted: - K--p interaction so strong that it - might shrinks nuclei --> deeper bound states - deep enough that: the main decay channel KN-->Sp closed - strongly (deeply) bound states EB > 100 MeV: narrow bound states (G<10 MeV) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 rc ~ 4 -10 r0 Explore cold and dense nuclear states 3He ---> 3HeK- shrinkage !! (AMD method Dote et al. 2002) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Exploring dense nuclear states with K- bound states 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   -         information concerning a modification of the kaon mass and of the KN interaction in the nuclear medium => interesting and important from the viewpoint of spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking of QCD   -         information on a transition from the hadronic phase to a quark-gluon phase => changes of vacuum properties of QCD and quark condensate   -         kaon condensation in nuclear matter => implications on astrophysics: neutron stars, strange stars - nuclear dynamics under extreme conditions (nuclear compressibility, etc) could be investigated Important impacts in fundamental physics 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From low-energy KN interactions to K-nuclear bound states “to what extent does our present knowledge of low-energy KN interactions support such expectations (the hypothesis of narrow K-nuclear states introduced by Akaishi and Yamazaki)?” (W. Weise, nucl-th/0507058) 1) the low-energy KN scattering data 2) the kaonic hydrogen shift of the ground state 3) the binding energy and decay width of (1405), asserted to be an I=0 quasi-bound state of KN. Rate of formation and additional constraints: 4) Kaonic helium transitions The pillars of the existence of narrow K-nuclear states: 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . Future (expected) progress in the field: 1) Kaonic Hydrogen and kaonic deuterium (SIDDHARTA: 200 + 500 pb-1) -> to ~ eV => I=0 and I=1 KN scattering lengths 2) Low-energy scattering: A new facility at DANE2 to study K- nuclear clusters with a 4 detector, may include in its scientific program a K± scattering on nucleons/nuclei to build up a high quality set of data. 3)   (1405) Precise KN measurements at threshold (SIDDHARTA) will substantially improve the knowledge of the sub-threshold KN dynamics and contribute to clarify the nature of (1405). More information can come from the measurement of two-body branching ratios in K- absorption at rest, which is precisely the kind of reactions to be studied in the new facility at DANE2. Specifically, one can investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratios in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged ± spectrum. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 . 4) Kaonic Helium: SIDDHARTA (200 pb-1) - the rate + additional constraints Crucial information about the formation of a specific deeply bound kaonic nuclear state (the K- 3He system) -> depends on the X ray transitions in the K- 4He atom. There are three experiments which observed kaonic helium atomic transitions from 3d to 2p levels, giving an experimental average value for the width G= 55 ± 34 eV. => the formation branching ratio turns out about 2%; right now -> E570 at KEK. The theoretical widths are around = 2-4 eV. Analogous discrepancy between experiments and optical models calculations does exists for the shifts. This is what is dubbed “the kaonic helium puzzle”. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations, performed for the SIDDHARTA setup with a gaseous 4He target show that a measurement with a precision of eV can be performed at DANE with about 200 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. Similar estimations hold for the 3He case. The capability to detect kaonic helium X-rays transitions might turn out extremely useful in implementing an X-ray trigger to reduce the background in the measurement of kaonic nuclear states by capture at rest on 4He in a new dedicated facility at DANE2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States Kaonic Hydrogen and deuterium L(1405) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Production mechanisms of DBKNS: 1) Stopped K- reactions on light nuclei, with ejection of a proton or a neutron as spectators 2)  In-flight K- reactions: - Knock-out reactions (K-, N) where one nucleon is knocked out in the formation stage; - (K-, π-) reactions in proton-rich systems to produce exotic bound nuclear states on unbound systems. 3) Protons (3.5 – 4.5 GeV) on a deuteron target for the production of K–pp detected in a 4 detector. 4) The identification of clusters as residual fragments (“K fragments”) in heavy ion collisions via the invariant mass of their decay products. Identification and study of DBKNS: - Formation -> missing mass Decay -> invariant mass -> Spectroscopy! 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Current and future planned experiments FINUDA at DAFNE KEK: E549 E570 J-PARC (LOI06; LOI10) GSI (FOPI) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005   Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (1) The future experiments in Japan (J-PARC) will produce kaonic nuclear states only with K--induced reactions in-flight (=1  2 GeV/c), either in (K-, N) or in (K-, -) processes. The alternative approach, followed at GSI, is represented by proton-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to the strangeness production threshold and nucleus-nucleus collisions It follows, that a dedicated facility at DANE2 can become THE scientific pole for studying kaonic nuclear states with K— induced reaction at rest. