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Slide 1 - Is it Skin Cancer or Just a Mole? Christina Lewis, MN, RN, NP Certified Dermatology Nurse UCLA Arthur Ashe Student Health and Wellness Center May 31, 2012 1
Slide 2 - Identify questions to review when presented with a student that has a concern about possible skin cancer Compare and contrast the three most common types of skin cancer Explain how UV exposure can affect the skin and how it may affect the Vitamin D levels of the average college student Learning Objectives 2
Slide 3 - Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. 2003 there was more than one million new cases of skin cancer in US and 9,800 will die of the disease (Scarlett, 2003) Incidence of skin cancer has doubled each decade since the 1930’s (Wolf, 2003) Who to screen? No randomized studies. Discuss changes in behaviors with whom? Skin Cancer 3
Slide 4 - Increase to 75% proportion of persons who use at least one protective measure that may reduce risk of skin cancer: avoid sun between 10-4 wear sun protective clothing use sunscreen with SPF of at least 15 avoid artificial sources of UV light. Goals Listed in Healthy People 2010 (Objective 3-8) 4
Slide 5 - Family history of skin cancer Personal history of skin cancer Number of blistering sunburns in the student’s lifetime -Tanning bed use -Where they grew up -Changes to any area of the skin and when the changes were noted. Including changes in areas of past burns and keloids Patient History 5
Slide 6 - Basal Cell-more common with intermittent “recreational” exposure. Unclear if sunscreen prevents BCC. Metastasis rate is less than 0.1% Squamous Cell-more common with continuous sun exposure such as outdoor workers. “regular sunscreen can prevent SCC” (Lin, et al. 2003). Metastasis rate is 2-6% Melanoma-more common with intermittent “recreational” exposure. Unclear if sunscreen prevents melanoma (Lin, et al 2003) Types of Skin Cancer 6
Slide 7 - Basal Cell Carcinoma 7
Slide 8 - Basal Cell Carcinoma 8
Slide 9 - Basal Cell Carcinoma 9
Slide 10 - Basal Cell Carcinoma 10
Slide 11 - Basal Cell Carcinoma Dermnet images 11
Slide 12 - Appears “black, pearly” Pigmentation is present in >50%. Compared to 5% in whites. (Bigler, et al, 1996) BCC occurs most commonly after the 5th decade (Maguire-Elsen, 2011) BCC in People of Color 12
Slide 13 - Squamous Cell Carcinoma 13
Slide 14 - Predisposing Factors Precursor lesions (actinic keratosis, Bowen disease) Ultraviolet radiation exposure Ionizing radiation exposure Exposure to environmental carcinogens- Arsenic, Insecticides and herbicides, smoking/alcohol assoc with oral SCC Immunosuppression Scars Burns or long-term heat exposure Chronic scarring or inflammatory dermatoses discoid lupus, pilonidal cyst, hidradenitis superativa Human papillomavirus infection (HPV 16-head and neck, HPV 5) Genodermatoses (albinism, xeroderma pigmentosum, porokeratosis, epidermolysis bullosa) Squamous Cell Carcinoma 14
Slide 15 - Squamous Cell Carcinoma 15
Slide 16 - Squamous Cell Carcinoma Fitzpatrick Color Atlas 16
Slide 17 - Squamous Cell Carcinoma 17
Slide 18 - Surgical excision Cryotherapy-97-99% cure rate in BCC Mohs micrographic surgery Topical chemotherapy (5-FU, interferon, retinoids) Systemic chemotherapy Laser therapy Electrodessication and Curettage Curettage (for BCC only) Photodynamic therapy-uses light, oxygen and a photosensitizing chemical Treatment of BCC and SCC 18
Slide 19 - Different incidence, site distribution, stage at diagnosis, and histological type. Acral lentiginous melanoma is more frequent (Cress, Holly, 1997) Lower extremity: Hispanics-20% Asians-36% Blacks-50% Nonhispanic whites-9% Trunk is in all males but only in nonhispanic whites among females. (Weir, 2011) Melanoma in People of Color 19
Slide 20 - Male Hispanics in Florida had a 20% higher incidence than male Hispanics in the U.S. Female Hispanics in Florida had a lower rate than other areas of U.S. Female Blacks had 60% higher incidence than the U.S cohort. Total of 109,633 pts in study.(Rouhani, 2010) Mucosa, palms, soles and nail beds are equally frequent in whites and blacks and have remained constant unlike melanomas in other body areas. (Wolff, 2008) Melanoma education to ethnic people may be improved by using skin cancer photographs of early melanoma in people with dark skin, providing guidance on how to inspect hands and feet for suspicious moles.(Robinson, 2011) Melanoma in People of Color 20
