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Slide 1 - Internet Addiction Jonathan Kandell, Ph.D. Assistant Director University of Maryland Counseling Center Presentation at the 10th Annual C3 Conference University of Maryland, College Park 10/7/11
Slide 2 - Overview What is Internet Addiction? Vulnerability of College Students Nature of Technology Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Patterns and Suggestions Treatment of Internet Addiction
Slide 3 - ppt slide no 3 content not found
Slide 4 - What is Internet Addiction?
Slide 5 - What is Internet Addiction? How would you define it?
Slide 6 - What is Internet Addiction? How would you define it? Term coined in the mid-90s by a New York psychiatrist, Dr. Ivan Goldberg He devised a list of symptoms (taken from those for pathological gambling) and created “Internet Addiction Disorder” Also created online Internet Addiction Support Group
Slide 7 - What is Internet Addiction? How would you define it? Term coined in the mid-90s by a New York psychiatrist, Dr. Ivan Goldberg He devised a list of symptoms (taken from those for pathological gambling) and created “Internet Addiction Disorder” Also created online Internet Addiction Support Group Did it as a joke!
Slide 8 - What is Internet Addiction? How would you define it? Term coined in the mid-90s by a New York psychiatrist, Dr. Ivan Goldberg He devised a list of symptoms (taken from those for pathological gambling) and created “Internet Addiction Disorder” Also created online Internet Addiction Support Group Did it as a joke! The joke was on him!!
Slide 9 - What is Internet Addiction? “Process Addiction” – disorder of behavior, not abuse of a substance
Slide 10 - What is Internet Addiction? “Process Addiction” – disorder of behavior, not abuse of a substance “Pathological Internet Use” (PIU) Term coined by Kimberly Young, Ph.D. - Psychologist, U. Pitt-Bradford – COLA Many liken IAD/PIU to pathological gambling (e.g., Goldberg and Young), using symptoms from those disorders
Slide 11 - What is Internet Addiction? “Pathological Internet Use” (PIU) Given the usefulness/necessity of the Internet – more like compulsive exercise
Slide 12 - What is Internet Addiction? Symptoms Increasing preoccupation with, and investment of resources (e.g., time, money, energy) on Internet-related activities Unpleasant feelings (e.g., depression, anxiety, loneliness, emptiness) when not online Negative impact on work/school performance Problems develop in existing relationships Difficulty in forming new offline relationships Tolerance can develop Denial
Slide 13 - What is Internet Addiction? Research Findings – Literature 5-12% of Those Surveyed have PIU
Slide 14 - What is Internet Addiction? Research Findings – Literature Personality Characteristics Low self-esteem Intellectualization Self-reliance Strong preference for solitary activities Restricted social outlets Less socially conforming More emotionally reactive to others (VanGelder, 2003)
Slide 15 - What is Internet Addiction? UM Counseling Service Data (2006-07) Full Entire Helpseeker Population (N=1125) PIU Clients responding “Terribly” or “Poorly” to “How have you been getting along in the following areas of your life over the last two weeks?” – Spending too much time on the computer/Internet (N=170)
Slide 16 - What is Internet Addiction? UM Counseling Service Data (2006-07) Out of 66 items on the four scales 60 showed an increase in endorsement 6 showed a decrease
Slide 17 - What is Internet Addiction? UM Counseling Service Data (2006-07) Out of 66 items on the four scales 60 showed an increase in endorsement 6 showed a decrease 42.45% average rise in endorsement (includes items that decreased)
Slide 18 - What is Internet Addiction? UM Counseling Service Data (2006-07) Item FULL PIU Repeated behaviors interfere w/ life 26.04% 52.35% Standing up for rights, express self 15.11 30.00 School (performance, attendance) 23.72 45.88 Studying effectively 38.49 72.94 No energy, everything an effort 24.53 46.47 Self management (plans, goals) 39.12 71.18 Afraid of / avoiding normal situations 23.29 41.18 Feeling hopeless about the future 25.42 42.35 Eating problems 24.44 40.00 Uncomfortable, shy, ill at ease 19.11 31.18
Slide 19 - What is Internet Addiction? UM Counseling Service Data (2006-07) Item FULL PIU Making friends 19.91% 30.59% Self-confidence, self-esteem 40.00 61.18 Career conflicts within self 35.22 52.94 Difficulty concentrating 51.02 75.88 Loneliness 42.04 60.59 Feeling sad most of the time 33.16 45.29 Grief over death of loved one 8.62 11.76 Not liking yourself 28.18 38.24 Feeling nervous 37.07 49.41 Intimate relationships 29.83 39.41
Slide 20 - What is Internet Addiction? UM Counseling Service Data (2006-07) Item FULL PIU Rape or sexual assault 3.11% 2.94% Alc/drugs causing physical problems 2.04 1.76 Pregnancy 0.71 0.59 Getting into frequent arguments 11.20 8.82 Alc/drugs interfering w/ job/school 2.31 1.76 Sexual orientation issues 4.00 2.94
Slide 21 - What is Internet Addiction? In my opinion, Pathological Internet Use is most often a condition secondary to a separate underlying psychological disorder. The compulsive internet behavior is functioning as a coping mechanism, a form of self-medication similar to other compulsive/addictive behaviors.
