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  • Slide 1 - Ethics and Social Media: A Short Introduction Kai K. Kimppa University of Turku kai.kimppa@utu.fi (Lisenssi: Nimeä-Tarttuva 1.0 Suomi) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0/fi/
  • Slide 2 - Privacy in online http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=F7pYHN9iC9I# 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 2
  • Slide 3 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 3 Why ethics? Technology advances faster than ethical values, morals and especially laws Discussion between relevant parties needed, ethicists, professionals, ’intelligentsia’, organisation representatives, politicians, media, ’normal’ people, etc. Law and morals do not always meet
  • Slide 4 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 4 Motivation Vacuum of rules Rules of the field derived from old rules, there aren’t any rules or they aren’t followed Conceptual muddles Is a program a service, means of production, idea or a presentation of an idea? Social use environment ICT artefacts are seldom private affairs anymore
  • Slide 5 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 5 New questions? New area, old questions or new area with new questions? Does the medium bring new ethical questions to bear? Is there something fundamentally different about ICT compared to other things?
  • Slide 6 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 6 Ethics, Applied Ethics and Morals Ethics is the study of morals Morals are the (right or good) habits which people have in a society (lat. mores) Applied ethics tries to clarify the questions of ethics/morals so that they can be discussed Professional ethics within a field Ethics have been and are still (albeit to a lesser degree) used to formulate policies in societies
  • Slide 7 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 7 The aim(s) of Ethics The good of the people To understand what it would be – meta ethics To build a system(s) to solve how to get there To apply the system(s) to actual questions coherently and consistently To aid us in our moral problems and to give descriptions of what ethical positions people hold
  • Slide 8 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 8 Some ethical theories (and their applications) Virtue ethics (Aristoteles, MacIntyre, others) Moral character of a person  professional ethics? Ethics of friendship – online? Telos, the meaning of life Utilitarianism or Consequentialism (Mill, Bentham) The greatest amount of good for (the greatest amount of) people
  • Slide 9 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 9 Some ethical theories (and their applications) Deontology, duty ethics (Kant, Rawls) We have duties to others Never treat another person merely as means, but always as an end in themselves Universal moral law Voluntary action Rights based theories (Locke, Rawls) Negative rights (Classic Liberalism, Libertarianism) Positive rights (Communitarianism, Socialism, Social Democracy)
  • Slide 10 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 10 Social Media: Examples of Issues in Privacy Property Teaching the ”Other” Friendship Etc.
  • Slide 11 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 11 Privacy questions different to ’traditional’ issues ”Forgive and forget” does not exist any more. What was once on-line, can be found always (Blanchette & Johnson, 2002) Obligation to protect the future privacy interests of children/teens? (Bülow & Wester, 2011) Streisand effect (residence of the singer) Concept of privacy changing? Everyone makes mistakes No one is expected to be ’perfect’ This can – and often will – be visible in SoMes Since what one has done is always available, one is expected to always be same?