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Why DANE2 is a good place to study kaonic nuclear clusters (2) The salient features of DANE2 are: -  Low-momentum (127 MeV/c) medium intensity charged kaons:  1200/s at L  1033 cm-2s-1; -  Low momentum spread (<0.1%); -  K pairs produced in a back-to-back topology; -  hadronic background intrinsically low – differently from an extracted beam. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  How DANE2 characteristics can be exploited at best for the study of strongly bound kaonic nuclear states? 1) possibility to use either gaseous targets (as proven by DEAR) or thin targets (as proven by FINUDA). 2) Reduced neutron background generated by negative pion absorption (E47) exactly in the area of interest. The yield of these background neutrons depends on the equivalent g/cm2 of the target, namely on density and thickness, and on the materials put around the target itself. 3) The back-to-back topology which characterizes K- production, can be used to trigger on (K-, K+)-pairs, so selecting K- induced events. 4) Another trigger system might be implemented by taking advantage of the X rays emitted in the decay of the kaonic atom, created in the initial stage of the process.   31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup The complete study of the characteristic features of the kaonic bound nuclear systems requires knowledge of: binding energy, level width and partial widths, angular momenta, isospin, sizes, densities, etc. This can be done by simultaneously observing the production stage of the K--clusters via missing mass spectroscopy, and their decay products since their momentum correlations contain information on the internal structure of the exotic system. It is therefore necessary to use a 4π dedicated detector capable of detecting all particles created in both the formation and decay of the K-clusters. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Formation process: Exotic nuclear states in light nuclei produced with (K-, N) reactions at rest will be observed by the energy distribution of the ejected protons and neutrons via the missing mass spectra of the (K-, p) and (K-, n) reactions. The setup should be capable to measure: Outgoing protons up to 600 MeV/c Outgoing neutrons up to 600 MeV/c in a 4π acceptance detector, with good efficiency and resolution. K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn) n(~500 MeV/c) 2pnp- n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;g;p- 1p;2n;p0;g n(~500 MeV/c) 2p;n;p- 1p;2n;p0 n(~500 MeV/c) p;d;p- n;d;p0 Features of the exp. setup: the decay process 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(L) GeV/c P(n) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +Lnp ppnp- L -> p p-; n < 600 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process The exotic states are expected to predominantly decay into final states containing  and S hyperons and protons, neutrons, deuterons or larger systems of nucleons. The most important feature of a detector is therefore the reconstruction capability for  and S hyperons from the invariant mass of their decay into nucleon +  and/or g. This implies good particle identification for these particles and their decay products. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Features of the experimental setup Decay process From this data, frame-invariant Dalitz plots can be constructed, which are expected to reflect the size and density of the initial exotic state. Special attention must be paid to two-body correlations in a Dalitz plane, which may lead to a fake effect in an invariant mass spectrum  + p, which might be confused with the genuine mass of an exotic strange dibarion K-pp   + p if all the three particles are not detected. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Density distribution of K nuclear clusters JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  by observing the momentum correlation in their 3-body decay products (P. Kienle, Y. Akaishi, T. Yamazaki to be published in Phys. Lett. B) K-ppn   + p + n 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The detector satisfying all these features => The KLOE detector Performance of the KLOE 4p detector: fully checked and exploited in the numerous measurements done already by KLOE; studies of processes with BR of < 10-3 (10-6) acceptance 96% DC: sp/p ~ 0.4% Spatial resolution of vertices in DC: 3 mm dE/dx capacity for particle ID implemented ECAL dE/Eg ~ 5.7%/E1/2 st= (54/E1/2 + 50) ps Ks->p+p- at 0.8 MeV/c2 p0 mass resolution to 2-3 % (reconstruction) Resol. for n of 500 MeV/c ~ 3% …… 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Measurements to be performed: The most fundamental system which we plan to study are the kaonic dibaryon states of ppK- and npK-, which are favorable produced using a 3He gas target in 3He(K-, n/p) reactions. Their masses including their total width will be determined by neutron and proton energy measurements respectively. Exclusive measurements of their decays allow to extract further information: size/density, angular momentum, ... A similar programme is planned for kaonic 3-baryon states, populated in reactions using a 4He gas target. Furthermore we plan to extend these studies systematically over a broad range of nuclear targets starting by Li, B and Be. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme By observing momentum correlation in the three-body decay channel, such as pppK-  +p+p or ppnK-  +p+n, one will get information, using the correlation pattern in the Dalitz plane, of the size, density and the angular momentum of the involved kaonic cluster.  all decay products have to be identified  their 4-momenta have to be determined 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 The scientific programme of the nuclear cluster facility will be discussed in dedicated meetings and in the dedicated Workshop: “Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results and future” to be held at ECT* (Trento), on June 19-24, 2006 Organizers: Catalina Curceanu (Petrascu) – LNF – INFN, Frascati (Italy) coordinator Eberhard Widmann , Stefan Meyer Institut für subatomare Physik - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria) Akaki Rusetsky, Univ. Bonn, Germany 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS KLOE calorimeter efficiency for neutrons Monte Carlo simple GEANT simulation => to be continued => e500MeV/c > 20% (~30%) b) KLOE+SIDDHARTA tests on KLOE calorimeter prototype (long and short modules) on neutron beam: n_TOF at CERN BTF at LNF (?) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at n_TOF at CERN – if available in 2006 Neutrons from 1 eV to 150 MeV energy possibility to collimate the beam 10 –100 MeV ~106n/pulse dE/E (100 MeV) ~ 2% Prepare request to Research Board 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS at BTF (LNF) Neutrons from photoproduction (-> 800 MeV electrons) - Feasibility study (working group) 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS AMADEUS integration in KLOE: first drawing to be continued with: setup integration: gaseous and solid targets Physics  Scientific program 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Search for anti-kaon clusters with KLOE 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 KLOE – EMC KLOE – Drift Chamber Possible setup for AMADEUS within KLOE: Cryogenic target Inner tracker Kaon trigger Preliminary design: AMADEUS setup at KLOE a first draft of the interaction region DEAR beam pipe Inner tracker Kaon trigger Cryogenic target cell K+ K- 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005  Preliminary extrapolations AMADEUS on KLOE setup confronted with KEK E471 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 E471 features The results were obtained for a total number of about 2 x 108 stopped negative kaons inside the liquid helium target. -        acceptance for detection of charged particles: 34%; -        detection efficiency for neutron: 36%; -        solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 8%. With these conditions, the number of events in the missing mass spectra of the two reactions, are: -  about 450 events in the (K-, p) reaction for the S0 (3115) neutral tribaryon, with a signal/background ratio about 1/10; -  about 120 events in the (K-, n) reaction for the S+ (3140) charged tribaryon, with a signal/background ration about 1/10; The formation ratios for the considered reactions turned out to be of the order of ~ 10-3. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Extrapolation from KEK to DANE2 more than 70% of kaons generated by –decay can be stopped, with an optimized degrader, inside a gaseous helium target. For a yearly integrated luminosity of about 10 fb-1, the total numbers of kaons generated in about 2 months (same time interval as at KEK) will be ~ 2 x 109 and ~ 1.4 x 109 will stop inside the target. For a dedicated 4 detector we assume the following figures of merit: acceptance for the detection of charged particles: 90%; detection efficiency for neutrons detector: 30%; solid angle for the neutron/proton detector: 90%. Expected events in the case of a 4He target: about 45000 in the (K-, p) reaction for the neutral tribaryon K-pnn - about 12000 in the (K-, n) reaction for the charged tribaryon K-ppn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE The DC of KLOE  seen as an active target (4He) where => some K- stop => DBKNS DC K- p K-pnn 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First actions towards AMADEUS Pre-experiment: PROPOSAL to KLOE A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation shows that with 2 fb-1 one might have due to K- stopped in the He gas of the DC: > 1500 events of -> the BEST measurement in the world > 500 events of AMADEUS group -> willing to help KLOE in data analysis K- + 4He -> n + (K-ppn); n ~ 510 MeV/c K- + 4He -> p + (K-pnn); p ~ 550 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Even more: K-ppn  ° + p + n p + - energy [MeV] d - p K-ppn  ° + d p + - 4He + K-  K-ppn + n n n p p - - 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration The Proposal is presented by physicists of the international collaboration DEAR/SIDDHARTA, which are working on DANE since 1996 and where they will be still engaged for the next three years. To the DEAR/SIDDHARTA collaboration belong 11 institutions from 8 different countries. The interest raised in the international community by kaonic atoms physics at DANE involved, since the beginning, also scientists from outside Europe, like Japan, USA and Canada, which actively participated and are participating to the experiments at DANE. =>“hard core” of an international collaboration does already exist. