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Slide 1 - During his voyage on the Beagle, Charles Darwin made many observations in England. in North America. on the Galápagos Islands. in Asia.
Slide 2 - On the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed completely unrelated species on each of the islands. species exactly like those found in South America. somewhat similar species, with traits that suited their particular environments. species completely unrelated to those found in South America.
Slide 3 - The species of finches that Charles Darwin found on the Galápagos Islands displayed different structural adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin noted was the similarities of the birds’ embryos. birds’ different-shaped beaks. length of the birds’ necks. number of eggs in each bird’s nest.
Slide 4 - Based on the adaptations Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galápagos, he wondered if species living on different islands had once been members of the same species. if finches and tortoises had originated from the same ancestral species. if all birds on the different islands were finches. why all tortoises on the different islands were identical.
Slide 5 - Darwin began to formulate his concept of evolution by natural selection after experimentation with animals. observations of many species and their geographical location. reading the writings of Wallace. agreeing with Lamarck about the driving force behind evolution.
Slide 6 - James Hutton’s and Charles Lyell’s work suggests that Earth is many millions of years old. Earth is several thousand years old. all fossils were formed in the last 1000 years. all rocks on Earth contain fossils.
Slide 7 - In the 1800s, Charles Lyell emphasized that the human population will outgrow the available food supply. all populations evolve through natural selection. Earth is a few thousand years old. past geological events must be explained in terms of processes observable today.
Slide 8 - One scientist who attempted to explain how rock layers form and change over time was Thomas Malthus. James Hutton. Charles Darwin. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.
Slide 9 - James Hutton’s and Charles Lyell’s work was important to Darwin because these scientists explained volcanoes and earthquakes. explained all geologic events on Earth. suggested that Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred. refuted the work of Lamarck, which was based on misunderstandings.
Slide 10 - What did Charles Darwin learn from reading the work of James Hutton and Charles Lyell? Earth is relatively young. Earth is very old. All geological change is caused by living organisms. The processes that formed old rocks on Earth do not operate today.
Slide 11 - Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed that organisms have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection. have an innate tendency to become simpler as time passes. inherit all of the adaptations they display. belong to species that never change.
Slide 12 - Which is a major concept included in Lamarck’s theory of evolution? Change is the result of survival of the fittest. Body structure can change according to the actions of the organism. Population size decreases the rate of evolution. Artificial selection is the basis for evolution.
Slide 13 - Lamarck’s theory of evolution includes the concept that new organs in a species appear as a result of continual increases in population size. the actions of organisms as they use or fail to use body structures. an unchanging local environment. the natural variations already present within the population of organisms.
Slide 14 - In each generation, the wings of experimental fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal-length wings. This observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on inheritance of natural variations. inheritance of acquired characteristics. natural selection. survival of the fittest.
Slide 15 - The economist Thomas Malthus suggested that in the human population, people die faster than babies are born. there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population. in the 1700s, England needed more housing. the majority of a species’ offspring die.
Slide 16 - The idea that only famine, disease, and war could prevent the endless growth of human populations was presented by Charles Darwin. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. Thomas Malthus. Charles Lyell.
Slide 17 - Darwin realized that the economist Malthus’s theory of population control applied only to humans. could be generalized to any population of organisms. could be generalized only when populations lived in crowded conditions. explained why the number of deaths exceeded that of births.
Slide 18 - In 1859, Charles Darwin published his revolutionary scientific ideas in a work titled Principles of Geology. Essay on the Principle of Population. Evolution in Malaysia. On the Origin of Species.
Slide 19 - Darwin was prompted to publish his theory of evolution by an essay by Wallace on evolution. the publication of Lamarck’s theory of evolution. the vice governor of the Galápagos Islands. the work of Hutton and Lyell.
Slide 20 - When Charles Darwin returned from the voyage of the Beagle, he immediately published his ideas about evolution. realized his ideas about evolution were wrong. wrote about his ideas but waited many years to publish them. copied the evolutionary theory of Wallace.
Slide 21 - Why might Darwin have hesitated to publish his concept of evolution by natural selection? He realized it was not supported by his data. He felt it was too similar to Lamarck’s to be considered original. He was disturbed by his findings, which challenged fundamental scientific beliefs. He realized that his idea was contradicted by the work of Hutton and Lyell.
Slide 22 - Charles Darwin’s observation that finches of different species on the Galápagos Islands have many similar physical characteristics supports the hypothesis that these finches have the ability to interbreed. acquired traits through use and disuse. all eat the same type of food. descended from a common ancestor.
Slide 23 - According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to the possession of adaptations developed through use. possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness. lack of competition within the species. choices made by plant and animal breeders.
Slide 24 - When farmers select animals or plants to use for breeding, they look for species that are perfect and unchanging. homologous structures. traits that are produced artificially. natural variations that are present in a species.
