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Slide 1 - In-vivo Blood Pressure Sensor Anup Pillai Dhanya Premkumar Nair
Slide 2 - Current blood pressure sensors in use Background Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages System Architecture Our Objectives Timeline and Division of work Conclusions Outline
Slide 3 - To diagnose critical medical conditions like hypertension -causes strokes, heart attacks, heart failures Low blood pressure causes hypotension, which results in dizziness, fainting or shock Need to measure blood pressure
Slide 4 - Conventional blood pressure monitoring systems (non-invasive sensors) Auscultatory method Mercury Manometer
Slide 5 - Current blood pressure sensors in use With the new sensor, no cuff is required Device takes advantage of the method called pulse wave velocity which allows blood pressure to be calculated by measuring the pulse at 2 points along an artery This was developed at MIT's d'Arbeloff Laboratory for Information Systems and Technology
Slide 6 - Current blood pressure sensors in use Background Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages System Architecture Our Objectives Timeline and Division of work Conclusions Outline
Slide 7 - Background In vivo-Latin for “within the living” Experimentations are done using a whole, living organism In vivo monitoring is critical for developing effective treatments
Slide 8 - Background (Contd.) Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system
Slide 9 - Current blood pressure sensors in use Background Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages System Architecture Our Objectives Timeline and Division of work Conclusions Outline
Slide 10 - The system employs an instrumented elastic cuff, wound around a blood vessel Operates in a linear “diameter v.s. pressure” region of the vessel for real time blood pressure monitoring The elastic cuff is made of soft bio-compatible rubber, filled with bio-compatible insulating fluid with an immersed MEMS pressure sensor The MEMS sensor detects the vessel blood pressure wave form with a constant scaling factor, independent of the cuff bias pressure exerting on the vessel. Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System
Slide 11 - Implantable blood pressure monitoring system Cuff Vein Insulating Liquid MEMS sensor
Slide 12 - This technique avoids vessel insertion Also substantially minimizes vessel movement restriction due to the soft cuff elasticity Attractive for minimizing long-term adverse biological effects Advantages
Slide 13 - Current blood pressure sensors in use Background Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages System Architecture Our Objectives Timeline and Division of work Conclusions Outline
Slide 14 - Wireless powering and data telemetry are also incorporated in the micro system This eliminates the need of external wire connections and any bulky battery The micro system can be used to obtain reliable measurements without suffering from stress induced distortion Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system
Slide 15 - Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system
Slide 16 - Current blood pressure sensors in use Background Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages System Architecture Our Objectives Timeline and Division of work Conclusions Outline
Slide 17 - Microsystem architecture
Slide 18 - The in vivo blood pressure sensor inside an actual lab rat
Slide 19 - Current blood pressure sensors in use Background Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages System Architecture Our Objectives Timeline and Division of work Conclusions Outline
Slide 20 - The sensor specified in the background exhibits increased noise levels The transmitter of the same dissipated a 80% of the system power Our objectives are: a) To design a similar sensor which exhibits less noise levels b) To design a better and more power efficient transmitter for the sensor Our Objectives
Slide 21 - To find a solution which exhibits less noise levels We began by investigating the reason for the high noise levels in the current design Objective 1
Slide 22 - Animal body vapor penetration into the device Affect the functioning of the electrical connections within the sensor. Reason for noise
Slide 23 - The high impedance node can be highly sensitive to vapor penetration Electrical connections between the sensor diaphragm and IC chip The damage caused
Slide 24 - Protection for moisture penetration is required for the sensor diaphragm as well as the electrical connections between the sensor diaphragm and IC chip. Solution proposed
Slide 25 - A passivation layer, such as silicon dioxide (SiO2) and silicon nitride (Si3N4), can be deposited on the top of diaphragm. An encapsulant material with strong moisture resistance can be used to protect the bond wires between the sensor and IC before applying silicone passivation layer. Solution proposed (Contd.)
Slide 26 - To design a better and more power efficient transmitter for the sensor In the microsystem, an oscillator based FSK transmitter was employed for data telemetry This transmitter was on throughout and hence resulted in 80% power dissipation Objective 2
Slide 27 - To use a transmitter operating with a low duty cycle One can also use a transmitter with an increased bandwidth Solution
Slide 28 - If the sampling frequency is 2 kHz, with data rate of 48 kbps, corresponding bit rate is 24 per 0.5 ms This is the current specification for the system Numerical Calculations
Slide 29 - Instead if we the transmitter is designed to be on for 0.05 ms and off for the remaining 0.45 ms This results in one order magnitude power reduction at increased data rate of 480 kbps This corresponds to 72% overall system power reduction Numerical Calculations (Contd.)
Slide 30 - Current blood pressure sensors in use Background Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages System Architecture Our Objectives Timeline and Division of work Conclusions Outline
Slide 31 - Timelines
Slide 32 - First Objective: To design a similar sensor which exhibits less noise levels-A. Pillai Second Objective: To design a better and more power efficient transmitter for the sensor-D. Nair Division of Work
Slide 33 - A review of current in-vivo blood pressure sensors was presented in this review study We identified the potential problems with existing solutions We have proposed two solutions that will enhance the performance of the current design Conclusions
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