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Head Facial and Neck Trauma PowerPoint Presentation

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Slide 1 - Head, Facial and Neck Trauma Chapter 22 and 23
Slide 2 - Outline Introduction Anatomy & Physiology Pathophysiology Assessment and Management
Slide 3 - Introduction Common major trauma 4 million people experience head trauma annually Severe head injury is most common frequent cause of trauma death At-risk population: Males 15 – 24 Infants, Young children, Elderly
Slide 4 - Introduction Injury Prevention Programs Motorcycle safety Bicycle Safety Helmet and head injury awareness Sports Football Rollerblading Contact Sports
Slide 5 - Introduction TIME IS CRITICAL Intracranial hemorrhage Progressing edema Increased ICP Cerebral hypoxia Permanent damage Severity is difficult to recognize Subtle signs Improve differential diagnosis
Slide 6 - Anatomy & Physiology
Slide 7 - Head Scalp Strong flexible mass of skin and muscle Hair provides insulation Highly vascular
Slide 8 - Head Skull comprised of Facial bones Cranium Unyielding to increased intracranial pressure Bones Frontal - Ethmoid Parietal - Sphenoid Occipital - Temporal
Slide 9 - ppt slide no 9 content not found
Slide 10 - Meninges Protective Mechanism Dura Mater Blood flow to surface of the brain Arachnoid Suspends brain in cranial cavity Pia Mater Covers brain and spinal cord
Slide 11 - The Meninges and Skull
Slide 12 - Brain Occupies 80% of cranium 3 Major Structures Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain Stem Receives 15% of cardiac output Consumes 20% of body’s oxygen
Slide 13 - Cerebrum Function Center of conscious thought, personality, speech and motor control Visual, auditory, and tactile perception Structures Central Sulcus Tentorium
Slide 14 - Lobes Frontal Personality Parietal Motor and sensory Memory and emotion
Slide 15 - Lobes Occipital Sight Temporal Long-term memory Hearing Speech Taste Smell
Slide 16 - Cerebellum Located under tentorium Function “Fine tunes” motor control Allows smooth movement Balance Maintenance of muscle tone
Slide 17 - Brain Stem Central processing center Communication junction among Cerebrum - Cranial Nerves Spinal Cord - Cerebellum Structures Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata
Slide 18 - Midbrain Hypothalamus Vomiting Reflex Hunger Thirst Thalamus Switching Center Ascending Reticular Activating System (A-RAS)
Slide 19 - Pons Communication interchange Bulb-shaped structure
Slide 20 - Medulla Oblongata Respiratory Center Depth, rate, rhythm Cardiac Center Rate and strength Vasomotor Center Maintains BP Distribution of blood
Slide 21 - Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Pressure within cranium (ICP) Pressure usually less than 10 mmHg Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) Must be at least 50 mmHg to ensure adequate perfusion MAP = DBP + 1/3 Pulse Pressure Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP) Pressure moving blood through the cranium CPP = MAP - ICP
Slide 22 - Calculating MAP BP = 120/90 DBP = 90 Pulse Pressure = 120 – 90 = 30 MAP 90 + 1/3(30) = 100 CPP MAP = 90 & ICP = 10 CPP = MAP – ICP CPP = 100 – 10 = 90
Slide 23 - Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Autoregulation Changes in ICP result in compensation Increased ICP = Increased BP Expanding mass inside cranial vault Displaces CSF If pressure increases, brain tissue is displaced
Slide 24 - Mechanism of Injury Blunt Injury MVA Assaults Falls Penetrating Injury Gunshot Wounds Stabbing Explosions
Slide 25 - Scalp Injury Contusions Lacerations Avulsions Significant Hemorrhage ALWAYS reconsider MOI for severe underlying problems.
