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Slide 1 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu
Slide 2 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins
Slide 3 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+.
Slide 4 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling.
Slide 5 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3
Slide 6 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor
Slide 7 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+
Slide 8 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting
Slide 9 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting
Slide 10 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa.
Slide 11 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1).
Slide 12 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy
Slide 13 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA
Slide 14 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole)
Slide 15 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver
Slide 16 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects
Slide 17 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%).
Slide 18 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP.
Slide 19 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid
Slide 20 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect.
Slide 21 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver
Slide 22 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!!
Slide 23 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature.
Slide 24 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver
Slide 25 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right).
Slide 26 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil
Slide 27 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals
Slide 28 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver
Slide 29 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid has no cytotoxicity Lung Kidney Liver Control 2OHOA Control 2OHOA Aorta Heart S.I.
Slide 30 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid has no cytotoxicity Lung Kidney Liver Control 2OHOA Control 2OHOA Aorta Heart S.I. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver WKY veh WKY 2OHOA SHR veh SHR 2OHOA 0 2 4 6 8 ** cGMP levels in aorta (pmol ·mg -1 protein) cGMP is not involved in the effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid The levels of cGMP in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats were unrelated to 2-hydroxyoleic acid effects on BP
Slide 31 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid has no cytotoxicity Lung Kidney Liver Control 2OHOA Control 2OHOA Aorta Heart S.I. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver WKY veh WKY 2OHOA SHR veh SHR 2OHOA 0 2 4 6 8 ** cGMP levels in aorta (pmol ·mg -1 protein) cGMP is not involved in the effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid The levels of cGMP in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats were unrelated to 2-hydroxyoleic acid effects on BP 2-Hydoxyoleic acid on Gi proteins Serum w/o PDGF Serum with PDGF Gi3 actin Gi3 actin 48 h BASAL 10%FBS OH50 OH100 PDGF How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid induces reduced expression of G protein. This effect is PDGF-independent.
Slide 32 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid has no cytotoxicity Lung Kidney Liver Control 2OHOA Control 2OHOA Aorta Heart S.I. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver WKY veh WKY 2OHOA SHR veh SHR 2OHOA 0 2 4 6 8 ** cGMP levels in aorta (pmol ·mg -1 protein) cGMP is not involved in the effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid The levels of cGMP in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats were unrelated to 2-hydroxyoleic acid effects on BP 2-Hydoxyoleic acid on Gi proteins Serum w/o PDGF Serum with PDGF Gi3 actin Gi3 actin 48 h BASAL 10%FBS OH50 OH100 PDGF How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid induces reduced expression of G protein. This effect is PDGF-independent. Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on protein kinase A (PKA) subunit levels in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid regulates the expression of some PKA subunits
Slide 33 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid has no cytotoxicity Lung Kidney Liver Control 2OHOA Control 2OHOA Aorta Heart S.I. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver WKY veh WKY 2OHOA SHR veh SHR 2OHOA 0 2 4 6 8 ** cGMP levels in aorta (pmol ·mg -1 protein) cGMP is not involved in the effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid The levels of cGMP in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats were unrelated to 2-hydroxyoleic acid effects on BP 2-Hydoxyoleic acid on Gi proteins Serum w/o PDGF Serum with PDGF Gi3 actin Gi3 actin 48 h BASAL 10%FBS OH50 OH100 PDGF How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid induces reduced expression of G protein. This effect is PDGF-independent. Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on protein kinase A (PKA) subunit levels in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid regulates the expression of some PKA subunits Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activities in SHRs and WKY rat aortas How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of Adenyly cyclase activity in rat aorta. Adenyly cyclase produces cAMP, which in turn regulates PKA.
Slide 34 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid has no cytotoxicity Lung Kidney Liver Control 2OHOA Control 2OHOA Aorta Heart S.I. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver WKY veh WKY 2OHOA SHR veh SHR 2OHOA 0 2 4 6 8 ** cGMP levels in aorta (pmol ·mg -1 protein) cGMP is not involved in the effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid The levels of cGMP in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats were unrelated to 2-hydroxyoleic acid effects on BP 2-Hydoxyoleic acid on Gi proteins Serum w/o PDGF Serum with PDGF Gi3 actin Gi3 actin 48 h BASAL 10%FBS OH50 OH100 PDGF How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid induces reduced expression of G protein. This effect is PDGF-independent. Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on protein kinase A (PKA) subunit levels in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid regulates the expression of some PKA subunits Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activities in SHRs and WKY rat aortas How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of Adenyly cyclase activity in rat aorta. Adenyly cyclase produces cAMP, which in turn regulates PKA. Effects of 2-OHOA treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on PKA activity in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of PKA activity in aorta of hypertensive rats and do not change PKA activity in normotensive rats.
