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Published on : Feb 10, 2014
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Slide 1 - International Cricket &Corruption 22 June 2012
Slide 2 - The story of Mohammed Amir
Slide 3 - Background Grew up in a small country village outside Rawalpindi Spotted playing in park with a tennis ball – given cricket scholarship to State Academy at age 14 Selected for Pakistan U/19 team at age 15 Spent time at National Academy where he met and was mentored by Salman Butt (future Pakistan Captain) Selected in Pakistan Team at 17 Youngest player to take 5 wickets in Test cricket & youngest to 50 Test wickets
Slide 4 - UK Tour 2010 2 days before 2nd Test Amir is called by businessman friend of Salman Butt named Ali who Amir had met before Various calls & texts exchanged – spot fixing a topic Amir says he partook in conversation because he was ‘alone & bored’ Ali tried ongoing contact but Amir rarely responded 2 days before 3rd Test, News of the World journalist (acting as bookmaker) met with Mazhar Majeed – agent of Amir & others Majeed promised outcomes in 3rd Test in return for money (£10,000) – none of these outcomes delivered
Slide 5 - Lords Test Match Day before 4th Test, Mazhar Majeed tells Amir that ICC ACSU has tapes of his conversations with Ali – Amir is in deep trouble Then tells Amir that he could ‘help him out of his difficulties’ if he did a favour in return The favour is 2 no balls at specific times Salman Butt is involved in conversation & tells Amir “do it, nothing will happen” Amir agrees to bowl the no balls Majeed goes back to NOTW with details of the fix in exchange for £150,000
Slide 6 - ppt slide no 6 content not found
Slide 7 - Aftermath NOTW exposes the sting during Lords Test match Amir & 2 other players (Butt & Mohammad Asif) investigated & arrested Amir pleads guilty before trial Butt & Mohammad Asif plead not guilty All 3 sentenced to jail All 3 banned from cricket
Slide 8 - “I got myself into a situation that I didn’t understand. I panicked and did the wrong thing. I don’t want to blame anyone else. I didn’t want the money at all. I got trapped and in the end it was because of my own stupidity …” Mohammad Amir
Slide 9 - Why is this story important? Demonstrates the high risk environment players are coming into where key influencers are involved: Team leaders Agents Business Associates AND in many cases players don’t understand what they’re getting into
Slide 10 - History
Slide 11 - “Cricket is the most bet upon sport in the world – no other sport gets close. “You can have up to a billion dollars being bet on a single match, and in that respect, it’s no surprise a tiny number of players get lured into malpractice. “If you were designing a game to fix, you’d design cricket, because it is a whole series of discreet events, and every ball you can bet on.” Lord Condon Chairman ACSU – 2001-10
Slide 12 - Snapshot Seeds of cricket corruption sown in UK in 1970s Coincided with introduction of ‘exotic betting’ options Rumours of corruption for years but no proof & no genuine attempt to investigate Game rocked by uncovering of corrupt practices by 3 international Captains
Slide 13 - Salim Malik - 1994 Hansie Cronje – 2000 Mohammad Azharuddin - 2000
Slide 14 - ICC Anti-Corruption Unit Public confidence in cricket – all time low 2001 - ICC appointed retired MI5 officer Paul Condon to establish Anti-Corruption unit Also to prepare report into corruption in cricket
Slide 15 - Why did Corruption enter Cricket?
Slide 16 - Lord Condon International cricketers are paid less than top soccer players, golfers, tennis players or formula one drivers and are therefore more vulnerable to corrupt approaches Cricketers have little say or stake in the running of the sport and limited recognition of their representative bodies, where they exist Cricketers have relatively short and uncertain playing careers, often with short term contracts and some seek to supplement their official earnings with money from corrupt practices Some administrators either turn a blind eye or are themselves involved in malpractice Cricketers play a high number of One Day Internationals nothing is really at stake in terms of national pride or selection in some of these matches
Slide 17 - Lord Condon (cont) Cricketers can take money from potential corruptors in return for innocuous outcomes and yet refuse to fix matches Whistleblowing and informing on malpractice was ignored or penalised rather than encouraged There was no structure in place to receive allegations about corruption Cricketers were coerced into malpractice because of threats to them and their families It was just too easy
Slide 18 - Other Observations Players being targeted early – once hooked can’t escape Vulnerable players easy targets Peer pressure Players often caught up inadvertently – fixers appear as generous fans or potential sponsors Use of prostitutes & other incriminating evidence Players and their families often threatened with violence
Slide 19 - What did Cricket do about Corruption?
Slide 20 - Condon Report “Condon Report” released in 2001 24 recommendations 6 key areas: Education & Awareness Programs Security & Control Around Teams Player Conditions, Benefits & Obligations (incl Player Associations) Professional Umpires Prevention & Investigation of Corruption ICC Governance ICC Board approved all recommendations
Slide 21 - What has been achieved? Establishment of an ICC anti-corruption unit Global education program Severe sanctions Tight communication protocols around players / officials Improved player benefits & involvement in decision making Professional umpire panel Reasonable intelligence networks & processes Global Relationships with Police Agencies emerging Information sharing agreements with gambling industry Informal contact with illegal bookmakers
Slide 22 - Why has Corruption re-appeared / still an issue?
Slide 23 - 1. Complacency From Condon Report to Pakistan issues in 2010 cricket thought it had corruption under control Perception of having a clean sport was often more important than actually having one Fixers were continually ahead of where cricket was All focus was on international cricket but none on domestic cricket – fixers recognised this Betting on cricket changed with better technology and communication – cricket didn’t change with it
Slide 24 - 2. T20 Cricket Far greater TV coverage than other forms of game Game lends itself better to fixing More volatile game therefore less suspicion with unusual occurrences Better block betting options eg greater variations achievable in 5 over blocks Betting on T20 is 3 times greater than betting on 50 over cricket BBL – Betfair - $30m bet on 31 matches – ave bet - $1,500 Illegal Bookies – how much being bet?
Slide 25 - 3. Governance ICC nor majority of Boards have independent governance structures Some countries have no anti-corruption measures in place Education responsibility of Boards – inconsistent No Player Associations in India & Pakistan Players don’t have complete trust in ICC confidentiality – often don’t report approaches yet Code has severe sanctions for not reporting
Slide 26 - How could we better deal with Corruption in Cricket and Sport?
Slide 27 - Legal Solutions Enforcement of existing laws Introduce specific and consistent match-fixing laws Would provide certainty and clarity around illegal offences Would assist education, deterrence and enforcement Ideally nationally and internationally uniform Should, however be targeted at intentional wrongdoing There’s a difference between providing intentional and unintentional “inside information” Defence of duress should be available Penalties must fit the “crime” – not one size fits all
Slide 28 - Non-Legal Solutions Independent Governance structures – ICC & Boards Improve education & extend to domestic & youth levels Player Associations in all countries – India, Pakistan & Zimbabwe missing Use Player Associations as player points of contact for reporting Introduce International Player Agent Accreditation scheme