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DRONES WARBOTS AND AUTONOMOUS WEAPONS SYSTEMS Mark PowerPoint Presentation

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On : Jan 08, 2015

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  • Slide 1 - International Humanitarian Law and New Technologies of Warfare Lou Maresca Legal Adviser ICRC
  • Slide 2 - DRONES, WARBOTS AND AUTONOMOUS WEAPONS
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  • Slide 5 - A classification of systems Controlled Supervised Automated Autonomous
  • Slide 6 - Controlled A system that requires activation, direction and manipulation by a person ("man in the loop").
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  • Slide 8 - Supervised A system is essentially an automated weapon or that has some degree of self-function but this function is permanently supervised by a human operator. Operator supervises, does not initiate every function but may, at any time, block or take over the automated function of the system. ("man in the loop").
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  • Slide 10 - Automated A system functions in an independent manner and does not require the intervention of a human operative for activation, direction, manipulation, nor for any other function. System is pre-programmed in a specific manner and cannot adapt its function outside those parameters. "Fire-and-forget" or "target-and-forget systems.
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  • Slide 13 - Autonomous An automated weapon that can adapt its function to changing circumstances. This is the world of artificial intelligence.
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  • Slide 15 - ?????
  • Slide 16 - What does IHL say about all this …
  • Slide 17 - IHL does NOT prohibit technological developments for war fighting BUT these developments MUST be measured and assessed against existing legal norms.
  • Slide 18 - In the study, development, acquisition or adoption of a new weapon or method of warfare, States Parties have an obligation to determine whether its use would, in some or all circumstances, be prohibited by Add. Protocol I or by any other rule of international law. – Art. 36 1977 Additional Protocol I
  • Slide 19 - Rule of Distinction Obligation to distinguish at all times: civilians and other protected persons from combatants civilian objects from military objectives
  • Slide 20 - Indiscriminate attacks are prohibited attacks not directed at a specific military objective means and methods of warfare that cannot be directed at a a specific military objective
  • Slide 21 - Proportionality in attack It is prohibited to launch an attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss to civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects which would be excessive to the military advantage anticipated.
  • Slide 22 - Rules on precautions In the conduct of military operations, constant care must be taken to spare civilians and civilian objects: Do everything feasible to verify that the objectives to be attacked are military objectives Take all feasible precautions in the choice of weapons with a view to avoid or in any event minimize incidental loss of civilian life
  • Slide 23 - Issues and concerns Autonomy: the absence of a "man in the loop" and related issues of target identification Application of IHL rules distinction, proportionality and precautions. Is it feasible to program IHL compliance? Where would liability/responsibility lie for failure or violations?
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  • Slide 25 - Further increasing remoteness and distance from the battlefield How many "men in the loop" for 1 system or how many systems for 1 "man in the loop"? Information overload Increasing human-computer interface and reliance Other issues
  • Slide 26 - Propositions … Current IHL covers controlled systems Current law covers supervised systems Current law should cover automatic systems Current law may not be enough for autonomous systems
  • Slide 27 - Other issues Cyber warfare Deleted uranium Incapacitating chemical agents The weaponization of biotechnology
  • Slide 28 - Questions?

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