Slide 21 - Melanoma by Gender and Age 21
Slide 22 - Melanoma 15-29 y.o. by site b 22
Slide 23 - Melanoma 23
Slide 24 - Melanoma 24
Slide 25 - Melanoma 25
Slide 26 - UV accounts for approximately 93% of skin cancers (Gallagher, 2010) UV light is addicting. UV light releases endorphins UV Exposure 26
Slide 27 - UVA penetrates the stratum corneum but is poorly absorbed by DNA Has a longer wavelength Accounts for about 95% of UV rays that reach the earth More efficient than UVB in immediate and delayed pigment darkening and delayed tanning. (Korak, 2011) UVB-partially penetrates the stratum corneum and is absorbed by DNA Primarily associated with erythema and sunburn Can cause immunosuppression and photocarcinogenesis UVA and UVB 27
Slide 28 - Cellular Effects of UV Light on Skin Carcinogenesis Cycle Ultraviolet radiation makes chemical change in DNA Change in DNA causes muta-tion of P53 Mutation alters function of the gene Gene function leads to a new cell phenotype The abnormal cell expands into a clone The clone becomes the target of further DNA damage 28
Slide 29 - Latitude Altitude Ozone-UVB Season/cloudiness Exposure time Time of the day Sunscreen Shade Tanning bed Herbal preparations Low fat diet Behavioral Therapy What Effects UV Exposure 29
Slide 30 - Latitudes above 35o have little UVB exposure Albuquerque, N.M.35 Birmingham, Ala.33 Bismarck, N.D.46 Boston, Mass.42 Charlotte, N.C.35 Chicago, Ill.41 Minneapolis, Minn.44 Nashville, Tenn.36 New York, N.Y.40 Philadelphia, Pa.39 Salt Lake City, Utah40 Squamous cell carcinoma appears to double with each 8-10 degree decline in latitude Latitude 30
Slide 31 - Affects UVB more than UVA Altitude 31
Slide 32 - UVB is somewhat blocked by the ozone Ozone Layer 32
Slide 33 - In the summer, UVA is 96.5% of the UV rays that reach the earth and UVB is 3.5% Seasonal change accounts for about 1/5 of a change in Vitamin D production (Perez-Lopez, 2010) Clouds affect UVB more than UVA Season/Cloudiness 33
Slide 34 - High school white students who never wore sunscreen when out in sun >1 hr, increased from 57.5%to 69.4% from 1999-2009 (Jones, 2012) Exposure Time 34
Slide 35 - UV is strongest between 10 am and 4 pm 2/3 of the UV radiation comes between 10 am and 2 pm Time of the Day 35
Slide 36 - Used most common in women, less common in black women. SPF 30 protects from 97% of UVB People in the U.S. only apply about 25% of the recommended sunscreen (Thieden, et al, 2005) Nambour (Queensland) sunscreen trial-first randomized clinical trial with regular sunscreen users and control group Sunscreen 36
Slide 37 - 17 approved agents in the U.S. (Maguire-Elsen, 2011) Blocking sunscreen reflect UV rays zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. Scatter UV light. Good for sensitive skin, not skin of color. Chemical sunscreens absorb the UV rays Chemical sun blocks only block narrow regions of the UV spectrum so they are used together. Most block UVB. Sunscreen (cont) 37
Slide 38 - “Broad spectrum” means UVA and UVB protection Skin cancer/skin aging alert on sunscreens <15 Capped SPF value of 50+ “Sunblock”, “sweatproof”, and “waterproof” can not be used. Clear time frames for “water resistant” (40 minutes) and “very water resistant” (80 minutes) New Drug Facts box Will include “do not use on damaged or broken skin” New FDA Sunscreen Guidelines June 2011 38
Slide 39 - UVA is not filtered by window glass (UVB is) 50% of exposure to UVA occurs in the shade Shade use-most common in women-less common in white women Hat with brim, long sleeves Clothing to the ankles-most common in men Sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses Darker colors are slightly more protective. Plain white cotton T-shirt has about SPF 7 Dark green T-shirt has about SPF 10 Shade 39
