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Slide 1 - Dominance Behavior of the cricket Gryllus domesticus
Slide 2 - AGENDA Hypothetico-deductive methodology Cricket as a representative insect Dominance hierarchies & Sexual selection Observation of Dominance behavior among crickets
Slide 3 - Hypothetico-deductive methodology Ask a question. Develop an hypothesis by induction. Make deductions from the hypothesis. Test the deductions. Use conclusions from the tests to validate or falsify the hypothesis.
Slide 4 - Inductive: reasoning from observed facts to broader principles. Specific to the general Deductive: reasoning from general principles to specifics. General to the specific
Slide 5 - Ask the question Once you have the question about some observed phenomenon, make a guess at what the answer is. That is your hypothesis. The “guess” is a not random thought. It’s an induction based on various observations, hunches, and clues.
Slide 6 - Remember! Hypothesis must be testable Data must be verifiable
Slide 7 - Experimentation Once the question has been asked and the hypothesis has been formulated, it’s time to test the hypothesis by performing experiments based on deduction. If the hypothesis is true, then any deductions derived from it must be true. If the deduction proves to be true, then we can say the hypothesis may be true.
Slide 8 - Deduction? Induction?
Slide 9 - A=inductive B=deductive In A Scandal in Bohemia, Holmes deduces that Watson had gotten very wet lately and that he had "a most clumsy and careless servant girl". When Watson, in amazement, asks how Holmes knows this, Holmes answers: It is simplicity itself . . . my eyes tell me that on the inside of your left shoe, just where the firelight strikes it, the leather is scored by six almost parallel cuts. Obviously they have been caused by someone who has very carelessly scraped round the edges of the sole in order to remove crusted mud from it. Hence, you see, my double deduction that you had been out in vile weather, and that you had a particularly malignant boot-slitting specimen of the London slavey.
Slide 10 - Experiment: attempt to identify a cause-effect relation Independent variable: manipulated variable. Sometimes called the design factor, predictor or experimental intervention. Dependent variable: the measured, outcome, observed, or response variable. Usually has some kind of unit attached or measured.
Slide 11 - Titles as reports on experiments Usually contain information about cause and effect relationships. Listing of dependent variables (DV) and independent variables (IV) Information about the variables or measurements made under what conditions
Slide 12 - Some variations in titles The Effect of IV on DV The effect of insulin on the blood glucose levels in the laboratory rat, Rattus sp. The Role of IV on DV The role of insulin in regulating the blood glucose level in the laboratory rat, Rattus sp. DV as a result of IV Change in blood glucose levels in Rattus sp. as a result of insulin injections IV and DV Insulin and Changes in Blood Glucose Levels in Rattus sp.
Slide 13 - Post, G, Power, DV & Kloppel, TM (1974). Survival of rainbow trout eggs after receiving physical shocks of known magnitude, Trans. Am. Fish Soc., 103:711-716 DV? Survival of Rainbow Trout Eggs IV? After receiving Physical Shocks of Known Magnitude Format: DV after IV
Slide 14 - Larimer, J .L. & Gold, A. H. (1961). Responses of the crayfish, Procambarus simulans, to respiratory stress. Physiological Zoology, 34:167-173. DV? Responses of the crayfish, Procambarus simulans IV? Respiratory stress Format: DV after IV
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Slide 16 - Class: Insecta (Hexapoda) Body divided into 3 regions Head Six segments Pair antennae Thorax Three segments 3 pairs of legs 2 pairs of wings Abdomen 9-11 segments
Slide 17 - Order: Orthopterahouse cricket-Gryllus domestica Large insects with mouth parts of the biting type; posterior legs with enlarged femora for jumping; fore wings as tegmina which overlap each other; cerci unjointed; pronotum with enlarged lobes hiding the pleural wall; ovipositor well developed’ specialized stridulatory organs
Slide 18 - Generalized body plan Buchsbaum (1938) Animals Without Backbones p.277
Slide 19 - Cricket morphology
Slide 20 - Barnes, .D. (1974). Invertebrate Zoology,3rd ed., Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 621.
Slide 21 - Mesothoracic wing
Slide 22 - male
Slide 23 - female
Slide 24 - Nervous and Circulatory system
Slide 25 - Respiratory system
Slide 26 - Mating No true copulation. Male packages semen in a packet, spermatophore that is manipulated by cerci. Female mounts male and spermatophore is passed dorsally to female genital opening. Spermatophore insert into reproductive tract. Female dismounts and moves away. Male stands guard to prevent female or other males from removing and eating spermatophore.
Slide 27 - Dominance Hierarchy Many social animals develop and maintain dominance hierarchies. It’s a social ranking in a population or group of individual’s of the same species. Hierarchy based and maintained on his/her strength and influence over other individuals.
Slide 28 - Hierarchies are maintained through frequent assessments of the competitors.
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Slide 32 - Competitor’s strength evaluated through ritualized behaviors and displays that flaunt their size, songs, endurance, strength, and displays of color.
Slide 33 - Example of a dominance hierarchy:Chicken pecking order Determines who can eat first and who can peck who. Order determined quickly and seldom changes. Usually, the rooster is the strongest member of the group and maintains the highest rank in the group.
Slide 34 - What are the costs and benefits of dominance behavior? Reduce chances of injury over fights for resources. Cost to the submissive members is less access to resources.
Slide 35 - Access to females If males are assessing each other’s rank in a dominance hierarchy, they may be determining who has access to a resource, they may be determining who has access to a female, and they may be trying to influence a female’s mate choice.” Preszler, R.W. (2004)
Slide 36 - Sexual Selection Presented by Charles Darwin to explain exaggerated traits among the males of species.
Slide 37 - Sexual Selection Darwin suggested males compete for access to females: Intrasexual selection (dominance struggle between males) Intersexual selection (competition to attract females)
Slide 38 - Patterns of male success Dominant males enjoy mating advantage
Slide 39 - Other possible patterns of male success Male mating success unrelated to dominance Subordinate males enjoy a mating advantage
Slide 40 - Male mating success unrelated to dominance Red pigmented associated with a male house finch’s diet. Brighter finches live longer & have fewer parasites. Brighter finches are preferred by females. Brighter birds have access to food and females, so no need to establish dominance over other males.
Slide 41 - Female cricket choices Female prefers dominant males Female prefers certain traits of dominate males No preference for particular males Female prefers traits unrelated to dominance Female preference for traits negatively
Slide 42 - Some aggressive behaviors to be looking for: Chirping Wing flaring Avoidance Biting Pushing Wrestling guarding
Slide 43 - Courting behavior Antenna stroking Chirping Following Guarding
Slide 44 - Why choose crickets for dominance studies? Cricket are easy to breed and maintain in the laboratory. Crickets known to be aggressive and territorial insects. Earliest publication for cricket training for fighting China (Song Dynasty 1213-1275)
Slide 45 - A=inductive B=deductive Holmes again: "From a drop of water"—Holmes wrote in an essay described in A Study in Scarlet—"a logician could infer the possibility of an Atlantic or a Niagara without having seen or heard of one or the other."
Slide 46 - Laid-back Joshua “Everyone from back then…is gone, except one last survivor from the beginning…[H]e avoided the fights and canine slashes and the piling up of injuries that ultimately do in a male baboon…He is far from decrepit, and his lifelong tendency towards calmness has deepened with the years.” page 303
Slide 47 - fini