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Slide 1 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 3 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Slide 2 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology External Sex Organs Internal Sex Organs The Breasts The Menstrual Cycle Menstrual Problems
Slide 3 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon External Sex Organs Pudendum External female genitals This word derives from a Latin word that means “something to be ashamed of.” This sets the tone for negative views of female genitalia. Vulva External female sexual structures, which include the mons veneris, the labia majora and minora, the clitoris, and the vaginal opening Latin for “wrapper” or “covering”
Slide 4 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon External Sex Organs The Mons Veneris Fatty tissue covering the joint of pubic bones below abdomen and above clitoris Serves as a cushion during intercourse Covered with pubic hair at puberty The Labia Majora Large folds of skin that run downward from the mons along the sides of the vulva Shields inner genetailia The Labia Minora Hairless, light colored membranes located between the labia majora
Slide 5 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon External Sex Organs The Clitoris Female sex organ located above urethral opening Shaft: body of clitoris, approximately 1 inch long Corpora cavernosa Spongy tissue in clitoral shaft that becomes engorged with blood in response to sexual stimulation Glans: extremely sensitive tip of clitoris, covered by hood Prepuce Fold of skin covering the glans of the clitoris Develops from the same embryonic tissue as the penis
Slide 6 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon External Sex Organs
Slide 7 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon External Sex Organs Clitoridectomy Surgical removal of the clitoral hood; extreme forms may involve removal of clitoris, labia majora and minora with only a small hole left for urination and menstrual flow Ritualized genital mutilation considered a “rite of passage” to womanhood in some cultures The removal of the clitoris is to ensure the girl’s chastity. In 1996, the U.S. outlawed the practice within its borders.
Slide 8 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon External Sex Organs The Vestibule “Entranceway” within the labia minora that contains the openings to the vagina and urethra The Urethral Opening The opening through which urine passes from the bladder out of the female’s body Its proximity to external sex organs can pose problems with hygiene because bacteria from the sex organs and from intercourse may enter the urethra: Cystitis: an inflammation of the urinary bladder, which can cause a kidney infection if left untreated
Slide 9 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon External Sex Organs The Vaginal Opening Introitus Larger than urethral opening, and lies below it Hymen Fold of tissue across vaginal opening May remain intact until intercourse Its presence is often considered a sign of virginity
Slide 10 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon External Sex Organs The Perineum Skin and tissue that lies between vaginal opening and anus Contains many nerve endings and is very sensitive Episiotomy is a surgical incision that may be made here during childbirth to protect the vagina from tearing.
Slide 11 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon External Sex Organs Structures That Underlie the External Sex Organs Sphincters Ring-shaped muscles that surround body openings Crura Attach clitoris to pubic bone
Slide 12 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon External Sex Organs Structures That Underlie the External Sex Organs Vestibular bulbs Cavernous structures that extend downward along the sides of the introitus and swell during sexual arousal Bartholin’s glands Lie just inside minor lips on each side of the vaginal opening Secrete a small amount of fluid just before orgasm
Slide 13 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon External Sex Organs
Slide 14 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs The Vagina The tubular female sex organ Menstrual flow and babies pass through it Contains penis during intercourse Extends 3-5 inches back and upward from vaginal opening Has three layers Inner lining (vaginal mucosa) Middle layer (muscular) Outer (deeper) layer (connects vagina to other pelvic structures) Few nerve endings, especially beyond the outer 1/3
Slide 15 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs Vaginitis Vaginal inflammation Ways to prevent vaginitis Wash vulva and anus regularly with mild soap Wear cotton underwear Avoid pants tight in the crotch Be certain that sex partner’s genitals are clean or use a condom Use only a water-soluble jelly, such as K-Y jelly, for lubrication Avoid diets high in sugar and refined carbohydrates Keep track of general health
Slide 16 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs The Cervix Lower end of the uterus Os Opening in the middle of the cervix About the width of a straw; allows passage of menstrual blood and sperm Permits passage of baby from the uterus to the vagina during childbirth (expands to width of a fist – 10 cm) Pap test Sample of cervical cells that screens for cervical cancer and other abnormalities
Slide 17 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs The Uterus Hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ in which a fertilized ovum implants and develops until birth Cervix is the opening to the uterus and connects it to the vagina Fundus: Uppermost part of the uterus
Slide 18 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs Layers of the Uterus Endometrium Innermost layer of the uterus Endometriosis A condition caused by the growth of endometrial tissue in the abdominal cavity or elsewhere outside the uterus, characterized by menstrual pain and, if untreated, may lead to infertility Endometrial cancer Myometrium Middle, well-muscled later of the uterus Perimetrium Outer layer of the uterus, provides an external cover
Slide 19 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs The Fallopian Tubes Tubes that extend from the upper uterus toward the ovaries Help nourish and conduct ova to uterus Cilia (hairlike projections) help move ova through tube Ectopic pregnancy A pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube Risk increases with age, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal surgery, or the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs)
Slide 20 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs The Ovaries Almond-shaped organs that produce ova and female sex hormones Estrogen Female sex hormones that promote the development of female sex characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle Progesterone Steroid hormone that stimulates development of the endometrium and regulates menstruation Follicle Capsule within an ovary that contains an ovum Ovarian cancer
Slide 21 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs Hysterectomy Surgical removal of the uterus Complete hysterectomy Surgical removal of ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and uterus Partial hysterectomy Surgical removal of the uterus only May be performed when women develop cancer of the uterus, ovaries, or cervix and can relieve symptoms associated with various gynecological disorders Many gynecologists believe that hysterectomies are performed too frequently (e.g., in the U.S., one woman in three by the age of 60).