  • Slide 12 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 12 Expectations of on-line privacy Can we expect to not be known? Writing to IRC, other chat, bulletin board or blog / news paper comments section, expecting to be ‘anonymous’ Is a ‘nick’ with no identifying information some sort of guarantee for anonymity? A lot of information available in many cases Searches to identify etc. Internet ‘discussions’ not similar to physical discussions, anyone can log them and find the information later People generally think that they have more privacy than they actually do Unobtrusiveness of on-line monitoring, “spyware”—one generally does not know when one is logged/monitored In (open) Blogs there can be no expectation of privacy – even if written with a ‘nick’ (Grodzinsky & Tavani, 2009) Varvara Z. Mitliaga (2004) Online Privacy: Explaining the Nature and Special Features of the Right to Seek Protection Mathias Klang (2004) Spyware – the ethics of covert software
  • Slide 13 - Privacy in SoMes Public and private blur – in SoMes it is difficult to control the audiences of ones posts (see e.g. Netchitailova, 2011 on Facebook). Most people just do not bother, but the added illusion of anonymity promotes writing things one would not divulge of one’s private life, say, in Blogs or similar. Also, some groups (such as children and/or elderly – for different reasons) have undue trust to hand over their private information to outsiders (See e.g. Chai et al., 2008). Pictures in SoMes? Does anyone ever ask whether the pictures they take can be published? Most often not. (Parrish, 2010, Cammozzo, 2011.) Typically, this not a problem, but what about, say the Arab Spring? How many have actually been killed due to having been identified from pictures? (on Iranian elections of 2009 and the following riots, see Parrish, 2010. Also see Asai, 2011 on Tunisia and Egypt.) 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 13
  • Slide 14 - Children and young people Children’s privacy ‘Funny pictures’ parents put on a SoMe may come to light – we know how cruel children can be, and adults do not always think what they put on social media Vlogging (Ahmed, 2011a) as an example of potential privacy harm for children. Pictures/video breaching privacy can be uploaded easily enough – and distributed widely (see e.g. Khan, 2008 amongst others). Many younger users of SoMes are willing to trade a lot of their privacy for the (perceived) gains offered by SoMes They seem to be quite aware of the loss of privacy – and concerned. However, the perceived benefits override their concern for privacy; especially in the case of ‘heavy users’. (Gumbus, Grodzinsky & Lilley, 2010.) 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 14
  • Slide 15 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 15 Property (immaterial) Law We know what the law states – or do we? User Generated Content Relation to commercial content? What is legal and what is right do not always meet Basically all younger generation members have mixed or used copyright protected materials illegally (or at least without permission) Are we all criminals online? (Hielkema et al., unpublished)
  • Slide 16 - Work Workplace policies were primarily focused on eMail and Internet usage while at work Now SoMes need to be taken into account as well Blurring of the line between work use and private use - BYOD Lap-tops, corporate ’tax-phones’ (multi-media devices), etc. For high-end specialists – results what matters so ’waste-of-time’ argument irrelevant, unless clearly a problem 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 16
  • Slide 17 - Work Security question though; what work related info can be distributed in SoMes and what not? Corporate image vs. private/professional image Professionals need Internet presence – otherwise they do not exist in today’s work market… (About 118,000 results (0.45 seconds) of the speaker) (Last year: 41,200 results) Positive Internet presence – how to do this whilst avoiding ”Streisand effect”? Be careful on what narrative bits you post in SoMes ’Professional brand’ (Gotterbarn, 2011, Mitra, 2011) 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 17
  • Slide 18 - Marketing We give our data to services such as Facebook Mining the data directs the marketing – and increases it New ways (or ’old’ ways in new environment) of marketing in Facebook? Users oppose the practice, but use anyway? Perceived benefits (see before) (Lilley, Grodzinsky & Gumbus, 2011.) 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 18
  • Slide 19 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 19
  • Slide 20 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 20 Teaching A course in 2nd life; can it be expected that: Students will use a third party service? Teachers put their materials (at least in part) available in a resource they cannot control – the EULA of which they likely do not even know/understand? Use of service not controlled by the employer? What if the service is no longer available – what happens to content created within? …Facebook? Moodle (is Moodle a SoMe?)
  • Slide 21 - Teaching What about developing countries? Can Web 2.0 applications bring benefits? Limited resources – but if access to Internet, materials/discussions etc. available through SoMes Wikis Blogs Other social networks (Ahmed, 2011b) 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 21
  • Slide 22 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 22 “The Other” SoMe users are (typically) other human beings This tends to be forgotten, or at least distancing can (and often does) happen Hurt in SoMe = hurt IRL! eIdentity – who/what am I in SoMe? Who/what am I IRL? Lecturer, researcher, colleague, father, friend, pal, acquaintance, etc. SoMes: Chat(s), Boards, Virtual Worlds, Games, Wikis, etc. (Perceived) anonymity (when wanted) – IRL? One can change more of oneself than one can in IRL A/S/L, etc. – be who you want to be, not who you happen to be!
