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Environmentalism in Global Perspective PowerPoint Presentation

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On : Aug 07, 2014

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  • Slide 1 - POL S 384, Lecture 4 1 Environmentalism in Global Perspective The First Wave Early responses to Industrialization
  • Slide 2 - POLS 384, Lecture 4 2 First Wave: 19th Century Response to industrialization Arose in Britain first Urban/rural relationship Coal, deforestation, enclosure movement Imperialism and industrialization Ecological debt of First World to Third World 3 strands Back-to-the-land Scientific conservation Wilderness preservation
  • Slide 3 - POLS 384, Lecture 4 3 Back-to-the-land ●Romantics: Rescralization of nature - Cities as ecological parasites - Agrarian self-sufficiency William Wordsworth John Ruskin, Edward Carpenter Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau U.S.: Shakers, Amish, Quakers Gandhi Voluntary simplicity, village life, crafts and cottage industries Practical, NOT romantic
  • Slide 4 - POLS 384, Lecture 4 4 Scientific Conservation Finite resources should be rationally managed “Maximum sustainable yield” Applied to forests, freshwater, fisheries, wildlife Ideological link between conservation & conservatism Depends upon state control of resources Applied most extensively in colonies Authoritarian state rule unconstrained by parliaments & democracy George Perkins Marsh, Dietrich Brandis, Gifford Pinchot Opposition: anti-colonialist movements Peasant & nationalist movements
  • Slide 5 - POLS 384, Lecture 4 5 Wilderness Ideal Seems peculiar to U.S., but has old lineage Sacred groves ubiquitous across history & culture Colonial application of “wilderness” "Game reserves" in Africa excluded Africans from hunting National parks excluded them altogether Yellowstone: first national park in the world (1872) The U.S. at the forefront of the wilderness ideal John Muir founded Sierra Club (1892) Now, over 1000 around world. Aldo Leopold From scientific conservation to "land ethic" Deep ecology Arne Naess: strong Gandhian influence U.S. deep ecology movement: Earth First!
  • Slide 6 - POLS 384, Lecture 4 6 Some who don’t fit Forerunners of social ecology Socioeconomic critique Interaction of society & nature Intergenerational perspective Regional perspective Q: Was Gandhi an environmentalist? Q: What, if anything, ties together these strands of environmentalism?

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