Slide 22 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs The Female Reproductive System
Slide 23 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs
Slide 24 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs The Pelvic Examination Recommended once a year External examination of genitalia Internal exam Speculum: instrument that holds vaginal walls open Pap smear: sample of cervical cells taken Internal palpations to examine position, size, and possible growths on internal organs
Slide 25 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Internal Sex Organs Pelvic Examination
Slide 26 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Breasts Secondary sex characteristics Traits that distinguish women from men Are not directly involved in reproduction Mammary glands Milk-secreting glands Areola Dark ring on the breast that encircles the nipple Breasts sensitive to stimulation
Slide 27 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Breasts
Slide 28 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Breasts Breast Cancer Mammography A special type of X-ray test that detects cancerous lumps in the breast Risk factors Risk increases with age Genetic factors linked with contraction and prognosis Prolonged exposure to estrogen Early onset of menstruation, late menopause, delayed childbearing or never giving birth, high amounts of fatty tissue Heavy alcohol use
Slide 29 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Breasts Detection and Treatment of Breast Cancer Breast cancer is detected by having a lump in the breast, but most breast lumps are not cancerous. Cysts: sac-like structures filled with fluid or diseased material Benign tumors do little or no harm and are called fibroadenomas. Malignant lumps are lethal, causing or likely to cause death. Lumpectomy: surgical removal of a lump from the breast Mastectomy: surgical removal of the entire breast
Slide 30 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Menstrual Cycle The Menstrual Cycle Menstruation Cyclical bleeding that stems from the shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) Regulated by estrogen and progesterone Divided into four phases Averages about 28 days but variations are common Can be influenced by psychological factors
Slide 31 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Menstrual Cycle Regulation of the Menstrual Cycle Hypothalamus Brain structure that regulates body temperature, motivation, emotion, and hormone production Releases gonadotropin releasing hormone (Gn-RH) which stimulates the pituitary to release gonadotropins Pituitary hormones that stimulate the gonads
Slide 32 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Menstrual Cycle Regulation of the Menstrual Cycle Pituitary gland Gland that secretes growth hormone, prolactin (stimulates milk production), oxytocin (stimulates uterine contractions in labor and the ejection of milk during nursing), and gonadotropins (stimulate the ovaries) Gonadotropins Follicle-simulating hormone (FSH) (stimulates development of follicles in the ovaries) Luteinizing hormone (LH) (helps regulate the menstrual cycle by triggering ovulation)
Slide 33 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Menstrual Cycle Phases of the Menstrual Cycle The Proliferative Phase (9-10 days) The first phase during which the endometrium proliferates Follicles develop and prepare for ovulation The Ovulatory Phase Second phase during which a follicle ruptures and releases a mature ovum Clomiphene: a synthetic hormone that is chemically similar to LH and induces ovulation
Slide 34 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Menstrual Cycle The Secretory (luteal) Phase Due to the influence of LH, the corpus luteum, the follicle that has released an ovum, secretes large amounts of progesterone and estrogen. Hormones signal the secretion of nutrients to sustain an implanted ovum The Menstrual Phase If the ovum is not fertilized, estrogen and progesterone levels decline and the endometrium is removed from the body during menstruation. Low estrogen levels result in the release of FSH, which starts the process of another proliferative phase.
Slide 35 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Menstrual Cycle
Slide 36 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Menstrual Cycle Menopause The cessation of menstruation An event in the climacteric, the gradual decline in the reproductive capacity of the ovaries Commonly occurs between the ages of 46 and 50 Perimenopause: the beginning of menopause, which is characterized by several months of irregular or missing periods Involves a loss of estrogen, which may have unpleasant consequences
Slide 37 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Menstrual Cycle Symptoms that may result from estrogen loss Night sweats and hot flashes Headaches Decreased vaginal lubrication during sexual arousal Osteoporosis, which is characterized by a decline in bone density; bones become porous and brittle
Slide 38 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Menstrual Cycle Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Synthetic replacement of estrogen and/or progesterone Reduce symptoms of menopause Associated risks: Increased risk of breast cancer, stroke, and blood clots May make diagnosis of breast cancer more difficult
Slide 39 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Menstrual Problems Dysmenorrhea Pain or discomfort during menstruation Most common type of menstrual problem Primary dysmenorrhea Occurs in the absence of known organic problems Secondary dysmenorrhea Caused by identified organic problems Endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian cysts Menstrual cramps can be a cause of secondary dysmenorrhea – prostaglandins cause contractions
Slide 40 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Menstrual Problems Amenorrhea The absence of menstruation Primary amenorrhea Lack of menstruation in a woman who has never menstruated Secondary amenorrhea Lack of menstruation in a woman who has previously menstruated Is a symptom of anorexia nervosa
Slide 41 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Menstrual Problems Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Physical and psychological symptoms that may afflict women during the four- to six-day interval that precedes menstruation Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) A diagnosis used by the American Psychiatric Association to describe cases of PMS that are characterized by severe changes in mood and impaired functioning at work or school or in social relationships
Slide 42 - Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon Menstrual Problems Symptoms of PMDD: Feeling sad, hopeless, or worthless Tension, anxiety, feeling on edge Frequent crying, significant mood changes Irritability and anger, causing interpersonal conflict Decreased interest in activities and relationships Difficulty concentrating Fatigue, lethargy, lack of energy Notable changes in appetite (increased, decreased, cravings) Sleeping too much or difficulty sleeping Feeling overwhelmed or out of control Other physical symptoms: headache, pain, weight gain