Slide 40 - In the past, because UVA did not cause sunburn, only tanning, it was not considered harmful to skin. Tanning bed regular and early (high school and college) use increases risk of skin cancer. Tanning 4 times a year increases risk of non-melanoma cancer by 15% and melanoma by 11% (Sun & Skin News, 2011) One tanning session a year in high school increased risk of BCC by 10%. (Zhang) 6.7% of high school males and 25.4% of females use indoor tanning.(MMRW 2010) WHO recommended minors be prohibited. 36 states have put into law as of April, 2012. No protective benefit to getting an artificial tan before exposure to natural light (Miyamura, 2011) Tanning Beds 40
Slide 41 - Herbs and herbal preparations protect from UV exposure generally through their antioxidant activity Plant peptides protect skin proteins (our natural sun blockers). Topical application of sesame oil blocks 30% of UV rays. Coconut, peanut, olive and cottonseed oil block about 20%, mineral oil does not block UV. Herbs/vitamins/herbal preparations 41
Slide 42 - Proanthocyanidin-grape seed (DNA mutation inhibitor) Resveratol -grapes, wine, cranberries, peanuts Quercetin-many fruits and vegetables-is the most common flavonol Apigenin-cumin, fruit, and vegetables (carrots), marigolds Silymarin-milk thistle Curcumin-tumeric Herbs/Vitamins/Herbal Preparations Oral 42
Slide 43 - Vitamin E-(tocopherol)-in wheat germ, pumpkin seeds. Vitamin C-rosehip seed extract Carotonoids-(sea buckthorn, fruit oil [ie Avocado oil], fish oil). Fish oil may increase sun protective effect in some cases up to SPF 5. Herbs/Vitamins/Herbal Preparations Oral (cont) 43
Slide 44 - Green tea and black tea Aloe vera Walnut extract Krameria triandra (Kameria triandra root extract) Borage oil Evening primrose oil Tea tree oil (increases blood flow only) Porphyra (red algae) Herbs/Vitamins/Herbal Preparations Topical 44
Slide 45 - Low fat diets. High fat diets shorten the time between UV exposure and tumor formation Low Fat Diet 45
Slide 46 - Behavioral counseling can increase sun protection by decreasing: Indoor tanning Objectively measured pigmentation in college students midday sun exposure increase sunscreen use in young adults (Lin,2003) Behavioral Counseling 46
Slide 47 - Vitamin D insufficiency (range being 20 or 30) is common among: Elderly Institutionalized Dark skinned Wearing of protective clothing or consistent use of sunscreen causing limited effective sun exposure Obese Malabsorption issues (Dawson-Hughes, 2012) What About Vitamin D? 47
Slide 48 - Vitamin D and UVB 7-dehydrocholesterol Diet/supplements UV light skin Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2) Liver 48
Slide 49 - Grant (2009) supported sun exposure. “Although a few thousand extra deaths per year might occur from melanoma and skin cancer, the avoided premature death rate could be near 400,000/year.” Vitamin D From the Sun vs Skin Cancer 49
Slide 50 - Recommendation for short (15 minute) sun exposure, outdoor sport and leisure activities is needed as a vitamin D rich diet generally provides only about 10% of the needed vitamin D (Perez-Lopez, 2010) The difference in the sunlight can be made up with supplements. Vitamin D From the Sun vs Skin Cancer 50
Slide 51 - Correlates with reduced risk of about 14 types of cancer including Hodgkin lymphoma, colon, breast and prostate cancer, and colon cancer Correlates with reduced incidence and/or mortality rates of type 2 DM, coronary heart disease, and congestive heart failure Vitamin D From the Sun vs Skin Cancer 51
Slide 52 - International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that data does not support any form of intentional UV exposure Vitamin D From the Sun vs Skin Cancer 52
Slide 53 - Uptodate recommends for high risk (dark skin/sunscreen/protective clothes users) measurement of serum 250HD is useful but for regular low risk adults, suggest they take 600-800 iu/day Measuring Vitamin D Levels 53
Slide 54 - Main questions to review with patients: Family history of skin cancer Personal history of skin cancer or biopsies and results Number of blistering sunburns in the patient’s lifetime, tanning bed use Any changes or specific skin concerns the patient has noted. Students of color, location and presentation of melanoma. Summary 54
