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Slide 1 - Introduction to Nanotechnology Alberto Quiñonez, Ph.D. Professor Electronics and Advanced Technologies Austin Community College 1
Slide 2 - Objective The purpose of this module is to introduce the emerging nanotechnology field to novices of nanotechnology. 2
Slide 3 - Topics Nanotechnology Terms and Definitions History of Nanotechnology Current and Future Trends, Research and Applications 3
Slide 4 - Where does your imagination take you? Figure 1.1: Preface Is nanotechnology the gateway to the future for human beings on Earth? 4
Slide 5 - Figure 1.3: Arnold Schwarzenegger’s character mentions nanotechnology in “The Terminator 3” movie. “…its arsenal includes nanotechnological transjectors…It can control other machines.” Figure 1.2: A nanocar made from a single molecule. Emergence 5
Slide 6 - Nanotechnology Language Nanobio Nanodots Nanowires Nanoelectronics Nanobots Nanomaterials Nanochondria Yow! Figure 1.4: Searching for nanotechnology. 6
Slide 7 - Definition “Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications.” “Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.” National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2007 7
Slide 8 - Figure 1.5: National Nanotechnology Initiative. Scale of Things—Nanometers 8
Slide 9 - Internships Figure 1.6: Sematech nanoscholar interns of Texas. 9
Slide 10 - Brief History Figure 1.7: Stained glass windows. Figure 1.8: Picture of gold nano particles. 10 The concepts of nanotechnology are not new to nature or to mankind. An early example of a manmade nanoprocess is stained glass.
Slide 11 - Brief History, Continued Figure 1.9: Tokyo Science University. Birth of Nanotechnology Professor Taniguchi of Tokyo Science University used the word “nanotechnology” to describe the science and technology of processing or building parts with nanometric tolerances. A nanometer is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a meter. Figure 1.10: Equivalent Units 11
Slide 12 - Brief History, Continued Dr. Richard P. Feynman “Why cannot we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica on the head of a pin?” Dr. Richard Feynman, one of America’s most notable physicists, 1918-1988. Figure 1.11: Richard Feynman. 12
Slide 13 - Brief History Continued, Dr. Feynman, Continued “The problems of chemistry and biology can be greatly helped if our ability to see what we are doing, and to do things on an atomic level, is ultimately developed – a development which I think cannot be avoided.” Figure 1.12: Collection of reminiscences by Nobel Prize-winning physicist. Surely You’re Joking Mr. Feynman! Adventures of a Curious Character By Richard Feynman 13
Slide 14 - Brief History, Continued Atomic Scale A computer image of the nano ice double helix. In the nano ice image, oxygen atoms are blue in the inner helix, purple in the outer helix. Hydrogen atoms are white. Figure 1.13: A nanotechnology self-assembly process. 14
Slide 15 - More History Figure 1.15: DNA damage. Figure 1.14: Drexler’s book. Engines of Creation The Coming Era of Nanotechnology By K. Eric Drexler Eric Drexler Coined the term “Grey Goo”…the potential problem of self-replicating and autonomous artificial intelligence machines. 15
Slide 16 - More History, Continued Eric Drexler, Continued Cell Repair Machines “By working along molecule by molecule and structure by structure, repair machines will be able to repair whole cells. By working along cell by cell and tissue by tissue, they…will be able to repair whole organs…they will restore health.” - Drexler, 1986 Figure 1.16: Stylized example of targeted cell repair. 16 X
Slide 17 - More History, Continued Figure 1.17: Scanning probe microscope systems from nanoscience instruments. Figure 1.18: Scanning tunneling microscope image. 17 Metrology Measurement of equipment is the cornerstone of nanotechnology.
Slide 18 - More History, Continued Figure 1.19: Carbon-60 buckyball is shaped like a soccer ball. Buckyballs Three gentlemen—Harold Kroto from the University of Sussex, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley from Rice University—were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1996 for their discovery of a new composition of carbon, Carbon 60. Figure 1.20: Example of Nobel prize diploma. 18
Slide 19 - More History, Continued Figure 1.22: Dome over biosphere in Montreal. Figure 1.21: A “Buckyball.” 19 Fullerenes Carbon 60 was named after Richard Buckminster Fuller, who went by the nickname “Bucky.”
Slide 20 - More History, Continued Figure 1.23: Moore’s Law. Figure 1.24: Photolithography. 20 Top-Down Approach Two approaches used in producing nanotechnology systems. Top-down method is used by computer chip manufacturers.