Slide 26 - Cranial Injury Trauma must be extreme to fracture Linear Depressed Open Impaled object Basal Skull Unprotected Spaces weakened structure Easier to fracture
Slide 27 - Basal Skull Fracture Signs Battle’s Signs Retroauricular ecchymosis Associated with fracture of auditory canal and lower area of skull Raccoon Eyes Bilateral periorbital ecchymosis Associated with orbital fractures
Slide 28 - Basilar Skull Fracture May tear dura Permit CSF to drain through an external passageway May mediate rise of ICP Evaluate for “halo” sign
Slide 29 - Brain Injury Classification Direct Primary injury caused by forces of trauma Indirect Secondary injury cased by factors resulting from the primary injury
Slide 30 - Direct Brain Injury Types Coup Injury at site of impact Contrecoup Injury on opposite side from impact
Slide 31 - Direct Brain Injury Categories Focal Occur at a specific location in brain Differentials Cerebral contusion Intracranial hemorrhage Intracerebral hemorrhage Diffuse Concussion Moderate Diffuse Concussion Moderate diffuse axonal injury Severe diffuse axonal injury
Slide 32 - Focal Brain Injury Cerebral Contusion Blunt trauma to local brain tissue Capillary bleeding into brain tissue Common with blunt head trauma Confusion Neurologic deficit Results from Coup-contrecoup injury
Slide 33 - Epidural Hematoma Bleeding between dura mater and skull Involves arteries Rapid bleeding and reduction of oxygen Herniates brain
Slide 34 - Subdural Hematoma Bleeding within meninges Beneath dura mater and within subarachnoid space Slow bleeding Signs progress over several days
Slide 35 - Intracerebral Hemorrhage Ruptured blood vessel within the brain Presentation similar to stroke symptoms Signs and symptoms worsen over time
Slide 36 - Diffuse Brain Injury Types Concussion Moderate diffuse axonal injury Severe diffuse axonal injury
Slide 37 - Concussion Nerve dysfunction without anatomic damage Transient episode of Confusion, disorientation, event amnesia Suspect if patient has a momentary loss of consciousness Management Frequent reassessment of mentation ABCs
Slide 38 - Moderate Diffuse Axonal Injury Same mechanism as concussion Unconsciousness If cerebral cortex and RAS involved Signs and Symptoms Unconsciousness or persistent confusion Loss of concentration, disorientation Retrograde and antegrade amnesia Visual and sensory disturbances Mood and personality changes
Slide 39 - Severe Diffuse Axonal Injury Brainstem Injury Significant mechanical disruption of axons High mortality rate Signs & Symptoms Prolonged unconsciousness Cushing’s reflex Decorticate or decerebrate posturing
Slide 40 - Intracranial Perfusion Cranial Volume Fixed 80% = Cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem 12% = Blood vessels and blood 8% = CSF Increase in size of one component diminishes size of another Inability to adjust = increased ICP
Slide 41 - Compensating for Pressure Compress venous blood vessels Reduction in free CSF Pushed into spinal cord
Slide 42 - Decompensating for Pressure Increase in ICP Rise in systemic BP to perfuse brain Further increase of ICP
Slide 43 - Role of Carbon Dioxide Increase of C02 in CSF Cerebral vasodilation Encourage blood flow Reduce hypercarbia Reduce hypoxia Contributes to increase in ICP Causes classic HTN and hyperventilation Reduce levels of C02 in CSF Cerebral vasoconstriction  anoxia
Slide 44 - Factors Affecting ICP Vasculature Constriction Cerebral Edema Systolic Blood Pressure Low BP = Poor cerebral perfusion High BP = Increased ICP Carbon Dioxide Reduced respiratory efficiency
Slide 45 - ppt slide no 45 content not found
Slide 46 - Brain Injury Altered Mental Status Cushing’s Reflex Increased BP Bradycardia Erratic Respirations Vomiting Without nausea Projectile Body temp changes Changes in pupils Decorticate posturing Obtain a blood glucose level on all patients with AMS.
