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Slide 1 - Introduction to Bacteria USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 2 - What are bacteria? Single celled organisms Very small Need a microscope to see Can be found on most materials and surfaces Billions on and in your body right now E. Coli O157:H7 can make you very sick. Streptococcus can cause strep throat. This E. coli helps you digest food. USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 3 - What do they look like? Three basic shapes Rod shaped called bacilli (buh-sill-eye) Round shaped called cocci (cox-eye) Spiral shaped Some exist as single cells, others cluster together Bacilli Spiral Cocci Cluster of cocci USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 4 - Bacteria are ALIVE! What does it mean to be alive? They reproduce (make more of themselves) They need to eat USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 5 - How do bacteria reproduce? Grow in number not in size Humans grow in size from child to adult Make copies of themselves by dividing in half Human parents create a child USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 6 - How do bacteria eat? Some make their own food from sunlight—like plants Some are scavengers Share the environment around them Example: The bacteria in your stomach are now eating what you ate for breakfast Some are warriors (pathogens) They attack other living things Example: The bacteria on your face can attack skin causing infection and acne Photosynthetic bacteria Harmless bacteria on the stomach lining E. Coli O157:H7 is a pathogen USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 7 - What is a pathogen? Bacteria that make you sick Why do they make you sick? To get food they need to survive and reproduce How do they make you sick? They produce poisons (toxins) that result in fever, headache, vomiting, and diarrhea and destroy body tissue USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 8 - Where do you get a pathogen? Contact with people who are sick Direct or indirect Food, Water, or other Surfaces that are contaminated Indirect contact Direct contact Foods that could be contaminated USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 9 - A Closer Look – Where do you get a pathogen Indirect Contact Direct Contact Foods and water may be contaminated USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 10 - Are all bacteria pathogens? No, most are harmless Some are even helpful Examples of helpful bacteria: Lactobacillus: makes cheese, yogurt, & buttermilk and produces vitamins in your intestine Leuconostoc: makes pickles & sauerkraut Pediococcus: makes pepperoni, salami, & summer sausage USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 11 - A Closer Look – Helpful Bacteria Pediococcus - used in production of fermented meats Leuconostoc cremoris – used in the production of buttermilk and sour cream Lactobacillus casei – found in human intestines and mouth to improve digestion Lactobacillus bulgaricus – used in the production of yogurt www.bioweb.usu.edu USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 12 - What are some common pathogens? Pathogenic E. coli (like O157:H7) Found in ground beef, contaminated fruits and vegetables Salmonella Found in raw meats, poultry, eggs, sprouts, fruit and vegetables Listeria Found in deli foods, lunch meats, smoked fish and vegetables E. coli O157:H7 Salmonella Listeria USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 13 - Examples of Pathogens Salmonella Staphylococcus aureus Campylobacter jejuni E. coli O157:H7 What shape are these bacteria? Cocci, bacilli, or spiral? USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 14 - How can I avoid pathogens? Wash your hands often so you won’t transfer bacteria to your mouth or food Warm water with soap for 20 seconds, rub hard between fingers and nails USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 15 - Cook food thoroughly to kill any pathogens that may be in your food Store food properly to limit pathogen growth Cold temperatures (40F) How can I avoid pathogens? USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 16 - Review Bacteria are living organisms Most are harmless A few are pathogens that make you sick You can reduce the risk of getting sick by washing your hands and handling food properly. USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom© University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Slide 17 - Stained Bacteria Cells at 4x
Slide 18 - Stained Bacteria Cells at 10x
Slide 19 - Stained Bacteria Cells at 40x