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Introduction to Audiology PowerPoint Presentation

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Published on : Mar 14, 2014
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Slide 1 - Introduction to Audiology How to Read an Audiogram Degrees of Hearing Loss Types, Causes and Prevalence of Hearing Loss Types of Tests
Slide 2 - How to Read an Audiogram Terminology Used Hertz (Hz) is used to describe frequency or pitch, cycles per second Decibel (dB) is the unit that describes the intensity, or loudness, of the sound
Slide 3 - Audiometric Symbols(1) Look for the Key on Chart Air Bone Soundfield Forehead S Right Left
Slide 4 - Masked Audiometric Symbols(1) Masked Left Ear Masked Right Ear The idea behind masking is to keep one ear “busy” while testing the opposite side Air Bone
Slide 5 - Audiometric SymbolsUniversally Used Pure Tone Air Conduction Pure Tone Bone Conduction May be Masked or Unmasked Tests in Soundfield (Narrow Band Noises, Warble Tones, or Speech) May obtain responses to Speech via Air and/or Bone Conduction pathways
Slide 6 - Normal Hearing(2)
Slide 7 - Determine Hearing Level Establish Hearing Threshold Level (HTL or simply HL) What is threshold? With earphones or via bone, softest sound detected 50% of time In the soundfield, tests reveal response of better ear Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) is softest level possible to hear closed set of bi-syllabic words Thresholds are measured in decibels (dB) at various frequencies, reported in Hertz
Slide 8 - Speech Reception Threshold Softest level of speech that can be understood 50% of the time Bi-syllabic vocabulary may include words tailored for pediatric patients Ear specific, if earphones used Obtained via air and/or bone conduction Correlates closely with pure tone average at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz and 2000 Hz Provides estimate of hearing for speech
Slide 9 - Determine Amount of Loss (3) Hearing impairment is documented unilateral or bilateral sensorineural, mixed, or conductive hearing levels greater than 20dB HL
Slide 10 - Determine Amount of Loss Minimal, or mild, hearing loss is from 25dB - 40dB HL(4,5) Moderate loss is from 40dB - 70dB HL Severe loss is from 70dB - 90dB HL Profound loss is greater than 90dB HL
Slide 11 - Determine Amount of Loss Minimal, or mild, hearing loss is from 25dB - 40dB HL(4,5) Moderate loss is from 40dB - 70dB HL Severe loss is from 70dB - 90dB HL Profound loss is greater than 90dB HL
Slide 12 - Determine Amount of Loss From bass to treble, or low to high pitch From faint to intense, or soft to loud
Slide 13 - Types of Hearing Loss Conductive Bone Conduction better than Air Conduction Sensorineural Bone Conduction equal to Air Conduction Mixed Some amount of Air and Bone Conduction loss
Slide 14 - Prevalence of Hearing Loss Prevalence data vary by study and by age range, but hearing loss is more prevalent than any other condition(5) 6:1000 infants(6) 25-40% > 65 years(7) 70-80% > 80 years(7)
Slide 15 - Causes of Hearing Loss This forum doesn’t allow adequate discussion of this topic(8) Presbyacusis (aging) is #1 cause of hearing loss(7) Hazardous noise exposure is #2 Just a few other causes include genetics, teratogens, otitis media, idiopathic hearing loss, fistula, congenital anomaly, prenatal or perinatal exposures (syphilis, CMV, rubella), syndromes, head injury, among hundreds of others! Only one type of hearing loss is preventable AVOID NOISE Hazardous noise damages hearing 12.5% of children aged 6-19 have some amount of noise induced hearing loss(9)
Slide 16 - Tests Frequently Used Speech Reception Threshold Tests in Soundfield Air Conduction Bone Conduction Immittance or Tympanometry Various Screening Tests OAE, AABR, Hand-held audiometer
Slide 17 - Tests in the Soundfield Test infants as young as 6 months Assess Localization Skills(10) Assess Auditory Ability(11) VRA COR TROCA VROCA BOA
Slide 18 - More Soundfield Tests(12) Tests may be performed while patients wear hearing aids to determine word recognition in quiet or noisy backgrounds Tests may be useful to determine amount of noise reduction provided by Hearing Protection Devices (HPD) Estimation only, not formal assessment
Slide 19 - Tests Via Air Conduction May be as simple as a tuning fork Most precise is with earphones Audiologists can obtain results with earphones in children as young as 6 months With children, thresholds obtained at a high frequency in each ear, a low frequency in each ear, then additional frequencies as attention permits Goal is to obtain as much information as quickly as possible, short attention of child limiting factor
Slide 20 - What is Conditioned Play Audiometry? (11) Term covers a lot of ground! Tactics used to engage the child to respond to a sound stimulus by putting block in bucket, placing peg in board, clapping their hands, etc Maintains the interest, seems like fun, allows more information to be obtained
Slide 21 - Tests Via Bone Conduction Obtain speech awareness and/or speech reception threshold, pure tone thresholds Vital to determine middle ear status Infants as young as 6 months can be tested behaviorally, even younger if assessment involves physiologic tests (evoked potentials)
Slide 22 - Tympanometry/Immittance Measures(13) Tympanometry provides objective results to determine status of middle ear Acoustic reflexes are part of the test, add diagnostic information May be obtained ipsilaterally and/or contralaterally A(d) A A(s) B C
Slide 23 - Immittance Tests(12) Five classifications of results, referred to as Modified Jerger Classification System Type A(d), A, A(s), B and C A(d) A A(s) B C 0 -200 +200 -400
Slide 24 - Otoacoustic Emissions(14) Evoked OAE (EOAE) are sounds that come out of the cochlea upon stimulation Spontaneous emissions (SOAE) are found in 60% of ears, 2:1 females to males OAEs should not be confused with TINNITUS EOAE indicate movement of Outer Hair Cells Corresponds to thresholds <40dB HL Presently used to screen newborns, monitor patients on ototoxic medication Shows potential as tool to monitor noise exposure damage in cochlea
Slide 25 - Audiology Screening Tests(3, 15) Several screening applications exist that are totally microprocessor driven and are applicable for use in a newborn nursery or physician’s office OAE - Otoacoustic Emissions (Transient Evoked or Distortion Product Evoked) AABR - Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response Hand-held audiometer, presents sounds across frequencies, patient indicates number detected Provide “Pass” or “Refer” results
Slide 26 - Results Reveal the Story(15) Child/Family History Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) Soundfield Tympanogram Air Conduction Bone Conduction Otoacoustic Emissions Evoked Potentials Test battery may be accomplished over several visits Results may fluctuate over time, check for history of serous effusion in children
Slide 27 - Normal Hearing
Slide 28 - Low Frequency Loss
Slide 29 - Conductive Hearing Loss
Slide 30 - High Frequency Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Slide 31 - Mixed Hearing Loss
Slide 32 - Some Closing Thoughts Components of Sound Hertz Decibel Audiometric Symbols Unmasked and Masked Determine Amount of Loss Normal, Mild, Moderate, Severe, Profound Types of Hearing Loss Conductive Sensorineural Mixed
Slide 33 - More Closing Thoughts Tests Used SRT Soundfield Air, Bone Play Audiometry Immittance Screening audiometry, AABR, OAE