Slide 35 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid has no cytotoxicity Lung Kidney Liver Control 2OHOA Control 2OHOA Aorta Heart S.I. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver WKY veh WKY 2OHOA SHR veh SHR 2OHOA 0 2 4 6 8 ** cGMP levels in aorta (pmol ·mg -1 protein) cGMP is not involved in the effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid The levels of cGMP in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats were unrelated to 2-hydroxyoleic acid effects on BP 2-Hydoxyoleic acid on Gi proteins Serum w/o PDGF Serum with PDGF Gi3 actin Gi3 actin 48 h BASAL 10%FBS OH50 OH100 PDGF How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid induces reduced expression of G protein. This effect is PDGF-independent. Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on protein kinase A (PKA) subunit levels in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid regulates the expression of some PKA subunits Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activities in SHRs and WKY rat aortas How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of Adenyly cyclase activity in rat aorta. Adenyly cyclase produces cAMP, which in turn regulates PKA. Effects of 2-OHOA treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on PKA activity in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of PKA activity in aorta of hypertensive rats and do not change PKA activity in normotensive rats. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver b-Adrenoceptor signaling pathway Epinephrine activates b-adrenoceptors, which in turn activate a Gs protein. Gs proteins activate adenylyl cyclase, that produce cAMP and activate PKA.
Slide 36 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid has no cytotoxicity Lung Kidney Liver Control 2OHOA Control 2OHOA Aorta Heart S.I. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver WKY veh WKY 2OHOA SHR veh SHR 2OHOA 0 2 4 6 8 ** cGMP levels in aorta (pmol ·mg -1 protein) cGMP is not involved in the effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid The levels of cGMP in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats were unrelated to 2-hydroxyoleic acid effects on BP 2-Hydoxyoleic acid on Gi proteins Serum w/o PDGF Serum with PDGF Gi3 actin Gi3 actin 48 h BASAL 10%FBS OH50 OH100 PDGF How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid induces reduced expression of G protein. This effect is PDGF-independent. Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on protein kinase A (PKA) subunit levels in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid regulates the expression of some PKA subunits Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activities in SHRs and WKY rat aortas How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of Adenyly cyclase activity in rat aorta. Adenyly cyclase produces cAMP, which in turn regulates PKA. Effects of 2-OHOA treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on PKA activity in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of PKA activity in aorta of hypertensive rats and do not change PKA activity in normotensive rats. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver b-Adrenoceptor signaling pathway Epinephrine activates b-adrenoceptors, which in turn activate a Gs protein. Gs proteins activate adenylyl cyclase, that produce cAMP and activate PKA. Effects of acute administration of the PKA inhibitor 8-bromo adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer (Rp-8-Br-cAMP), on systolic BP in vehicle-treated (control) and 2-OHOA-treated SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver The use of a specific PKA inhibitor in rats treated with 2-hydroxyoleic acid reversed the hypotensive effect of this drug. This result demonstrates that the proposed mechanism of the hypotensive effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (via Gs protein, adenyly cyclase and PKA) operates in vivo. In normotensive animals (treated and untreated) and hypertensive rats not treated with 2-hydroxyoleic acid, no blood pressure reductions were observed (data not shown), indicating that the effect cannot be attributed to the PKA inhibitor itself. In addition, this effect was time- and concentration-dependent.
