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Slide 1 - 1 WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE By Michele Colucci - University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Spring Semester 2008
Slide 2 - 2 Something to think about... “The goal of those involved in professional sports, Whitman says, is to win – now and at virtually any cost.  The financial and social benefits gained from on-field success and the rapidly diminishing time window for athletes to achieve that success contribute to a modern sports culture that emphasizes the ends over the means – victory over integrity!” Josh Whitman, 2008
Slide 3 - 3 DOPING Definition: the use and abuse of performance enhancing substances in elite sport. Derivation: from the Dutch word “dop”, a beverage that Zulu warriors used prior to battle. Term became current ~ start of 20th century in reference to illegal drugging of racehorses
Slide 4 - 4 DOPING - History Egyptian slaves fed elixirs (likely from khat leaves) thought to relieve stress Slaves of the Incas worked better after chewing coca leaves A century ago, marathoners & cyclists used strychnine, and cyclists used caffeine, cocaine, and even alcohol for an advantage.
Slide 5 - 5 DOPING - History 1928 – IAAF bans doping (use of stimulants) 1966 – FIFA (football) & UCI (cycling) introduce drug testing at championships 1968 – drug testing first used in Olympic Games 1976 – IOC bans anabolic steroids 1979 – testing for illegal drugs by IOC begins 1986 – IOC bans blood doping 1999 – World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) founded 2000 - first Olympics testing for EPO
Slide 6 - 6 Motivations for Use of DOPING To enhance performance Increased strength, endurance, alertness, aggression Decreased reaction time, fatigue, anxiety, muscle tremor Belief that others are using PES (performance enhancing substances) Coping with pain and injury rehabilitation
Slide 7 - 7 Prevention of DOPING Acknowledge that athletes use PES Education about PES at all levels Education of athletes, coaches, parents, public Marketing to sell the concept of “clean” sports” and condemnation of PES use Penalties – financial and no-compete Appeal to Ethics Attention to athlete’s non-sports issues
Slide 8 - 8 World Anti-Doping Agency WADA is responsible for: The World Anti-Doping Program, including the World Anti-Doping Code Worldwide out of comp testing program Research Education and Ethics Independent Observers
Slide 9 - 9 The World Anti-Doping Program Purpose: To protect athletes’ fundamental right to participate in doping-free sport. To ensure harmonised, coordinated and effective anti-doping programs.
Slide 10 - 10 The WADA Code “The purpose of the Code is to ensure the fight against drugs in sport is intensified, accelerated, harmonised and unified.” Dick Pound, WADA President – March 2003
Slide 11 - 11 Structure of the WADP Level 1 – The “Code” itself Level 2 - International Standards Level 3 – Models of Best Practice
Slide 12 - 12 The Code Harmonisation of doping rules will level the playing field. Principles-based document. Includes rules and responsibilities.
Slide 14 - 14 International Standards Standard for The Prohibited List. Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions. Standard for Testing Standard for Laboratories.
Slide 15 - 15 Models of Best Practice Being prepared by WADA & tailored to stakeholder needs. Compliant with the Code and International Standards. Not mandatory - provide alternatives from which stakeholders may select. Model Rules of Best Practice for IFs are available on the WADA website.
Slide 16 - 16 Acceptance of the Code At the World Conference on Doping in Sport in Copenhagen, 5 March 2003. Accepted by all major sports federations, key stakeholders and 60 Government. New Revised Code (entry into force: January 1, 2009)
Slide 17 - 17 Key Issues under the Code DOPING CONTROL Anti-Doping Rule Violations Mandatory Sanctions The List Therapeutic Use Athlete Whereabouts WADA Clearinghouse
Slide 18 - 18 Key Issues – the Code The Definition of Doping Anti-doping rule violations: ‘Current’ Violations (presence of, use, refusals): New violations: relating to athlete whereabouts. Evasions Admissions under ‘attempted use’ Improved provisions for: Trafficking, possession, administration etc.
Slide 19 - 19 SANCTIONS Basic sanctions for a 1st and 2nd offence Mandatory 2 years and life unless exceptional circumstances apply. ‘Exceptional Circumstances’ Provide for a sanction to be waived/reduced if no fault/no significant fault can be established. Lesser penalties for ‘specified substances’ Sanctions for other A-D rule violations.
Slide 21 - 21 VIOLATIONS & SANCTIONS For Prohibited Substances and Methods: The presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites in a specimen. Use or attempted use, including admissions. Possession. First violation: 2 years Second violation: lifetime, However ‘exceptional circumstances’ clause may be invoked.
Slide 22 - 22 VIOLATIONS & SANCTIONS For ‘Specified’ Substances: Substances susceptible to ‘inadvertent doping’. First violation: At a minimum, a warning and reprimand and no period of ineligibility from future Events, and at a maximum, 1 year Second violation: 2 years Third violation: Lifetime Exceptional circumstances may apply.