Slide 22 - Vulnerability of College Students
Slide 23 - Vulnerability of College Students Societal Influences Increasing pace of life and technological advancement – Toffler’s “Future Shock” Threats to safety (real and/or perceived) Environmental, political, financial worries
Slide 24 - Vulnerability of College Students Societal Influences Increasing pace of life and technological advancement – Toffler’s “Future Shock” Threats to safety (real and/or perceived) Environmental, political, financial worries Familial Influences Usual dysfunction, financial issues, etc. “A Nation of Wimps” – Marano The Fragility Factor (“Helicopter Parents”) Cell Phone – “The Eternal Umbilicus”
Slide 25 - Vulnerability of College Students Developmental Influences Erikson (1963) – 8 Stages of Life Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Identity Diffusion (Role Confusion) Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Slide 26 - Vulnerability of College Students Developmental Influences Erikson (1963) – 8 Stages of Life Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Identity Diffusion (Role Confusion) Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Slide 27 - Vulnerability of College Students Access / Expectancy Most campuses replete with computers and internet connections Computer labs often open late, even 24/7 Many courses require (or strongly encourage) use of computer / internet Writing Papers Internet Research E-mail Instructors Online Discussions Blackboard / ELMS
Slide 28 - Vulnerability of College Students Access / Expectancy It only takes a few keystrokes to go from writing a paper to checking your e-mail to: Facebook Blogging Chatting Gaming Online Porn etc.
Slide 29 - Vulnerability of College Students Cumulative Impact Many strains on internal resources Various mechanisms used to reduce anxiety, depression, loneliness - Healthy? Substance abuse (alcohol/drugs – including legal) Compulsive Behaviors (Gambling, Exercise, TV, Internet, Cellphone, Gaming, Porn, etc.) Eating Disorders Self-mutilation What’s acceptable and available?
Slide 30 - The Nature of Technology
Slide 31 - The Nature of Technology “Good” or “Evil” - What do you think?
Slide 32 - GOOD?
Slide 33 - EVIL?
Slide 34 - The Nature of Technology Technology – Good or Evil? NEITHER! Technology is … a tool Special kind of tool - amplifier Depends on how it’s used Creates change
Slide 35 - Marshall McLuhan
Slide 36 - McLuhan Marshall McLuhan “The medium is the message” We adapt to technology, not the other way around “Hot” vs. “Cool” media
Slide 37 - McLuhan “Hot” vs. “Cool” media “A hot medium is one that extends one single sense in 'high definition.' High definition is being well filled with data” - all the information is available; the person is passive Cool media force the person to engage in the transmission process.