Slide 37 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid has no cytotoxicity Lung Kidney Liver Control 2OHOA Control 2OHOA Aorta Heart S.I. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver WKY veh WKY 2OHOA SHR veh SHR 2OHOA 0 2 4 6 8 ** cGMP levels in aorta (pmol ·mg -1 protein) cGMP is not involved in the effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid The levels of cGMP in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats were unrelated to 2-hydroxyoleic acid effects on BP 2-Hydoxyoleic acid on Gi proteins Serum w/o PDGF Serum with PDGF Gi3 actin Gi3 actin 48 h BASAL 10%FBS OH50 OH100 PDGF How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid induces reduced expression of G protein. This effect is PDGF-independent. Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on protein kinase A (PKA) subunit levels in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid regulates the expression of some PKA subunits Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activities in SHRs and WKY rat aortas How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of Adenyly cyclase activity in rat aorta. Adenyly cyclase produces cAMP, which in turn regulates PKA. Effects of 2-OHOA treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on PKA activity in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of PKA activity in aorta of hypertensive rats and do not change PKA activity in normotensive rats. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver b-Adrenoceptor signaling pathway Epinephrine activates b-adrenoceptors, which in turn activate a Gs protein. Gs proteins activate adenylyl cyclase, that produce cAMP and activate PKA. Effects of acute administration of the PKA inhibitor 8-bromo adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer (Rp-8-Br-cAMP), on systolic BP in vehicle-treated (control) and 2-OHOA-treated SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver The use of a specific PKA inhibitor in rats treated with 2-hydroxyoleic acid reversed the hypotensive effect of this drug. This result demonstrates that the proposed mechanism of the hypotensive effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (via Gs protein, adenyly cyclase and PKA) operates in vivo. In normotensive animals (treated and untreated) and hypertensive rats not treated with 2-hydroxyoleic acid, no blood pressure reductions were observed (data not shown), indicating that the effect cannot be attributed to the PKA inhibitor itself. In addition, this effect was time- and concentration-dependent. Effects of withdrawal of 2-OHOA on systolic BP and aortic PKA subunit levels in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver After treatments with 2-hydroxyoleic acid, blood pressure started to rise to reach their initial high values about two weeks after the administration of the last dose. This slow recovery of blood pressure indicates that the modification induced by the fatty acid occurs on membrane lipids, whose turnover is slower.
Slide 38 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid has no cytotoxicity Lung Kidney Liver Control 2OHOA Control 2OHOA Aorta Heart S.I. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver WKY veh WKY 2OHOA SHR veh SHR 2OHOA 0 2 4 6 8 ** cGMP levels in aorta (pmol ·mg -1 protein) cGMP is not involved in the effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid The levels of cGMP in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats were unrelated to 2-hydroxyoleic acid effects on BP 2-Hydoxyoleic acid on Gi proteins Serum w/o PDGF Serum with PDGF Gi3 actin Gi3 actin 48 h BASAL 10%FBS OH50 OH100 PDGF How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid induces reduced expression of G protein. This effect is PDGF-independent. Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on protein kinase A (PKA) subunit levels in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid regulates the expression of some PKA subunits Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activities in SHRs and WKY rat aortas How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of Adenyly cyclase activity in rat aorta. Adenyly cyclase produces cAMP, which in turn regulates PKA. Effects of 2-OHOA treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on PKA activity in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of PKA activity in aorta of hypertensive rats and do not change PKA activity in normotensive rats. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver b-Adrenoceptor signaling pathway Epinephrine activates b-adrenoceptors, which in turn activate a Gs protein. Gs proteins activate adenylyl cyclase, that produce cAMP and activate PKA. Effects of acute administration of the PKA inhibitor 8-bromo adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer (Rp-8-Br-cAMP), on systolic BP in vehicle-treated (control) and 2-OHOA-treated SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver The use of a specific PKA inhibitor in rats treated with 2-hydroxyoleic acid reversed the hypotensive effect of this drug. This result demonstrates that the proposed mechanism of the hypotensive effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (via Gs protein, adenyly cyclase and PKA) operates in vivo. In normotensive animals (treated and untreated) and hypertensive rats not treated with 2-hydroxyoleic acid, no blood pressure reductions were observed (data not shown), indicating that the effect cannot be attributed to the PKA inhibitor itself. In addition, this effect was time- and concentration-dependent. Effects of withdrawal of 2-OHOA on systolic BP and aortic PKA subunit levels in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver After treatments with 2-hydroxyoleic acid, blood pressure started to rise to reach their initial high values about two weeks after the administration of the last dose. This slow recovery of blood pressure indicates that the modification induced by the fatty acid occurs on membrane lipids, whose turnover is slower. Effects of 2-OHOA treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on Rho kinase II levels in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rho kinase also appeared to be markedly increased in hypertensive rats. Treatment with 2-OHOA reduced the expression of this protein to normal levels. This result indicates that besides PKA, vascular cell’s cytoskeleton is also regulated by this compound.