  • Slide 23 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 23 Friendship What is friendship? Aristoteles – telos/character Can real friendship be formed in SoMes? Say, through Facebook or … Twitter? (IR)Chat? MMO(RPG)s? Is it always just a lame replacement of The Real Thing ™? …unless there is also an IRL connection…? IRL friendship mediated through SoMe? (See e.g. Briggle, 2009)
  • Slide 24 - Love in the SoMe era? SoMes offer new kinds of possibilities for relationships From ‘Platonic’ to sexual Easier to find similarly thinking people As an extreme example: Sexual racism in some dating services – black people only ’acceptable’ if conforming to stereotypes! (Coleman, 2011) Easier (?) to be deceived as well Easier to leave current relationship – knowledge that other kinds (‘the perfect’) exist! Can lead to less effort in existing relationship; and oth no replacement relationship… (Ben-Ze'ev, 2011) 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 24
  • Slide 25 - “Third place/space” Home – family & friends Work – colleagues, boss, etc. SoMe? Claim (Asai, 2011) that this is ‘a third space’ Or, is it just an extension of the social/political space? 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 25
  • Slide 26 - The Political 'age of fabricating the images‘ (Newman, 1999 – cited through the next reference) “…fluid border between public (political) and personal sphere of human activity in the cyberspace”? (Churska-Nowak & Pawlak, 2011) Blogs – see e.g. Halla-aho, Kasvi, or Soininvaara (with varying success) FB/Twitter/… – see e.g. Obama (although also note the critique of this by Chomsky…) 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 26
  • Slide 27 - Terror in SoMes Due to Jihadists and other terrorrists having been driven out of Web 1.0 strategies, they have engaged in Facebook/Youtube From top-to-bottom, one-to-many To bottom-up, many-to-many Professional media strategy But harder to control. (Gerdes, 2011) 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 27
  • Slide 28 - 1 billion flies cannot be wrong Generic theme in SoMes Reddit main example: what is voted up is seen by users (Mills, 2011) But not only there, same happens in other SoMes as well – albeit, often dependant on the user choice Again, though, choosing, whose updates one sees Even machines want to be our ’friends’ on Twitter (Mowbray, 2011) 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 28
  • Slide 29 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 29 Literature Feldman, Fred. (1978) Introductory Ethics, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Johnson, Deborah. Computer Ethics (eds. 2-4), 3rd ed. (2001) Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Pietarinen, Juhani & Seppo Poutanen. (1997) Etiikan teorioita, Turun yliopiston offsetpaino, Turku. Spinello, Richard (1995) Ethical Aspects of Information Technology Prentice-Hall. Weckert, John and Douglas Adeney (1997) Computers and Information Ethics, Greenwood Press. Tavani, Herman, T. (2007) Ethics & Technology, (2nd ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NJ, US. …and Platon, Aristoteles, Locke, Bentham, Mill, Kant, Rawls…
  • Slide 30 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 30 Literature Mike Leigh (2010) “Am I Bothered?” : Student Attitudes To Some Ethical Implications Of The Use Of Virtual Learning Environments Ethicomp 2010 Ananda Mitra (2010) Multiple e-Identity Narratives in Social Networks Gotterbarn, Don and Moor, James (2009) Virtual Decisions: Just Consequentialism, Video game ethics, and Ethics on the fly, CEPE 2009, Corfu, Greece. Søraker, Johnny Hartz (2009) Virtually Good – What Can We Learn from the Argument from False Pleasures? CEPE 2009, Corfu, Greece. Briggle, Adam (2009) Computer-mediated Friendship: Illustrating Three Tasks for a Computer Ethics of the Good Nathaniel Adam Tobias Coleman (2011) “internet” = “intimate white intranet”: The ethics of online sexual racism Ethicomp 2011