Slide 38 - McLuhan “Hot” vs. “Cool” media Book vs. Newspaper Book Newspaper
Slide 39 - McLuhan “Hot” vs. “Cool” media Film vs. Screen (TV / Computer / Internet) Film CRT/LCD
Slide 40 - Control
Slide 41 - Control Technology impacts people’s sense of control over their lives Positive Aspects Structure free time / Configure your life Easier to establish/maintain relationships Negative Aspects “Do more in less time” Privacy Issues / Identity Theft / “Phishing”
Slide 42 - Internet Reinforcers
Slide 43 - Internet Reinforcers Internet Reinforcers VanGelder, S. C. (2003). INTERNET ADDICTION: Is the Internet a “pathological agent” includable as a disorder separate from other psychiatric diagnoses? Journal of Addictive Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.breining.edu Reinforcers Specific to the Internet (e.g., disinhibition, anonymity, intimacy, intensity, time distortion)
Slide 44 - Internet Reinforcers Internet Reinforcers VanGelder, S. C. (2003). INTERNET ADDICTION: Is the Internet a “pathological agent” includable as a disorder separate from other psychiatric diagnoses? Journal of Addictive Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.breining.edu Reinforcers Specific to the Internet (e.g., disinhibition, anonymity, intimacy, intensity, time distortion) Dissociative Aspects (paralanguage, body/image distortion, RL separation, identities)
Slide 45 - The New Yorker -- July 5, 1993
Slide 46 - Internet Reinforcers Internet Reinforcers VanGelder, S. C. (2003). INTERNET ADDICTION: Is the Internet a “pathological agent” includable as a disorder separate from other psychiatric diagnoses? Journal of Addictive Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.breining.edu Reinforcers Specific to the Internet (e.g., disinhibition, anonymity, intimacy, intensity, time distortion) Dissociative Aspects (paralanguage, body/image distortion, RL separation, identities) Unconstrained Social Functioning (global home, boundlessness, realize sexual fantasies)
Slide 47 - Cutting Edge ... or Cutting Off
Slide 48 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Technology can facilitate both meeting others and communicating with them E-mail / Instant Messaging (IM) Cell Phone / Texting / Twitter / Blog Social Networking (e.g., Facebook) MMORPGs Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games Gaming (e.g., World of Warcraft, Halo) - FPS Second Life
Slide 49 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Technology can facilitate both meeting others and communicating with them Positives Can help introverted people develop connections People can experiment with various identities You can learn to appreciate another without the distraction of looks You can practice social interchange without fear of significant reprisal or rejection Can raise an individual’s self-esteem
Slide 50 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Technology can facilitate both meeting others and communicating with them But, … what is the nature and quality of these interactions?
Slide 51 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Online Interactions Conversations can seem the same … but there are some fundamental differences
Slide 52 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Online Interactions Asynchronous Often just words on a screen Quality vs. Quantity Can be regressive (“flaming,” graphic) “On the Internet, no one knows you’re a dog” Projection
Slide 53 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Online Interactions -- Impact For those whose primary (or sole) mode of interaction is online, there is potential for loss of face-to-face relationship skills
Slide 54 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Online Interactions -- Impact For those whose primary (or sole) mode of interaction is online, there is potential for loss of face-to-face relationship skills For those who begin before learning face-to-face interaction skills, there is potential for lack of development of these skills
Slide 55 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Cell Phone / Text Messaging “Time On” vs. “Time Off” Quantity vs. Quality Can foster dependency (Marano) Analysis/Sharing vs. Experience “How do I look?” Sexting Cell Phone/Texting while driving
Slide 56 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Facebook Privacy vs. Exhibitionism Do you want everyone to see your page? How many friends are enough? State of Relationship
Slide 57 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Online First Person Shooter Game Catharsis / Connection / Purpose
Slide 58 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Second Life
Slide 59 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Second Life
Slide 60 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Second Life Be who you want Your Avatar(s) – Create the “ideal” you!
Slide 61 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Second Life Be who you want Your Avatar(s) – Create the “ideal” you! Do what you want Buy land / build a house (for a fee) Eat, drink, sit on the beach, have sex
Slide 62 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Second Life Be who you want Your Avatar(s) – Create the “ideal” you! Do what you want Buy land / build a house (for a fee) Eat, drink, sit on the beach, have sex “Practice makes perfect!” Unpopular? – leave / resurface as new avatar Does it translate to the “non-virtual world?” Can be highly compelling to loners
Slide 63 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Blogging / LiveJournal Anyone can be a publisher or pundit Diary or something else? -- Hawthorne YouTube Anyone can be a broadcaster The ultimate “reality” TV On Demand / Satellite Radio / iPod Why wait? – What you want, when you want
Slide 64 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Smartphone / Tablet – The Ultimate! Your life in the palm of your hand!! Never disconnected!! (except for battery and coverage) Information – Internet / GPS Entertainment – Music / Video / Games Connection – Text / E-mail / Voice / Tweet Data - Why bother remembering? Who needs people?
Slide 65 - Cutting Edge … or Cutting Off? Smartphone / Tablet – The Ultimate! Your life in the palm of your hand!! Never disconnected!! (except for battery and coverage) Information – Internet / GPS Entertainment – Music / Video / Games Connection – Text / E-mail / Voice / Tweet Data - Why bother remembering? Who needs people? Technology Addiction!
