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Emperor Penguins and Thermal Design PowerPoint Presentation

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Slide 1 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Emperor Penguins: Thermal Design & Family Life Issues R. J. Ribando July 4, 2004 Version 1.0 (DRAFT!) In some cases the action will take place automatically. If there is no activity after a few seconds then hit Enter, Page Down or the Navigation Button This presentation is a dramatization of the article by Y.L. Maho listed as a reference on the last slide.
Slide 2 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando EMPEROR – Unique breed between 66oS and 77oS. The biggest of the 16 species of penguins. King – Smaller breed north of 60oS in sub-Antarctic islands (Still smaller species along coasts of South America, Africa and Australia) [Mayo, 1977] Unfortunately, the only penguins in the Northern hemisphere are in zoos.
Slide 3 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Feed from January – March (Antarctic Summer) in open sea. In March they travel in single file to rookery As much as 120 km inland As many as 4000 in straight line. Some toboggan on stomach. Those that toboggan use their feet and flippers for propulsion.
Slide 4 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando They meet, socialize, pair off and mate in April. Mom lays egg in May and takes off fishing! As penguins go, you’re so hot! Wow, when we get married, you won’t have to rent a tux!
Slide 5 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Dad incubates the egg on his feet for 45 days while mom is off fishing. Winter Antarctic temperatures average –48oC (-50oF). Wind speed averages 40 m/s (90 mph) in some places! Dads lose 40% of body mass!
Slide 6 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Chicks hatch in mid-July (middle of winter in Southern hemisphere). Moms return from fishing, find mate based on acoustic signals only, take over child care. Guys take off fishing, - at this point they haven’t eaten for 115 days! Hi, honey, I’m home! I caught my limit! What took you so long? We’re starving!
Slide 7 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Brutal conditions leave hundreds of orphans and dead chicks. NOTE: Penguin chicks really don’t look like miniature adults; they are covered in down and they are cuter than the adults, just as with the human species.
Slide 8 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Want to know how I stay alive? Yes! No Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Feed Mate Lay Egg Hatch Breeding Timeline:
Slide 9 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Short Extremities Down undershirt with adjustable, overlapping feathers 30% Fat for maximum energy storage and as insulation layer Counterflow Hx’s in legs/feet Minimum ground contact Huddles with the guys in really foul weather Nearly spherical shape for minimum surface/volume ratio and increasing radius towards South Pole Two-tone color scheme for camouflage when swimming 43 Watts Exit Note: The human resting metabolic heating rate is only about 100 W – under much more comfortable conditions. USE GREEN NAVIGATION BUTTONS ON REMAINING SLIDES TO COME BACK HERE!
Slide 10 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando In Both Natural and Manmade Applications Extra Surface Area Is Used to Enhance Heat Transfer Elephants use their ears to dissipate waste heat. Asian elephants have much smaller ears than this African elephant. It’s not as hot where they live. In the cooling fins on this motorcycle, the heat travels along the fin by conduction and then is swept away from the exposed fin surface by convection to the air. In the ear of an elephant the longitudinal transport of heat is via blood flow.
Slide 11 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Cool Venous Blood Arteries and Veins Adjacent to Each Other in Legs Act as Counterflow Heat Exchangers- No Boots Needed! Warm Arterial Blood Feet at much lower temperature than body core – Don’t melt into snow and ice (as ours would.) Indicates Heat Transfer Counterflow heat exchange is not limited to penguins; seals and other marine birds use similar arrangements.
Slide 12 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Wind (Top View) Huddling with the Guys Huddling behavior cuts heat transfer by factor of two over individuals each facing the wind alone. 5000-6000 birds (10 bird/m2), shuffle along with wind at ~ 100 m/day. Each takes his turn “freezing his butt” at the windward edge where convection coefficient is highest, then moves up the sides and back into the center of the huddle.
Slide 13 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando (Side View) Remember that each of these guys has an egg perched between his overhanging belly and the tops of his feet!
Slide 14 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Less Severe Climate Allows King Penguins to Be Territorial During Incubation
Slide 15 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Emperors range from 20- 40 kg, 1.3 meters standing tall. Make as big as possible! Note that we have used the well-known “spherical penguin” approximation
Slide 16 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Two-Tone Color Scheme for Camouflage while Swimming Predators (seals, mostly) looking down from above barely sees the black against dark sea. Predator looking up from below barely sees the white against bright sky The same idea was used in camouflaging this 1960’s vintage reconnaissance aircraft.
Slide 17 - Emperor Penguins - R.J. Ribando Reference: Maho, Y.L., “The Emperor Penguin: A Strategy to Live and Breed in the Cold,” American Scientist, Vol. 65, Nov. - Dec. 1977. Literally everything, including the ideas for the graphics, come from this great article! (Photographer Unknown) Photo Credits: Harman, A., Endangered! Elephants, Benchmark Books, 1996. Sport Cycle Center, Norfolk, VA Pace, S., Lockheed’s Constellation, MBI, 1998. Photo from Dave Menard Collection. Author’s Note: The computer- generated penguins seen in this presentation are of a very rare white-headed subspecies of the Emperor that is not found in nature!