Slide 23 - 23 VIOLATIONS & SANCTIONS Refusing or failing to commit to sample collection, including evasion. Tampering. First violation: 2 years Second violation: lifetime Exceptional circumstances may apply.
Slide 24 - 24 VIOLATIONS & SANCTIONS Trafficking Administration of Prohibited Substances or Methods. Assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, covering up First violation: minimum 4 years up to a lifetime of ineligibility Athlete support personnel who violate non-sporting laws may be reported to authorities.
Slide 25 - 25 VIOLATIONS & SANCTIONS Failure to provide required whereabouts information Missed tests which are declared based on reasonable rules May either be intentional or negligent conduct of the Athlete First violation: minimum 3 months and at a maximum 2 years Subsequent period established in anti-doping organisations rules
Slide 26 - 26 CONSEQUENCES OF A POSITIVE TEST RESULT At competition and multi-race events Automatic disqualification of the results Disqualified from all events, eg at Olympics. For teams One team member in a Team Sport: Target Testing for the Event More than one team member: subject to disqualification or other disciplinary action
Slide 27 - 27 PERIOD OF INELIGIBILITY Starts on the date of the hearing decision, or if justified at an earlier date, and athlete: Should not participate in any capacity Some or all sport-related financial support or other sport-related benefits withheld Mutual Recognition Available for out of competition testing Provide whereabouts information
Slide 28 - 28 The Prohibited List Single list, based on evidence and research. 2 of 3 criteria must be satisfied for inclusion. Performance Enhancing Pose unnecessary risk of harm Violate the ‘spirit of sport’ Exemptions are not permitted but IF can recommend additions to the basic List
Slide 29 - 29 Key Issues Therapeutic Use Exemption “Permission to use, for therapeutic purposes, drugs which are otherwise prohibited in sporting competition”
Slide 30 - 30 Therapeutic Use Exemption Standard Mandatory Criteria and process for TUE Retrospectivity – emergency medical treatment IF/NF Responsibilities
Slide 31 - 31 Athlete Whereabouts Athletes are responsible for providing correct and accurate whereabouts information to the responsible organisation. Failure to do so amounts to an anti-doping rule violation under the Code. WADA is the central Clearing House for all doping control information.
Slide 32 - 32 Other Key Points under the Code Testing & Analysis Results Management Right to a Fair Hearing & Appeals National/international level athletes Roles and Responsibilities Acceptance and Implementation
Slide 33 - 33 Testing Standards Ensure that athletes are tested in the same manner wherever they are Maintain the integrity, identity, and security of samples.
Slide 34 - 34 Standards Testing Standards Planning of testing Selection of athletes Notification of athletes Sample collection Transport of samples.
Slide 35 - 35 Standards Laboratory accreditation standard Ensure a world wide system where results may apply across boundaries. Achieve uniform results and reporting standards.
Slide 36 - 36 Key Points Results Management Right to a Fair Hearing Appeals
Slide 37 - 37 Key Points National/International Level Athletes Different requirements re: TUEs Registered Testing Pools Appeals
Slide 38 - 38 Clarification of Responsibilities Clarification of Responsibilities Coordination of Testing & Results Event testing – only 1 organisation initiates and directs tests at events Out-Of-Competition Testing – WADA coordinates Mutual recognition – testing, TUE, hearings and appeals: recognised and respected by all signatories
Slide 39 - 39 EDUCATION & RESEARCH Each anti-doping organisation should plan, implement and monitor information and education programs, at a minimum on: Substances & methods on the Prohibited List Health consequences of doping Doping Control procedures Athletes' rights and responsibilities
Slide 40 - 40 Roles and Responsibilities Relationship between the NF & IF. NF will interact with the Code through IF. IF is now clearly responsible for ensuring consistent response from the NF. Harmonisation of rules Vertical uniformity will ensure that athletes are not subject to different rules within the same sport. Recognition of athletes and their support personnel.
Slide 41 - 41 Acceptance & Compliance Acceptance and implementation of the Code Each IF shall accept and implement the Code on or before Athens Olympic Games. Consequences of non-compliance By a government or NOC, shall result in consequences with respect to the Olympic Games, World champs or major events.
Slide 42 - 42 THE FIGHT AGAINST DOPING IN THE USA The Mitchell report (December 2007)...beyond simple recommendations... “The minority of players who used (performance enhancing) substances were wrong. They violated federal law and baseball policy, and they distorted the fairness of competition by trying to gain an unfair advantage over the majority of players who followed the law and the rules. They – the players who follow the law and the rules – are faced with the painful choice of either being placed at a competitive disadvantage or becoming illegal users themselves. No one should have to make that choice.
Slide 43 - 43 “In doping, the war is never won” Juan Antonio Samaranch former IOC president