Slide 25 - When a farmer breeds only his or her best livestock, the process involved is natural selection. artificial selection. artificial variation. survival of the fittest.
Slide 26 - When lions prey on a herd of antelopes, some antelopes are killed and some escape. Which part of Darwin’s concept of natural selection might be used to describe this situation? acquired characteristics reproductive isolation survival of the fittest descent with modification
Slide 27 - Which statement about the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with the theory of natural selection? They transmit characteristics acquired by use and disuse to their offspring. They tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the population. They are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment. They will perpetuate unfavorable changes in the species.
Slide 28 - Charles Darwin called the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its specific environment diversity. fitness. adaptation. evolution.
Slide 29 - According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, the individuals that tend to survive are those that have characteristics their parents acquired by use and disuse. characteristics that plant and animal breeders value. the greatest number of offspring. variations best suited to the environment.
Slide 30 - Which of the following phrases best describes the results of natural selection? the natural variation found in all populations unrelated but similar species living in different locations changes in the inherited characteristics of a population the struggle for existence undergone by all living things
Slide 31 - An adaptation is an inherited characteristic that can be physical or behavioral. physical or geographical. acquired during the organism’s lifetime. the result of artificial selection.
Slide 32 - In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thigh bone, are involved in walking. In whales, the pelvis and femur shown in Figure 15–1 are examples of fossils. vestigial structures. acquired traits. examples of natural variation.
Slide 33 - Modern sea star larvae resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that primitive vertebrates share a common ancestor with sea stars. evolved from sea stars. evolved before sea stars. belong to the same species as sea stars.
Slide 34 - Darwin’s concept of evolution was NOT influenced by the work of Charles Lyell. knowledge about the structure of DNA. his collection of specimens. his trip on the H.M.S. Beagle.
Slide 35 - People of Charles Darwin’s time understood that fossils were preserved remains of ancient organisms. were available for every organism that ever lived. were unrelated to living species. were evidence for the evolution of life on Earth.
Slide 36 - The number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living vertebrates. Most biologists would probably explain this fact on the basis of the needs of the organisms. a common ancestor. the struggle for existence. the inheritance of acquired traits.
Slide 37 - Charles Darwin viewed the fossil record as evidence that Earth was thousands of years old. a detailed record of evolution. interesting but unrelated to the evolution of modern species. evidence that traits are acquired through use or disuse.
Slide 38 - The hypothesis that species change over time by natural selection was proposed by James Hutton. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. Thomas Malthus. Charles Darwin.
Slide 39 - Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution explains all of the following EXCEPT how species become extinct. how inherited traits are passed from parent to offspring. how species change over time. how evolution takes place in the natural world.
Slide 40 - Darwin’s theory of evolution suggests that species change over time. extinct species are not related to living species. different species can interbreed. animals that look alike are the most closely related.
Slide 41 - Darwin’s theory of evolution is based on the idea(s) of heritable variation and natural selection. use and disuse. a tendency toward perfect, unchanging species. the transmission of acquired characteristics.
Slide 42 - The same kinds of cells that grow in similar patterns in different but related organisms produce homologous structures such as wings and arms. the same kind of embryos. natural variations in a population. descent with modification.
Slide 43 - Which statement is in agreement with Darwin’s theory of evolution? More offspring are produced than can possibly survive. The organisms that are the fittest are always largest and strongest. The number of offspring is not related to fitness. Acquired characteristics that are inherited are the cause of evolution.
Slide 44 - Which concept is NOT included in the modern theory of evolution? descent with modification natural selection transmission of acquired characteristics competition among the members of a population
Slide 45 - Which phrase best defines evolution by natural selection? an adaptation of a species to its environment a sudden replacement of one population by another changes in a species as it becomes more perfect a process of change in species over time
Slide 46 - After his voyage on the Beagle,Charles Darwin wondered whether similar species from the Galápagos Islands could once have been members of the same species. _________________________ True False
Slide 47 - Charles Darwin came to realize that organisms of the same species are identical. _________________________ True False
Slide 48 - According to Lamarck, the sea floor can be pushed up to form mountains by forces within Earth. _________________________ True False
Slide 49 - In Charles Darwin’s time, many people thought that Earth and its living things were formed about a few thousand years ago. _________________________ True False
Slide 50 - Evidence that the surface of a mountain was once under the sea includes the presence of marine fossils on the mountain. _________________________ True False
Slide 51 - Lyell hypothesized that human populations are kept in check by war, disease, and famine. _________________________ True False
Slide 52 - In 1858, Alfred Russel Wallace sent Charles Darwin an essay proposing an explanation for evolution that was very similar to Darwin’s. _________________________ True False
Slide 53 - Artificial selection as practiced by farmers is also called natural selection. _________________________ True False
Slide 54 - In natural selection, human breeders, rather than the environment, select the variations of traits to be passed to offspring. ______________________________ True False
Slide 55 - According to Darwin, the word selection would be applied to organisms adapted to survive and reproduce in their particular environments. _________________________ True False
Slide 56 - The term fitness refers to an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce in a specific environment. _________________________ True False
Slide 57 - The fact that species today look different from their ancestors can be described as descent with modification. _________________________ True False
Slide 58 - According to the concept of natural variation, living and extinct species evolved from the same ancestors. ______________________________ True False
Slide 59 - According to Charles Darwin, individuals best suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully. _________________________ True False
Slide 60 - According to Charles Darwin, members of a species must share limited resources. _________________________ True False
Slide 61 - Participant Scores
Slide 62 - James Hutton thought that rocks from the sea floor could be pushed up very high to form ____________________.