Slide 55 - Three most common skin cancer Basal cell Squamous cell Melanoma Summary (continued) 55
Slide 56 - Correlation of UV exposure and skin cancer Sunscreen and other interventions to decrease UV exposure (concern about possible low Vitamin D) Summary (continued) 56
Slide 57 - Bigler, C et al. “Pigmented basal cell carcinoma in Hispanics” j am acad dermatol 34:751-2. Buller, DB, et al. “Prevalence of sunburn, sun protection and indoor tanning behaviors among Americans: review from national surveys and case studies in 3 states” j am acad dermatol. 2011, Nov,65(5 Suppl 1) S114-23. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. “Preventing Skin Cancer” MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly. Oct 17, 2003, 52(RR15);1-12. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. “Sunburn and Sun Protective Behaviors Among Adults Aged 18-29 Years-United States, 2000-2012”. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly. May 11, 2012, 61(18); 317-322 Crest, R, Holly E. “Incidence of Cutaneous Melanoma among non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, Asians, and Blacks: an analysis of California Cancer Registry Data 1998-1993” Cancer Cause Control. 1997 Mar;8(2):246-52. Dawson-Hughes, B “Treatment of vitamin d deficiency in adults” uptoDate 2012 Gallagher, RP, et al “Ultraviolet radiation” Chronic dis Can. 2010;29 Suppl 1:51-68. Grant, W. “In Defense of the Sun” Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 Jul-Aug:1(4):207-214. Jones, SE, et al, “Trends in sunscreen use among us high school students: 1999-2000” j Adolesc Health 2012 Mar,50(3):304-7. 57
Slide 58 - Korac, R and Khambholia, K. “Potential of herbs in/skin protection from Ultraviolent Radiation” Pharmacogn Rev. 2011 Jul-Dec;5(10): 164-173. Lin, JS, Ederm M. et al. “Behavioral counseling to prevent skin cancer: Systemic evidence to review to update the 2003 U.S. Preventative Services Task Force Recommendation” Maguire-Elsen, M. :”Food and Drug Administration’s final ruling on sunscreens” Journal of the Deermatology Nurses’ Association. 2011, October 3(5):255-9. Miyamura, et al. “The deceptive nature of UVA tanning versus the modest protective effects of UVB tanning on human skin” Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research. 24(1), 136-7 MMRW Surveill Summ 2010;59: 1-142) Murphy, et, al. “Predictors of Serum Vitamin D levels in African American and European American Men in Chicago” Am J Mens Health. 2012 Mar 8. 58
Slide 59 - Perez-Lopez, et al. “Vitamin D and adolescent health” Adolescent Health, Medicine, and Therapeutics. 2010 (1):1-8. Pichon, L, et al. “Measuring skin cancer risk in /African Americans: is the Fitzpatrick skin type classification Scale Culturally Sensitive”. Eth Dis. 2010 Spring:20(2):174-9. Porcia, T. “Skin Cancer in Skin of Color” Dematol Nurs. 2009 Jul-aug;21(4): 170-178. Rouhani, P., et al. “Increasing rates of melanoma among nonwhites in Florida compared with the United States” Arch Dermatol. 2010 Jul;146(7):741-6. Robinson, et al. “Melanoma knowledge, perception and awareness in ethnic minorities in Chicago: recommendations regarding education” Psychooncology. 2011 Mar;20(3):313-20. Scarlett, WL. “Ultraviolet radiation: sun exposure, tanning beds, and vitamin D levels. What you need to know and how to decrease the risk of sun cancer” J Am Osteopath Assoc 2003 Aug, 103(8)271-5. Sun & Skin News. 2011, winter, 28(4). Thieden, et al. “Sunscreen use related to UV exposure, age, sex, and occupation based on personal dosimeter readings and sun –exposure behavior diaries” Archives of Dermatology. 2005, 141(8):967-973. Weir, et al. “Melanoma in adolescents and young adults (ages 15-39 years): United States, 1999-2006” J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Nov;65(5 Spppl 1):S38-49 Wolff, et al. Fitzpatrick Dermatology, 7th edition, 2008. Chapter 112. Carcinogenesis: ultraviolet radiation 59
Slide 60 - American Academy of Sunwise program SkinCancerNet Additional Resources 60