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Slide 1 - Lorena Olide Maira Nunez Airplanes Creating Lift
Slide 2 - Overview Brief discussion of the 4 forces acting on a plane Brief definition of the 4 forces Weight Drag Thrust Lift How lift is developed Two Perspectives on how lift is created Demonstrations Factors that affect lift
Slide 3 - Forces Force – a push or a pull acting on a body. As a plane flies it is in the center of 4 forces. Weight, lift, drag and thrust Two natural forces being exerted on plane Weight and drag A pilot needs to overcome weight and drag to achieve flight Two forces a pilot needs to create to overcome weight and drag Lift and thrust Lift & thrust are required to keep the airplane in the air Lift Weight Drag Thrust
Slide 4 - Weight Weight is defined as the downward force of gravity Force is always directed toward the center of the earth Weight is distributed throughout the plane The magnitude of the weight depends on the mass of the plane plus the fuel, the people and baggage A pilot must overcome weight by lift to get the plane in the air
Slide 5 - Drag Drag is a resistance force created by the plane’s movement through the air The force of the air pushes against the plane, therefore slowing the plane down The magnitude of drag depends on the shape, air quality and velocity Drag increases as air speed increases A pilot must overcome drag with thrust to gain speed
Slide 6 - Thrust Thrust is defined as the forward push that gets the plane into the air Thrust is artificially created and used to overcome drag and to sustain lift This force is provided by the propeller or jet engine Thrust is also used to accelerate and gain altitude
Slide 7 - Lift Lift is the upward force on a plane Various parts of a plane help to achieve lift But most of the lift is created by the wings The magnitude of lift depends on the shape, size and velocity For example, the faster the plane goes the greater the lift The lift that is produced by the wings must be greater than the weight of plane to leave the ground
Slide 8 - Two Perspectives Two explanations to help understand how lift is created Both contribute to creating lift Bernoulli’s Principle Largely depends on the shape of the wing Concentrates on speeds and pressures in the airstream Involves pressure imbalances Newtonian Explanation Largely depends on the tilt of the wing Concentrates on the acceleration of the passing airstream Involves the deflection of the air stream
Slide 9 - Important Concepts - Air Principal concept in aerodynamics is the idea that air is a fluid Air has mass, therefore it has weight Because it has weight, it exerts pressure Air flows and behaves in a similar manner to other liquids Air has molecules which are constantly moving Lift can exist only in the presence of a moving fluid Faster moving fluids exert less force on surfaces they are flowing along
Slide 10 - As an airplane moves forward, the airflow splits up into two separate flows Before We Begin… copyright 2006 Kevin Bailey
Slide 11 - Bernoulli’s Principle Defined Bernoulli’s Principle states that when the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure decreases and when the speed of a moving fluid decreases, the pressure increases. ©2003 m. mitchell Daniel Bernoulli 18th century Swiss Scientist
Slide 12 - Bernoulli’s Principle Air flowing around the wing experiences a change in speed and each change in speed is accompanied by a change in pressure Airflow going under the wing encounters a sloping surface Slows airflow down and slow moving air maintains a higher pressure on the bottom surface Airflow going over the wing encounters the up/down sloping Slows the airflow down, then it speeds it up; with the faster moving air a lower pressure develops on the top surface Air going over must travel farther, so its average speed is greater than the speed of the air below Result: A reduction in sidewise pressure which occurs at the top, exerting a lifting force on the entire wing Pressure imbalance produces an overall upward force
Slide 13 - Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Principle) Bernoulli principle derived from the Law of Conservation of Energy A fluid under pressure has potential energy. Energy can be stored in pressurized air The higher the pressure the greater the potential energy Moving fluids have both potential energy and kinetic energy. Total energy must remain constant, so its potential energy decreases, and which means its pressure decreases as well When the air’s speed and motional energy increase, the pressure and pressure energy must decrease to compensate Speed increases over the wing because the airflow converts some of its pressure energy into kinetic energy
Slide 14 - Fast Moving Air; Low Air Pressure Air travels farther Slow Moving Air; High Air Pressure airfoil BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE DIAGRAM Leading edge Trailing edge
Slide 15 - The distance traveled is the same. Equal distances in equal times means the air is traveling at same speed. There’s no net force=no lift. The curved shape is a longer distance so the air is traveling faster. Equal distances traveled in equal times. No net force=no lift. The air on top is traveling faster. It exerts less force. When 2 forces are combined they do not cancel each other out. Therefore there is some net force upward. Shape of the Wing Bernoulli’s Principle
Slide 16 - Newtonian View Newton’s Third Law states that “for every action there is always an equal but opposite reaction.” Newton’s Third Law, is often called the Law of Conservation of Momentum, which states: When an object is given a certain momentum in a given direction, some other body will receive an equal momentum in the opposite direction This theory predicts that as the air stream passes by, it is deflected downward. Both top and bottom surfaces of wing play important roles in deflection © Texte Olivier Esslinger 2003-2006
Slide 17 - Newtonian View Explained As the airflow separates, they both experience two different accelerations Flow under encounters downward slope; airflow is deflected downward (action), and the air stream reacts by pushing the wings up (reaction). Air molecules impart some of their momentum to the wing, therefore nudging wing Flow over travels up, over and down Initially flow encounters upward sloping surface-pushes it upward This upward force causes air to push downward on the leading portion of wings top surface Top surface is curved, so it soon begins to slope downward Before airflow leaves trailing edge there is a slight downward component to its motion This airflow must accelerate downward to stay in contact with surface In both cases, wing has made the air accelerate downward by pushing the air downward. Downwash – downward velocity behind the wing (downward deflection of airflow) Upwash – slight upward flow of air at leading edge
Slide 18 - Downwash NEWTONIAN’S VIEW DIAGRAM Airfoil Upwash Wing gets a momentum downward from air. According to Law of Conservation of Momentum, the wing gets an upward momentum in the opposite direction equal to the downward momentum Air is not just flowing from left to right but upward/downward
Slide 19 - Experiment 1 Demonstrates Bernoulli’s Principle Hold paper horizontally just below your lips (let paper hang limp). Blow hard over the top of the paper. What happens to the paper? Paper responds by moving up toward the air stream. Why does this happen? Moving air above is at a lower pressure, so paper is lifted up by higher pressure below it. copyright Terry Colon, 2006
Slide 20 - Experiment 2 Cup full of water Straw Scissors Results: Blowing over the straw will make the air move faster over the top of the straw. The air pressure above the straw will decrease and the water will go up the straw and squirt out. Explanation: The difference in the air pressure over the straw and the rest of cup is what lifts the water
Slide 21 - Factors Which Affect the Amount of Lift Created Speed The faster the wing moves through the air the more air is forced over and under So a plane must maintain ample velocity to keep the upward lifting force If it slows down too much—lift decreases—plane descend Density of air The denser the air the more lift (colder air is more dense; air density changes with altitude) Planes climb better in winter. Shape of wing Asymmetrical Angle of attack (its tilt relative to the wind) Downside: increases drag
Slide 22 - Sources Texts Physics Made Simple by Ira M. Freeman, 1990 Inquiry Into Physics by Vern J. Ostediek & Donald J. Bord, 1987 Websites