Slide 47 - Brain Injury Pathophysiology of Changes Front Lobe Injury Occipital Lobe Injury Retrograde Amnesia Unable to recall events before injury Antegrade Amnesia Unable to recall events after trauma Repetitive questioning Hemiplegia, weakness, or seizures
Slide 48 - Upper Brainstem Compression Increasing blood pressure Reflex bradycardia Vagus nerve stimulation Cheyne-Stokes respirations Pupils become small and reactive Decorticate posturing
Slide 49 - Middle Brainstem Compression Widening pulse pressure Increasing bradycardia CNS hyperventilation Deep and rapid Bilateral pupil sluggishness or inactivity Decerebrate posturing
Slide 50 - Lower Brainstem Injury Pupils dilated and unreactive Ataxic respirations Erratic with no pattern Irregular and erratic pulse rate ECG changes Hypotension Loss of response to painful stimuli
Slide 51 - Recognition of Herniation Cushing’s Reflex Increasing blood pressure Decreasing pulse rate Respirations that become erratic Lowering level of consciousness Singular or bilaterally dilated fixed pupils Decerebrate or decorticate posturing
Slide 52 - Brain Injury Eye Signs Indicates pressure on oculomotor nerve Sluggish  dilated  fixed Reduced peripheral blood flow Reduced Pupillary Responsiveness Depressant drugs or cerebral hypoxia Fixed and Dilated Extreme hypoxia
Slide 53 - ppt slide no 53 content not found
Slide 54 - Pediatric Head Trauma Skull can distort due to anterior and posterior fontanelles Bulging Slows progression of increasing ICP Intracranial hemorrhage contributes to hypovolemia Decreased blood volume in pediatrics
Slide 55 - ppt slide no 55 content not found
Slide 56 - Facial Injuries
Slide 57 - Soft-Tissue Injury Highly vascular tissue Rarely life threatening and rarely involve the airway Deep injuries can result in blood being swallowed and endangering the airway Soft-tissue swelling reduces airflow Consider basilar skull fracture or spinal injury
Slide 58 - Facial Fractures Mandibular Deformity along jaw and loss of teeth Possible airway compromise Maxillary and Nasal Le Fort I, II and III Criteria Orbit Reduction of eye movement Limitation of jaw movement
Slide 59 - ppt slide no 59 content not found
Slide 60 - Nasal Injury Rarely life threatening Swelling and hemorrhage interfere with breathing Epistaxis Most common problem AVOID NASOTRACHEAL INTUBATION
Slide 61 - Ear Injury External Ear Pinna frequently injured due to trauma Poor blood supply Poor healing Internal Ear Well protected from trauma Injured due to rapid pressure changes Diving, blast, or explosions Temporary or permanent hearing loss Tinnitus may occur
Slide 62 - Eye Injury Penetrating Trauma Can result in long-term damage DO NOT REMOVE ANY FOREIGN OBJECT Corneal Abrasions and Lacerations
Slide 63 - Eye Injury Hyphema Blunt trauma to the anterior chamber of the eye Blood in front of iris or pupil
Slide 64 - Eye Injury Sub-conjunctival Hemorrhage Less serious condition May occur after strong sneeze, severe vomiting or direct trauma
Slide 65 - Eye Injury Acute Retinal Artery Occlusion Nontraumatic origin Painless loss of vision in one eye Occlusion of retinal artery Retinal Detachment Traumatic origin Complaint of dark curtain in the field of view
Slide 66 - Neck Injury Blood Vessel Trauma Blunt Trauma Serious hematoma Laceration Serious exsanguination Entraining of air embolism (occlusive dressing) Airway Trauma Tracheal rupture or dissection from larynx Airway swelling and compromis
Slide 67 - Neck Injury Vertebral Fracture Paresthesia, anesthesia, paresis, or paralysis beneath the level of injury Neurogenic shock Subcutaneous Emphysema Tension pneumothorax Traumatic asphyxia
Slide 68 - Assessment Scene Size-up Initial Assessment Rapid Trauma Assessment Head, face, neck GCS Vital Signs Focused History and Physical Exam Detailed Assessment Ongoing Assessment
Slide 70 - Hypoxia Hyperoxygenate prior to intubation Hyperventilate with BVM at a rate of 20 immediately following intubation If not a herniation concern, return to normal ventilations If herniation is probable, maintain hyperventilation
Slide 71 - Hypovolemia Reduces cerebral perfusion and hypoxia Early management with 2 large bore IVs and isotonic fluids Prevents slower compensatory mechanism Maintain SBP 90 – 100 mmHg in an adult Maintain SBP 80 mmHg in a child Maintain SBP 75 mmHg in a young child Maintain SBP 65 mmHg in an infant
Slide 72 - Special Injury Care Scalp Avulsion Cover the open wound with bulky dressing Pad under the fold of the scalp Irrigate with NS to remove gross contamination Pinna Injury Place in close anatomic position as possible Dress and cover with sterile dressing
Slide 73 - Special Injury Care Eye Injury Cover injured and uninjured eye Corneal Abrasion Invert eyelid and examine eye for foreign body Remove with NS – moistened gauze Avulsed or Impaled Eye Cover and protect from injury
Slide 74 - Special Injury Care Dislodged Teeth Rinse in NS Wrap in NS-soaked gauze Impaled Objects Secure with bulky dressing Stabilize object to prevent movement Indirect pressure around wound
Slide 75 - Transport Considerations Limit external stimulation Can increase ICP Can induce seizures Be cautious about air transport Seizures
Slide 76 - Emotional Support Have friend or family provide constant reassurance Provide constant reorientation to environment if required. Keeps patient calm Reduces anxiety
Slide 77 - Questions?