Slide 66 - Patterns and Suggestions
Slide 67 - Patterns and Suggestions What can we learn from all this? Technology will continue to advance and is not going away, so you’d better learn to ride the wave (Luddites need not apply)
Slide 68 - Patterns and Suggestions What can we learn from all this? Technology will continue to advance and is not going away, so you’d better learn to ride the wave (Luddites need not apply) As McLuhan suggested, the increasing use of newer technologies is changing individual and societal behavior
Slide 69 - Patterns and Suggestions What can we learn from all this? A sense of connection, whether present or absent, seems to drive much of the behavior students (and others) exhibit when using advancing technology
Slide 70 - Patterns and Suggestions What can we learn from all this? A sense of connection, whether present or absent, seems to drive much of the behavior students (and others) exhibit when using advancing technology Students’ sense of what is private/public is changing, which likely will result in societal changes in this area
Slide 71 - Patterns and Suggestions What can we learn from all this? We have only just started on some fundamental changes in the way people envision who they are and what they can be, the effects of which will likely not be known for at least a generation
Slide 72 - Patterns and Suggestions What can we learn from all this? College students and teens have embraced technology “whole hog,” and they’re not likely to go back
Slide 73 - Patterns and Suggestions What can we learn from all this? College students and teens have embraced technology “whole hog,” and they’re not likely to go back More and more students want, and expect, life and other people to be as responsive to their needs/desires as their technology – lower frustration tolerance; can act much younger than age
Slide 74 - Patterns and Suggestions What can we learn from all this? Adolescent / young adult psychological needs remain the same (mastery, affiliation, independence); means to fill them change
Slide 75 - Patterns and Suggestions What can we learn from all this? Adolescent / young adult psychological needs remain the same (mastery, affiliation, independence); means to fill them change While most people can successfully navigate the transition to these advancing technologies, some, especially those who are psychologically vulnerable, can develop compulsive behaviors
Slide 76 - Patterns and Suggestions What can be done? Meet the students where they are Find the best ways to get in contact with them Text Messaging / E-mail / Cell Phone Use Facebook, etc. to contact/organize
Slide 77 - Patterns and Suggestions What can be done? Meet the students where they are Find the best ways to get in contact with them Text Messaging / E-mail / Cell Phone Use Facebook, etc. to contact/organize Develop programming that fits your students’ interests Gaming tournament “Cult”-based watching parties
Slide 78 - Patterns and Suggestions What can be done? Learn about the technologies – try to “speak the language;” get your students to teach you about what they do/think
Slide 79 - Patterns and Suggestions What can be done? Learn about the technologies – try to “speak the language’” get your students to teach you about what they do/think Be aware of your students’ behaviors – learn and recognize what’s “normal” and what’s problematic; refer students for help when needed
Slide 80 - Treatment of Internet Addiction
Slide 81 - Treatment of Internet Addiction Individual Clients – Five Prong Plan Establish a Working Relationship Break the Pattern Find Other Ways to Occupy Time Develop “Real Life” Relationships Explore and Treat Underlying Conditions
Slide 82 - Treatment of Internet Addiction Individual Clients – Five Prong Plan Establish a Working Relationship Break the Pattern Find Other Ways to Occupy Time Develop “Real Life” Relationships Explore and Treat Underlying Conditions Internet Addiction Support Group NOT ONLINE! – like AA meeting in a bar Can use Five Prong Plan with members Provides RL contact in safe setting
Slide 83 - References Erikson, E.H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton. Kandell, J. J. (1998). Internet addiction on campus: The vulnerability of college students. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 1(1), 13-24. (http://www.counseling.umd.edu/Personal/~kandell/iacpbart.htm) Kraut R., Patterson M., Lundmark V., et al. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? American Psychologist, 53(9), 1017-1031. McLuhan, M. (1965). Understanding media: The extensions of man (rev. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Mitra, A., Willyard, J., Platt, C., & Parsons, M. (2005). Exploring web usage and selection criteria among male and female students. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 10I(3), article 10. http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol10/issue3/mitra.html VanGelder, S. C. (2003). INTERNET ADDICTION: Is the Internet a “pathological agent” includable as a disorder separate from other psychiatric diagnoses? Journal of Addictive Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.breining.edu
Slide 84 - Questions ???