  • Slide 31 - Literature Malik Aleem Ahmed (2011a), Family Vlogging – Good or bad?, Ethicomp 2011 Malik Aleem Ahmed (2011b) Social computing for expanding information capabilities of pre-service teachers in developing countries , Ethicomp 2011 Alberto Cammozzo (2011) FACE RECOGNITION: PRIVACY ISSUES AND ENHANCING TECHNIQUES Ethicomp 2011 Frances S. Grodzinsky, Herman T. Tavani (2008) Online File Sharing: Resolving the tensions between Privacy and Property Interests Ethicomp 2008 Ekaterina Netchitailova (2011) Facebook: blurring of public and private. Ethicomp 2011 Jean-François Blanchette & Deborah G. Johnson (2002) Data Retention and the Panoptic Society: The Social Benefits of Forgetfulness, The Information Society Volume 18, Issue 1, 2002, 33—45 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 31
  • Slide 32 - Literature Ghulam Ali Khan (2008) Security and Privacy in the Teaching of Islam and Globalization Ethicomp 2008 Sangmi Chai, H. R. Rao, S. Bagchi-Sen, S. Upadhyaya (2008)'Wired' Senior Citizens and Online Information Privacy Ethicomp 2008 Stephen Lilley, Andra Gumbus, Frances S. Grodzinsky (2010) What Matters To Non-Experts About Property And Privacy Rights? Ethicomp 2010 Ryoko Asai (2011) Social Media as a Tool for Change Ethicomp 2011 Aaron Ben-Ze'ev (2011) The Cyberspace Era: The Best and Worst of Times for Lovers Ethicomp 2011 William Bülow, Misse Wester (2011) Autonomy and Privacy in the context of social networking Ethicomp 2011 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 32
  • Slide 33 - Literature Karolina Churska-Nowak, Piotr Pawlak (2011) 'Growing role of the Internet services in political marketing. Social networks in use in political life'. Ethicomp 2011 Anne Gerdes (2011) Online Radicalisation on YouTube and Facebook Ethicomp 2011 Don Gotterbarn (2011) Tweeting is a beautiful sound, but not in my backyard: Employer Rights and the ethical issues of a tweet free environment for business. Ethicomp 2011 Stephen Lilley, Frances S. Grodzinsky, Andra Gumbus, (2011) Facebook: Providing a Service to Members or a Platform to Advertisers? Ethicomp 2011 Richard Mills (2011) Researching Social News – A novel forum for public discourse and information sharing. Ethicomp 2011 Miranda Mowbray (2011) A Rice Cooker Wants to be my Friend on Twitter Ethicomp 2011 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 33
  • Slide 34 - 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 34 Literature Special Issue: Social Networking Sites, Number 2, June 2010 (and some from 3) of Ethics and Information Technology: Michael Zimmer, ‘‘But the data is already public’’: on the ethics of research in Facebook Yoni Van Den Eede, ‘‘Conversation of Mankind’’ or ‘‘idle talk’’?: a pragmatist approach to Social Networking Sites David Wright & Kush Wadhwa, Mainstreaming the e-excluded in Europe: strategies, good practices and some ethical issues James L. Parrish Jr., PAPA knows best: Principles for the ethical sharing of information on social networking sites Shannon Vallor, Social networking technology and the virtues Christian Fuchs, studiVZ: social networking in the surveillance society Stephanie Patridge, The incorrigible social meaning of video game imagery Marcus Schulzke, Defending the morality of violent video games
  • Slide 35 - Literature Special Issue: Friendship Online, Ethics and Information Technology: Volume 14, Number 3 / September 2012 Dean Cocking, Jeroen van den Hoven and Job Timmermans, Introduction: one thousand friends Shannon Vallor, Flourishing on facebook: virtue friendship & new social media Barbro Fröding and Martin Peterson, Why virtual friendship is no genuine friendship Johnny Hartz Søraker, How shall i compare thee? Comparing the prudential value of actual virtual friendship Michael T. McFall, Real character-friends: Aristotelian friendship, living together, and technology Robert Sharp, The obstacles against reaching the highest level of Aristotelian friendship online 6.3.2014 Kai K. Kimppa 35

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