Slide 39 - How Oleic Acid in Olive Oil Reduces Blood Pressure. Pablo V. Escribá, University of the Balearic Islands, pablo.escriba@uib.es John E. Halver, University of Washington halver@u.washington.edu VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE PKA PKG MUSCULAR RELAXATION VASODILATION Endothelium-dependent REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PKA G proteins How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver GPCR-associated signaling GPCR-associated signaling Blood Pressure is tightly controlled by several signaling systems. Many of them involve regulation of cell functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This slide shows a Gq protein-associated pathway involved in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G proteins: peripheral membrane proteins G proteins propagate messages from membrane receptors to effectors that control cytosolic levels of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, IP3, DAG, ions, etc.). Lipid-protein interactions regulate the localization and activity of G proteins and, therefore, cell signaling. G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BP CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : ADRENOCEPTORS α 2A α2B PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM : CARDIAC MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M2 SMOOTH MUSCLE: ADRENOCEPTORS α1 β2 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS M3 CARDIAC CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA contractility Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ contractility Muscarinic M2 Gi/Go proteins (+) Ca2+ channels contractility (-) Adenylyl cyclase (+) K+ Channels Cell hyperpolarization 1 adrenoceptor VASCULAR CELL SIGNALING 1 adrenoceptor Gs protein (+) Adenylyl cyclase cAMP (+) PKA Vasorelaxation Gq11 protein (+) Phospholipase C DAG IP3 (+) PKC (+) Ca2+ vasoconstriction Muscarinic M3 Nitric Oxide Intracellular Ca2+ Vasorelaxation (+) Guanylyl cyclase 2 adrenoceptor cGMP (+) PKG Intracellular Ca2+ Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver G protein heterotrimers prefer nonlamellar-prone membrane regions G protein a-monomers prefer lamellar-prone regions (higher PC content) Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Membrane lipid structure and G protein-membrane interactions G protein bg-dimers have a huge preference for nonlamellar-prone membrane regions (higher PE content). They take G protein a-monomers from nearby GPCRs. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Binding of G proteins to model membranes (liposomes) determined by immunoblotting Gg protein-membrane interactions Membrane on Gg structure Membrane and aqueous phases Only in membrane Gg on membrane structure FTIR analysis X-ray analysis DSC analysis How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Membrane lipids affect G protein structure and vice versa. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver A new model of G protein activity based on their interactions with lipids Two views of the same process. From the membrane (above) or from the cytosol (right): receptors (R) are activated by agonists (a or AG) in hexagonal phase-prone regions (H), which are loaded with G proteins (G) thanks to Gbg. Upon activation, Ga goes to lamellar-prone regions (L) to regulate the activity of effectors (E, E1). Gg protein-membrane interactions How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver C-terminal region of Gg: Main player in G protein-lipid interactions. Altered Gg protein distribution after point mutations on the C-terminal region (Gg2-GFP fusion proteins) Cellular localization of Gg protein-GFP constructs by confocal microscopy Membrane fatty acids Oleic Acid Elaidic Acid Stearic Acid 18:1 n-9 cis 18:1 n-9 trans 18:0 How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver OA EA SA Effect of OA and EA on membrane structure by X-Ray diffraction Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates membrane lipid structure. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver DEPE DEPE:OA (20:1, mole:mole) DEPE:EA (20:1, mole:mole) Effect of OA and EA on G protein function Oleic acid but not the structurally related fatty acids, elaidic and stearic acid, regulates G protein function. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Acute effects of VOO, TO, and OA on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Olive oil also induces short-term reductions of BP. Triolein and oleic acid have similar effects Chronic effects of OA, elaidic acid and stearic acid on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; OA, oleic acid; EA, elaidic acid; SA, stearic acid Oleic acid, but not elaidic and stearic acids, induces BP reductions. Oleic acid is the fatty acid present in triolein and the main component of olive oil (70-80%). Effects of VOO treatment on BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Hypertensive rats Olive oil and oleic acid (OA) reduce BP in hypertensive animals. Elaidic acid (EA) and stearic acid (SA) failed to reduce BP. Effects of VOO, TO, and OA treatments on total G protein αi2, αi3 and αq/11 subunits and PKCβ1 levels in aorta How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Olive oil, triolein and oleic acid regulate Gi and Gq protein levels and those of downstream effectors, such as phospholipase C (PLC). V, vehicle; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein; OA, oleic acid Correlations between BP reductions (mmHg) and decrease of L-to-HII phase transition temperature (°C; A) or the dose of cis-MUFA (g/kg) administered to animals (B) How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Treatments: 1, VOO; 2, 2-hydroxyoleic acid; 3, TO; 4; OA; 5, stearic acid; 6; vehicle; 7, elaidic acid; 8, soybean oil. Decrease of BP correlates with the dose of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFA). Fatty acids, rather than triacylglycerides, are involved in this effect. Consequences for human health Consumption of fats that contain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) have positive effects on cardiovascular health, compared with saturated or trans-MUFA fats. Because this effect has structural molecular bases, we can design molecules to regulate BP or reverse other pathological processes. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Then, I can control cell functions by regulating membrane lipid structure and composition!!! Sure. You may even design nutritional or pharmaceutical approaches to treat human pathologies!!! Chronic effects of soybean oil, VOO, or TO treatments on systolic BP How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Normotensive rats V, vehicle; SO, soy oil; VOO, virgin olive oil; TO, triolein Olive oil, but not soy oil, reduces blood pressure. Triolein, the main triacylglyceride in olive oil reproduces this effect. VOO is the oil obtained from olives by pressure at room temperature. OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE OLEIC ACID ANALOGUES FOR TREATMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid Rational design of 2-hydroxyoleic acid 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (left) is an oleic acid (center) analog that keeps most structural properties of oleic acid and differs from elaidic acid (pink) in its interaction with membranes (right). Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals Effect of olive oil Dose-dependent effects of 2-OHOA on systolic BP in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2-Hydroxyoleic acid on BP in hypertensive animals 2OHOA increases elasticity in aorta rings Rat aorta rings were preincubated 1 hour in the presence (2OHOA) or absence (control) of 2-hydroxyoleic acid. Then, the contraction in response to noradrenaline was determined. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid has no cytotoxicity Lung Kidney Liver Control 2OHOA Control 2OHOA Aorta Heart S.I. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver WKY veh WKY 2OHOA SHR veh SHR 2OHOA 0 2 4 6 8 ** cGMP levels in aorta (pmol ·mg -1 protein) cGMP is not involved in the effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid The levels of cGMP in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats were unrelated to 2-hydroxyoleic acid effects on BP 2-Hydoxyoleic acid on Gi proteins Serum w/o PDGF Serum with PDGF Gi3 actin Gi3 actin 48 h BASAL 10%FBS OH50 OH100 PDGF How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid induces reduced expression of G protein. This effect is PDGF-independent. Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on protein kinase A (PKA) subunit levels in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid regulates the expression of some PKA subunits Effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activities in SHRs and WKY rat aortas How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of Adenyly cyclase activity in rat aorta. Adenyly cyclase produces cAMP, which in turn regulates PKA. Effects of 2-OHOA treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on PKA activity in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver 2-Hydroxyoleic acid treatments induce restoration of PKA activity in aorta of hypertensive rats and do not change PKA activity in normotensive rats. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver b-Adrenoceptor signaling pathway Epinephrine activates b-adrenoceptors, which in turn activate a Gs protein. Gs proteins activate adenylyl cyclase, that produce cAMP and activate PKA. Effects of acute administration of the PKA inhibitor 8-bromo adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer (Rp-8-Br-cAMP), on systolic BP in vehicle-treated (control) and 2-OHOA-treated SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver The use of a specific PKA inhibitor in rats treated with 2-hydroxyoleic acid reversed the hypotensive effect of this drug. This result demonstrates that the proposed mechanism of the hypotensive effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (via Gs protein, adenyly cyclase and PKA) operates in vivo. In normotensive animals (treated and untreated) and hypertensive rats not treated with 2-hydroxyoleic acid, no blood pressure reductions were observed (data not shown), indicating that the effect cannot be attributed to the PKA inhibitor itself. In addition, this effect was time- and concentration-dependent. Effects of withdrawal of 2-OHOA on systolic BP and aortic PKA subunit levels in SHRs How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver After treatments with 2-hydroxyoleic acid, blood pressure started to rise to reach their initial high values about two weeks after the administration of the last dose. This slow recovery of blood pressure indicates that the modification induced by the fatty acid occurs on membrane lipids, whose turnover is slower. Effects of 2-OHOA treatment (600 mg/kg every 12 h) for 7 days on Rho kinase II levels in aortas from SHRs and WKY rats How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver Rho kinase also appeared to be markedly increased in hypertensive rats. Treatment with 2-OHOA reduced the expression of this protein to normal levels. This result indicates that besides PKA, vascular cell’s cytoskeleton is also regulated by this compound. CONCLUSION The CIS structure of Oleic Acid fits neatly into the phospholipid structure of biomembranes, and alters receptor sites on the membrane surface, to regulate blood pressure. Q.E.D. How Oleic Acid in olive oil reduces blood pressure. P.V. Escribá & J.E. Halver For references see:PNAS 105;13811(208)