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Slide 1 - Foundations of Adult Education in Vocational Education Instructor: Dr. David M. Agnew Associate Professor Arkansas State University
Slide 2 - Topic/Objectives for this Session Class Orientation, schedule, assignments, icebreaker Define terms associated with Adult Education Summarize the demographics associated with the adult student. Explain why adults are seeking to continue their education List factors affecting or limiting adults seeking to continue their education Describe the duties of an adult instructor.
Slide 3 - My Background in Adult Education I had No Clue as to how it could make a positive difference in the teaching experience. I had some mention of adult ed in my undergrad program. During my first year at my first teaching job I visited the nearby teacher during his adult class one night. Early in my career and at a different school I was ask if I wanted to teach adults?
Slide 4 - My Background in Adult Education, ….Continued Grad school With Glen Shinn, my advisor-had taught in MO, I went with him to speak to several adult groups in Mississippi. I also had more info about adult education in my grad classes. Montana – Project Nebraska – Several AE projects, wrote a handbook for adult teachers. Arkansas – About the 12th time I have taught this course. Taught several adult education courses
Slide 5 - Enough About Me….. What about you????????
Slide 6 - You and Your Expectations 10-15 Minute “Get to know you” Activity Objective: 1. To identify the background of the students and how adult education fits in their career plans. 2. To identify goals of the students for this course. 3. To build a framework on which to refine the course objectives that will best meet the needs of everyone.
Slide 7 - Questions for you 1. Who are you and what is your discipline, and how does adult education relate to your discipline? 2. How do you think that you might work with adult students in the future? What do you want from this course? What goals do you think appropriate for you to have for this course? What suggestions do you have for achieving your goal for this course?
Slide 8 - Overview of the Semester Foundations– What is a foundations course? Historical roots of the subject Philosophical rationale for existence Principles of beliefs and operation Overview of the Scope of the Discipline Survey course Issues and Trends Nuts and Bolts
Slide 9 - What do we do in this course? 35% of semester with me teaching Traditional Lecture/Discussion Abstracts Quizzes / Exams 40% with guest speakers, fieldtrips, etc. Worksheets Reports 25% with application of principles learned or Learning by Doing Adult Education Project
Slide 10 - Personal Philosophy Need balance between Theory and Practice Learning by doing is preferred Vocational education is practical Knowledge not much good if not usable Only exposure some of you will ever have to adult ed “up close and personal” is this course .
Slide 11 - The questions I ask myself upon completion of this course are: Is your opinion about Ad Ed positive or negative? Do you see where Ad Ed fits in the total educational system? Do you see how Ad Ed might be related to you career choices? Would you be competent to plan, implement and evaluate an Ad Ed program? Do you have a grasp of the structure, major issues, and principles associated with Ad Ed. Are you open to the concept of life long learning?
Slide 12 - Review of Course Requirements Attendance – Weekly assignments, Usually 25pts. Abstracts – 4 required, not that hard but useful and will help you explore the literature. Example The Project Group activity Learning by doing 200 pts. Examples
Slide 13 - General Topics for Session 1 Definitions Overview Of Adult Education as a Field of Study Adult vs other forms of education Need for Adult Education Providers of Adult Educations Responsibilities of an Adult Educator Sources of info for Adult Educators
Slide 14 - Definitions Title of this course--- Foundations of Adult Education in Vocational Education Adult --- Someone beyond the age of compulsory Attendance in Public Schools Education --- relating or transferring knowledge from one person to others.
Slide 15 - Definition of Adult Education Bryson -- All activities with an Educational purpose carried on by people in the ordinary business of life who use only part of their time and energy to acquire intellectual equipment. In book; Adult Education
Slide 16 - Definition of Adult Education Reeves, Fansler and Houle --- Any purposeful effort toward self-development carried on by an individual without direct legal compulsion and without such effort becoming his major field of activity.
Slide 17 - Definition of Adult Education Russell G. Mawby of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation--- We are a learning society, and learn throughout our entire lifetime. Learning is for life and is a part of life. It is essential for occupational efficiency, civic competence, satisfaction of a vocational interests, and self-fulfillments of goals.
Slide 18 - Definition of Adult Education Malcolm S. Knowles -- Adult education is… continuous development of individuals toward full and unique potential through their lifespan, and the continuous renewal of the larger social systems of which they are part through constructive interaction with them. 1974 speech at Univ. of New York at Buffalo, before the Division of Continuing Education
Slide 19 - Define Vocational Education Vocational Education – Other than a BS / BA degree Educational preparation for purpose of employment, or getting a job
Slide 20 - Terms Related to Work/Careers Career - work done over a period of years in one area of interest. Job - being employed by a person or company to perform certain tasks and being paid for the work. Occupation - the type of job in which a person is employed. Work - productive activity resulting in something useful.
