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Published on : Mar 14, 2014
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Slide 1 - Bacteria 1 Bacteria Chapter 5 Classification of bacteria is ‘murky’ A “Muddle in the Middle” Few distinctive characteristics Genetically promiscuous Traditional classification: anatomical features staining characteristics metabolic properties Newer approach Genetic analysis Bergey’s manual is the ‘Bible’
Slide 2 - Bacteria 2 Classification based upon anatomical features 3 common shapes Some unusual shapes also:
Slide 3 - Bacteria 3 Classification based upon anatomical features Other unusual bacteria Spirochetes Cell wall-less Stalked Filamentous Myxobacteria fruiting bodies Streptomyces
Slide 4 - Bacteria 4 Classification based upon staining Gram Positive vs Gram Negative Hans Christian Gram -- 1884 -- Crystal violet Gram positive structure -- thick layer of peptidoglycan Gram negative structure -- inner vs outer membranes -- lipopolysaccharides and endotoxins Acid fast staining -- Mycobacterium Penicillin action Effect of penicillin
Slide 5 - Bacteria 5 Classification based upon metabolism -- will explore further later Heterotrophic Autotrophic Photosynthetic bacteria -- cyanobacteria -- purple sulfur bacteria Chemoautotrophic ‘Metabolically defective’ Rickettsia Chlamydia Rocky Mountain Rocky Mountain Spotted fever wood tick R. rickettsii Image from (and good source for more about Chlamydia) http://www.chlamydiae.com/docs/biology/biol_devcycle.asp
Slide 6 - Bacteria 6 Why are bacteria so small? Size affects ‘surface to volume’ ratio Advantages of large S/V: diffusion rates metabolic rates reproductive rates Limits to size reduction? ‘defective’ bacteria Really big bacteria? -- Epulopiscium fishelsoni Epulopiscium web site http://www.micro.cornell.edu/cals/micro/research/labs/ angert-lab/epulopiscium.cfm
Slide 7 - Bacteria 7 Why study Bacterial Cell Structure? Mechanisms of virulence Drug development Identification Some cell exterior structures cell membrane (lipid bilayer) cell wall (Gram-pos vs Gram-neg) glycocalyx (capsule vs slime layer) flagellum (prokaryotic vs eukaryotic) pilus (adhesion vs sex)
Slide 8 - Bacteria 8 Cell Membrane Structure Phospholipid bilayers Membrane proteins Membrane fluidity Membranes of thermophilic archaebacteria
Slide 9 - Bacteria 9 Bacterial Flagella Prokaryotic vs eukaryotic Arrangements monotrichous lopho- amphi- peri- How do we know movement is rotational? Bacterial Flagella
Slide 10 - Bacteria 10 How do flagellated bacteria move? ‘Run and Tumble’ pattern Chromatium motility
Slide 11 - Bacteria 11 Spirochetes -- very strange structure -- e.g., Borrelia, Treponema Axial filaments Outer sheath Motility Borrelia Movement
Slide 12 - Bacteria 12 Fimbriae and Pili Fimbriae adhesion to surfaces Pili (pilus) genetic recombination other functions?
Slide 13 - Bacteria 13 The glycocalyx Functions adherence virulence prevent desiccation Composition Capsule layers vs Slime layers “xantham gum”(Xanthomonas) Strep Pneumo
Slide 14 - Bacteria 14 Endospores Formation and regrowth Special properties? -- desiccated -- DNA binding proteins -- Ca-dipicolinic acid Magnetotactic bacteria -- possess magnetosomes Endospore formation Magnetotactic Bacteria