Slide 21 - More History, Continued Figure 1.25: An example of a molecular self assembly through hydrogen bonds. 21 Bottom-Up Approach Bottom-up approach to manufacturing is analogous to the way biological systems are made.
Slide 22 - Welcome to NanoWorld! Figure 1.26: Robot image. Summary 22 Nanotechnology is ubiquitous and pervasive. It is an emerging field in all areas of science, engineering and technology.
Slide 23 - References 23 American Ceramic Society (2006, March). Overview of Safety, Risks. American Ceramic Society Bulletin. Vol. 85 Issue 3, p6, 1/6 p. Booker, Richard & Boysen, Earl (2005). Nanotechnology for Dummies. NJ: Wiley Publishing Inc. Diott, D.D. (2006, April). Thinking big (and small) about energetic materials. Material Science and Technology. Vol. 22 Issue 4. p. 463, 11p. Drexler, K. Eric (1986). Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. New York: Anchor Books. Henderson, Donald (2006). Bioterrorism: Interview with Donald Henderson. Asia Pacific Biotech News. Vol. 10, Issue 1, p.18, 9p. Intel (2007). Moore’s Law. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from http://www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw/index.htm
Slide 24 - References, Continued 24 Lane, Neal & Kalil, Thomas (2005). The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Present at the creation. Issues in Science & Technology; Summer 2005. Vol 21, p49, 6p. Lieberman, Marya (2007). Self-assembled monolayers and multilayers of phthalocyanines. University of Notre Dame: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from http://www.nd.edu/~mlieberm/ Mandal, Deendayal; Bolander, Mark E.; Mukhopadhyay, Debrabrata; Sarkar, Gobinda; Mukherjee, Priyabrata (2006, January). The use of Microorganisms for the formation of metal nanoparticles and their application. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Vol. 69 Issue 5, p. 485, 8p. Mostow, Jonathan (Director). (2003). Terminator 3: Rise Of The Machines [Motion Picture]. United States: Warner Bros. Pictures.
Slide 25 - References, Continued 25 Murday, James F. (2005). Nanotechnology: Hype and Hope in Aerospace Applications. Advanced Materials and Processes. Vol. 163, Issue 12, P. 21, 2p. Nanotechnology at UT Austin (2007). Graduate Portfolio Program. Retrieved 6/27/2007 from http://www.cnm.utexas.edu/graduateportfolio.html Nanotechnology Now (2006, March). Nanotechnology documentary to be filmed at nanoTX'06. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from http://www.nanotech-now.com/news.cgi?story_id=14281 National Nanotechnology Initiative - NNI (2007). What is Nanotechnology? Retrieved 6/25/2007 from http://www.nano.gov/html/facts/whatIsNano.html Rappaport, Tatiana Gabriela (2006). Semiconductors: Nanostructures and applications in spintronics and quantum computation. Vol. 809 issue 1, p.326, 17p.
Slide 26 - References, Continued 26 Ratner, Mark & Ratner, Daniel (2003). Nanotechnology: A Gentle Introduction to the Next Big Idea. New Jersey: Prentice Hall PTR. Rouekes, M. L., Fritz, S., Stix, G., Whiteside, G.M., Love, J.C., Alivisatos, A.P. et al. (2002). Understanding Nanotechnology: Scientific American. New York: Warner Books. Terra, Richard P. (2000, March). National Nanotechnology Initiative in FY2001 Budget: Clinton Administration Requests $497 million for NT-Related R&D Funding. Foresight Nanotech Institute. Retrieved 4/02/2007 from http://www.foresight.org/Updates/Update40/Update40.1.html UNL News Releases (2006, December). Self-assembling nano-ice discovered at UNL; structure resembles DNA. Retrieved 6/28/2007 from http://ucommxsrv1.unl.edu/unlnews/public/fmpro?-db=unlnews.fp5&-format=newsrelease.shtml&-lay=unlnews&-recid=33994&-find=
Slide 27 - References, Continued 27 Wikipedia (2007). Moore’s Law. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore%27s_law Wikipedia (2007). Nature. Retrieved 7/05/2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Nature Wong, H.S. Philip (2006, March). Nanoelectronics – Opportunities and Challenges. International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems. Vol. 16, Issue 1, p. 83, 12p. Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Epstein, Irving; Shimomura, Masatsugu; & Kunitake, Toyoki (2005, December). Vol. 15, Issue 4, p. N, 3 p. Zyvex: Nanotechnology Website: There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Retrieved 6/27/2007 from http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html.