Slide 21 - Other Definitions….. Adult vocational education --- Organized instruction for persons beyond the age of compulsory school attendance to prepare them for employment or to increase knowledge and skills required in their occupations.
Slide 22 - Adult Education Adult Education – Broad inclusive term Adult Teaching – Teacher, Instructor Adult Learning -- Learner, Student
Slide 23 - Other Terms Associated with Adult Education These are terms not modes of delivery In other words they are not methods of getting the information out to students/adults. These are other terms that describe the same population or, They are closely related to the concept of adult education.
Slide 24 - Other Definitions…..1 Continuing Education --- Any extension of opportunities for learning following completion of, or withdrawal from, regular school or college programs. Continuing education usually emphasizes nontraditional forms of study, and embraces a variety of instruction ranging from avocational to vocational. May refer to specifically approved additional formal study or individual experiences required for continued licensure, certification, or registration in a particular occupation.
Slide 25 - Other Definitions…..2 Life Long Learning – cradle to grave concept, learning is not just for one phase of one’s life. It should and will take place throughout one’s life. Life Long Learner – The person who seeks to learn throughout life.
Slide 26 - K. Patricia Cross: “Lifelong learning is not a privilege or a right; it is simply the necessity for anyone , young or old, who must live with the escalating pace of change- in the family, on the job, in the community, and in the world-wide society.”
Slide 27 - Other Definitions…..3 Extension Education –
Slide 28 - Other Definitions…..4 Distance Education Distance Education is instructional delivery that does not constrain the student to be physically present in the same location as the instructor. Historically, Distance Education meant correspondence study. Today, audio, video, and computer technologies are more common delivery modes. defined by Virginia Steiner. The Distance Learning Resource Network (DLRN)
Slide 29 - Another Definition Distance Education: The process of providing instruction when students and instructors are separated by physical distance and technology, often in tandem with face-to-face communication, is used to bridge the gap.
Slide 30 - Sub-Category of Distance Education Distant Learner The student at the distance site Distant Teacher The one who prepares delivers instruction at a distance and evaluates the distance learner
Slide 31 - Asynchronous vs. Synchronous Asynchronous: Communication in which interaction between parties does not take place simultaneously. Synchronous: Communication in which interaction between participants is simultaneous
Slide 32 - Vocational Education vs General Education Vocational Education General Education
Slide 33 - Liberal Education vs General Education Liberal Education General Education
Slide 34 - Vocational Education vs College Education Vocational Education College Education
Slide 35 - Secondary Education vs Post Secondary Education Secondary Education Post Secondary Education
Slide 36 - Andragogy vs. Pedagogy Andragogy Pedagogy
Slide 37 - Ways to compare two different educational settings… Climate Setting of objectives Testing/evaluation Curriculum Control center
Slide 38 - The premise is for the two major classifications are the differences in: Physiological Development Psychological Development Social Development Emotional Needs Motivational Needs Stages of Moral Development BOTTOM LINE IS THAT there are Different Stages of Human Development
Slide 39 - Therefore we approach the teaching of people differently based on their stage of development. For simplicity sake we offer two major classifications of people. Youth Youth can broken down into many stages and approaches to teaching vary greatly because of the stage of development. . Adult Little difference in approaches to teaching based on variations in the adult category.
Slide 40 - Two major duties of a teacher are to: Decide what to teacher Decide how to teach
Slide 41 - Another Major Premise: In education to be an effective teacher and to meet the challenge of “how to teach” you need to understand those that you plan to teach. Understanding the differences in? Physiological Development Psychological Development Social Development Emotional Needs Motivational Needs Stages of Moral Development
Slide 42 - Evident that we seek to understand students Aptitude testing Ability testing Learning styles Personality typing Age appropriate expectations (16 to drive) Survey them Focus groups Talk to them
Slide 43 - The fact that there are differences matters to: The planning the instruction. Methods used Motivation Marketing
Slide 44 - Formal vs. Informal Education Formal 2 x 4 (Classroom) highly structured testing teacher directed institutionalized rigid start stop times individual conforms credit bearing Used cost Informal anywhere any time credit or non-credit student centered self paced self directed may or may not cost $
Slide 45 - Which is Adult Education? Formal or informal? Answer --- Both
Slide 46 - Major Premise: Learning takes place, is needed and is wanted beyond the formal required education which stops after high school. For some people that is a surprise. Old farmer was ask if he was going to attend night school. His reply, “ No I already know how to farm better than I am doing now”
Slide 47 - What??? More Schooling? But why would anyone want to go to school if they did not have to? Most youth would like to get a day off from school. Going back to school? Well you just graduated 10 years ago!!!!! Sometimes I wonder why we waste so much education on those who don’t want it. Education is one of the few items we want to receive less than what we deserve. UNTIL….
Slide 48 - UNTIL… They/We Have a Reason to Learn Reasons vary as to why people want to continue their formal or Informal education. Can you think of some?