Slide 63 - James Hutton and Charles Lyell held similar views about Earth’s age. Both thought that Earth was ____________________ of years old.
Slide 64 - The geologist ____________________ proposed that past changes in Earth must be explained in terms of events and processes observable today.
Slide 65 - According to Lamarck, evolution resulted from the inheritance of ____________________ traits.
Slide 66 - According to Lamarck’s theory of the inheritance of _________________________, the long legs of certain shore birds could be acquired by frequent wading in water and then passed on to offspring.
Slide 67 - Although his idea was incorrect, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was one of the first people to propose a scientific explanation for ____________________.
Slide 68 - When a population’s birthrate exceeds its death rate, the size of the population ____________________.
Slide 69 - Charles Darwin applied Thomas Malthus’s thoughts about human population growth to all ____________________.
Slide 70 - Charles Darwin observed that instead of being perfect and unchanging, individuals in a species show ____________________.
Slide 71 - Charles Darwin concluded that, in similar environments around the world, ____________________ could produce similar structures in unrelated species.
Slide 72 - Certain animal structures that have different functions in different species and develop from the same embryonic tissues are called ____________________ structures.
Slide 73 - According to Darwin’s theory of evolution, ____________________ change over time.
Slide 74 - According to Darwin’s theory of evolution, all species on Earth are united by _________________________.
Slide 75 - Darwin proposed that natural selection took place as individuals best suited to the ____________________ survived and reproduced.
Slide 76 - Charles Darwin realized that the measure of success for an organism was not only a long period of survival but also ____________________.
Slide 77 - In what way did the voyage of the Beagle provide Charles Darwin with an ideal opportunity for collecting and analyzing data?
Slide 78 - State a general observation that Charles Darwin made about organisms and their environments.
Slide 79 - What evidence did Charles Darwin collect in addition to specimens of organisms alive during his time?
Slide 80 - What was the scientific value of the specimens that Charles Darwin brought back to England?
Slide 81 - What did Charles Darwin learn about the land tortoises of the various Galápagos Islands?
Slide 82 - What did observations of the tortoises of the Galápagos lead Charles Darwin to hypothesize about these animals’ ancestry?
Slide 83 - What was Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s overall belief about the way organisms changed over time?
Slide 84 - What did Charles Darwin discover about the Galápagos birds that he thought were different kinds of wrens, warblers, and blackbirds?
Slide 85 - Were Darwin’s hypotheses about natural selection and evolution similar to the ideas of most other scientists of his time? Explain
Slide 86 - How did the farmers observed by Charles Darwin improve their livestock?
Slide 87 - In artificial selection, what factor substitutes for naturally occurring selection pressures?
Slide 88 - Figure 15–1
Slide 89 - According to Figure 15–1, modern whales have a vestigial pelvis and femur. What does this evidence suggest about ancestors of modern whales?
Slide 90 - How could vestigial structures like the whale pelvis and femur shown in Figure 15–1 contribute to the theory of evolution?
Slide 91 - What did Charles Darwin conclude about the existence of a common ancestor for all life?
Slide 92 - Summarize Charles Darwin’s contribution to science.
Slide 93 - Explain how the finches and tortoises that Charles Darwin observed on the Galápagos Islands influenced his thinking.
Slide 94 - What was Charles Darwin’s greatest contribution to science, and how did he develop it?
Slide 95 - Discuss Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s contribution to the overall theory of evolution.
Slide 96 - How did Thomas Malthus’s ideas about human population growth inspire Darwin’s thinking about evolution?
Slide 97 - Why is it possible that Alfred Wallace independently developed the same ideas about evolution that Darwin did?
Slide 98 - How did the practices of English farmers influence Darwin’s concept of natural selection?
Slide 99 - Suppose selective breeding has produced a population of very similar chickens. Would that population survive if it were released into the wild? Explain
Slide 100 - What might happen if a well-adapted population experienced sudden major changes in its environment?
Slide 101 - How is the idea of common descent supported by examples of homologous structures?
Slide 102 - What sources of evidence did Charles Darwin consider when he presented his concept of evolution by natural selection?