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Formation of an international collaboration Other considerations support the strong appealing of the new initiative and consequently a potentially large interested community: The DANE2 with AMADEUS would represent the only facility in the world where K—induced reactions at rest are studied. Moreover, after the GSI merging into FAIR, Frascati would be the only laboratory in Europe to go along this line of research. The fact to become the European counterpart with respect to the Japanese programmes at J-PARC reinforces the plan to apply to the Seventh Framework Programme of EU to obtain a substantial economical support both for developments of detectors and for the upgrading of the actual machine. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Dec. 21-22, 2005 Workshop on “Antikaon Mediated Bound Systems – Doorway to Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars” The scientific case of the study of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states deals with one of the most important, yet unsolved, problems in hadron physics: how the hadron masses and hadron interaction change in the nuclear medium and what is the structure of cold dense hadronic matter. After the shutdown of KEK in December 2005, two facilities will be active in the field: J-PARC in Japan, and GSI (FOPI) in Europe. The first one will produce kaonic nuclear clusters with K--induced reactions in flight. GSI will follow, before being absorbed in the new complex of facilities FAIR, an alternative approach, represented by nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleon collisions. DANE2 can become the world-scientific pole to study the K- induced processes at rest, which were indicated as the more direct way to investigate the clusters in nuclear matter. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Conclusions (1)   Conclusions (2) As far as the experimental setup is concerned, the 4p KLOE detector, implemented for AMADEUS program, operated in DAFNE2, satisfies the requirements to study the characteristic features of the K-nuclear clusters, which must consists both in observing the production stage of a K-nuclear clusters and detecting the decay products. First steps towards the realization: Monte Carlo intensive simulations Measurement (KLOE+SIDDHARTA) of KLOE calorimeter for n-efficiency Feasibility of AMADEUS in KLOE Possibility to participate to KLOE2 – new parts Spring 2006 -> Letter of Intent 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 From kaonic atoms to kaonic-nuclei Continuity and innovation An unique opportunity ONLY AT DAFNE2 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 First experimental indications: E471 Experiment Results 4He(K-stopped, n) and 4He(K-stopped, p) missing mass spectra (M. Iwasaki et al., nucl-ex/0310018 v2) S0(3115): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-0.9 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -194 MeV with respect to K-+p+n+n rest mass Predicted NOT to exist! (B~20 MeV; G~100 MeV) S+(3140): M = 3117 +3.8-2.0(sys)+/-2.3 (stat) G< 21.6 MeV, B= -169 MeV with respect to K-+p+p+n rest mass Predicted with B ~ 110 MeV M. Iwasaki et al., NIM A 473 (2001) 286 Y. Akaishi & T. Yamazaki, Phys. Rev. C 65 (2002) 044005 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 Monte Carlo simulation: phase space P(p-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c P(S-) GeV/c P(p) GeV/c n(~500 MeV/c) +S-pp ppnp- S- -> n p-; n < 500 MeV/c; p- < 300 MeV/c 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme Is based on precision spectroscopy studies of light kaonic nuclei, as function of their baryon number A and isospin T. In addition, heavier nuclear targets will be studied. The first objective is to determine the quantum numbers (spin, parity, isospin) of all states, including excited ones, and their energies. A precise measurement of the energies of a T=1 multiplet would give its Coulomb energy difference (about 4 MeV) and thus information on the size of kaonic nuclei. The challenge of this programme is to reach the necessary accuracy in the determination of the mass differences of the multiplet. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 AMADEUS Experimental programme The study of the spin-orbit interaction of the strange tribaryon system [(NNN)K], by measuring the spin-orbit splitting (0p1/2 – 0p3/2) which is predicted to be as large as 60 MeV (for small size kaonic nuclei). Important information on the structure of kaonic clusters is contained in their total and partial decay widths. Until now, only on upper limit of  = 21 MeV is known for a kaonic tribaryon state and no information on partial decay channels is available. For an accurate measurement of the total width of kaonic nuclei an energy resolution of ~MeV or better is required. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005 As far as the signal/background ratio (S/B) is concerned, the neutrons produced by low-energy negative pion absorption, will be strongly reduced at DANE2, as previously shown. Moreover, the implementation of a (K+, K-)-pair trigger and of an X-rays trigger from kaonic atoms decay, should improve S/B by more than a factor 2. 31th LNF Scientific Committee CC,JZ / Nov. 29, 2005