Slide 49 - Reasons Adults Need or Want to Continue Their Education Career advancement open up opportunities Change careers (due to changing technology, illness, etc.) Pay increase Supplement current knowledge and do a better job Required (by employer, courts) Maintain certification Expand service or work opportunities. Personal interest They live longer now….therefore work or play longer.
Slide 50 - So What Stops Them From Continuing Their Education?
Slide 51 - Factors Affecting or Limiting Adults Seeking to Continue Their Education Location Family responsibilities (time) Family responsibilities ($) Cost $$$$ Psychological Distance Health
Slide 52 - Describe the Duties of an Adult Instructor/teacher Adult Education is very diverse Main commonality is population, ADULTS See OOH handout for overview of adult educator job description
Slide 53 - Thomas Jefferson: “If a nation expects to be ignorant and free in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be.”
Slide 54 - Benjamin Franklin: “Education is essential to supply succeeding ages with men qualified to serve the public.”
Slide 55 - Abraham Lincoln: “ I view it [education] as the most important subject which we as a people can be engaged in.”
Slide 56 - Daniel Webster: “On the diffusion of education among the people rest the preservation and perpetuation of our free institutions.”
Slide 57 - Ruth Kotinsky: “ The role of adult education is at the very center of social planning on a wide scale. The affairs of adults are the affairs of the world: as they plan, do, and live, so does the world run.
Slide 58 - Cicero: “ A zeal for learning which, in the case of wise and well-trained men, advances with even pace with age.”
Slide 59 - Epictetus: “ Education, in the deepest sense, is continuous and lifelong. In essence it is unfinishable. What we think we already know is often less helpful than the desire to learn.”
Slide 60 - Dr. Mortimer J. Adler: “It has been said that you cannot teach an old dog new tricks. But human beings are not dogs and liberal learning is not a bag of tricks.”
Slide 61 - Howard Whitman: “In later years you have the experience and maturity to learn more effectively than you ever learned before- and the golden opportunity to learn.”
Slide 62 - William Lyon Phelps: “The belief that youth is the happiest time of life is founded on a fallacy. The happiest person is the person who thinks the most interesting thoughts, and we grow happier as we grow older.”
Slide 63 - H. G. Wells: “ It is not education of children that can save the world from destruction, it is the education of adults.”
Slide 64 - Dr. Robert M. Hutchins: “ I do not want to waste my time teaching the younger generation ; the world may not last long enough.”
Slide 65 - Calvin Coolridge: “We cannot abandon our education at the schoolhouse door. We have to keep it up through life.”
Slide 66 - James E. Russell: “ The aim of adult education is to inspire grownups to be something more than they are now and to do their work better than they now do it,”
Slide 67 - Dr J. B. Rice: “It is a curious fact that the healthy male mind continues to improve until 60, and thereafter declines in power very slowly. The years from 40 to 70 should be far more productive and far less energy cost than the years 20 to 40.”
Slide 68 - James Byrant Conant: “The world has become so complicated that if a man stops his education when he leaves school, college, or even a professional school, he is doomed to education mediocrity.”
Slide 69 - William Allan Neilson; “ What we learn in school and college beyond a few elementary facts and the controls of a few tools merely serves to start us on a process which should end only with life itself. Effectiveness in work , in citizenship, and the enjoyment of life depends on the persistence of the effort to grow in breadth and depth, and to bring more of the universe within the scope of our individual organized thinking.”
Slide 70 - The favorite maxim of Michelangelo: “ I am still learning”
Slide 71 - Never too late Lacydes, when asked, in extreme age why studying geometry: “ If I should not be learning now. When should I be?”
Slide 72 - Dr. Mortimer J. Alder: “Children can be trained in preparation for life and learning, but only adults are in a position to carry on the serious pursuits of life itself, among which learning is paramount.” “This recognition of the advantages of being an adult should be as general as our recognition that adults can think better - more soundly and deeply- than children. Since that is so, they can also learn more soundly and deeply.”
Slide 73 - Dr. Mortimer J. Alder: “We do not expect our bodies to stay alive and healthy without the daily sustenance of food and the continual invigoration of exercise. Why should we expect our minds to stay alive and vigorous without regular sustenance and exercise? “ Last year’s or even yesterday’s feeding will not suffice the body. Past reading and thinking will not suffice the mind either. Without exercise, the mind no less readily than a muscle, atrophies. Without the sustenance it draws for ideas, the mind shrinks and withers.
Slide 74 - The End
Slide 75 - T. R. Adam: “ Adult education is something more than an intellectual opiate for the governed masses. It represents a definite method of social control, an essential framework for political democracy.”
Slide 76 - ppt slide no 76 content not found
Slide 77 - Objectives/Topics for This Session, Continued Differentiate between Andragogy and Pedagogy Describe the historical development of adult education as a field of study Describe the relationship in a mode of delivery and a method Describe the life cycle development of adults according to Havinghurst and Erickson. Quotes on Adult education