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Slide 1 - A critical perspective on peace through tourism Freya Higgins-Desbiolles School of Management UniSA
Slide 2 - Introduction Tourism’s many positive contributions- economic, social, cultural, ecological & spiritual Contemporary discourse focuses on economic & business domains to the exclusion of tourism’s social values As early as Thomas Cook in the mid-1800s, tourism has been noted as “ a great & beneficial social force” ( Turner & Ash, 1976). I am trying to revive this view.
Slide 3 - Louis D’Amore’s Dimensions of Peace through Tourism Inspired by the multiple meanings of the Russian word “mir”- which means the universe, the Earth, human race, peace, tranquillity, peace between peoples & states, freedom from war D’Amore seeks a positive & multidimensional definition of the concept Peace as peace within ourselves, peace with other people, peace between nations, peace with nature, peace with universe, peace with our God (D’Amore 1988)
Slide 4 - The International Institute For Peace Through Tourism (IIPT) is a not for profit organization dedicated to fostering & facilitating tourism initiatives which contribute to international understanding & cooperation, an improved quality of environment, the preservation of heritage, & through these initiatives, helping to bring about a peaceful & sustainable world. It is based on a vision of the world's largest industry, travel & tourism - becoming the world's first global peace industry; & the belief that every traveler is potentially an "Ambassador for Peace. A primary goal of IIPT is to mobilize the travel & tourism industry as a leading force for poverty reduction.
Slide 5 - International Institute for Peace through Tourism IIPT global peace parks Credo of the peaceful traveller Conferences Partnerships with industry on initiatives like the charity “just a drop”, Pro-poor tourism IIPT Peace awards World Peace travel agency IIPT consultancy wing
Slide 6 - Critique Sustainability & pro-poor rhetoric has been diluted as part of a PR offensive by powerful agencies such as World Travel & Tourism Council & IIPT seems to be collaborating on this agenda Examination of the membership of Board of Directors & Advisory Group suggests it has been subject to corporate capture- it has representatives of tourism boards, tourism agencies & powerful politicians. The second IIPT African Conference on Peace through Tourism received scathing comments from invited speaker Navaya ole Ndaskoi, Coordinator of Indigenous Rights for Survival, who described the gathering as “a brutal freak show for money” in a letter rejecting the invitation (Alcantara, 2003). Amongst other criticisms, Ndaskoi challenged the hypocrisy of promoting a pro-poor agenda while using a five star venue in Dar es Salaam to hold the conference (Ndaskoi, 2003).
Slide 7 - My understanding Tourism industry responded to the anti-globalisation movement through concerted public relations campaign – “liberalisation with a human face” in which pro-poor tourism and peace through tourism give them good publicity to overshadow the exploitation & degradation of people & environments that tourism brings- this is intended to prevent regulation & limits
Slide 8 - Justice Tourism Tourism is inherently a justice issue (Fennell, 2006: 102) with its differential impacts on developing and developed communities. Justice tourism has recently emerged as a phenomenon worthy of further analysis.
Slide 9 - Justice Tourism Principles Builds solidarity between visitors and those visited; Promotes mutual understanding and relationships based on equality, sharing and respect; Supports self-sufficiency and self-determination of local communities; and Maximises local economic, cultural and social benefits (Scheyvens 2002).
Slide 10 - Example of Justice Tourism GLOBAL EXCHANGE’s REALITY TOURS US-Mexico Border : Day of the Dead/Dia de los MuertosOctober 31, 2004 - November 03, 2004 Ireland - The North of Ireland : A Lasting Peace - with Justice? August 01, 2005 - August 15, 2005 Afghanistan : Women Making ChangeJune 12, 2005 - June 21, 2005 Brazil : World Social Forum 2005- Another World is PossibleJanuary 21, 2005 - February 01, 2005 Palestine/Israel : Fact Finding DelegationOctober 17, 2004 - October 28, 2004 Russia - the Former USSR : Russia - A Changing EmpireJune 10, 2005 - June 24, 2005
Slide 11 - International Society for Ecology & Culture: Reciprocity in Tourism See:
Slide 12 - Evidence from Research Kelly’s study of Community Aid Abroad’s One World Tours “study tours” provides insights into the alternative tourism consumer- but it is CAA’s Community Leadership Tour which is most exemplary McGehee & Norman’s (2002) study of Earthwatch argues that these tours provide social networks, consciousness-raising, awareness of the concept “the personal is political” and fosters social solidarity leading to global citizenship
Slide 13 - Justice tourism takes on unfair globalisation Anti-globalisation activists -better called global justice advocates- have gathered for a series of annual meetings in order to challenge the structures & dynamics of unjust globalisation since 2001 under the title the World Social Forum (WSF) The 2004 WSF convened in Mumbai, India placed tourism on the agenda for the first time at a Global Summit on Tourism. The theme was ‘Who really benefits from tourism?’ The summit issued a call to ‘democratise tourism!’. One NGO participant, the Ecumenical Coalition on Tourism (ECOT) called for a tourism that is ‘pro-people’ (ECOT, 2003).
Slide 14 - Tourism Interventions Group Those gathered at WSF 2004 formed the Tourism Interventions Group (TIG) which declared: “Democracy, transparency and corporate and governmental accountability in tourism will be placed high on the agenda for concerted action and strategic interventions. We look forward to working in solidarity with local community representatives, activists and researchers from various parts of the world to strengthen our struggle and develop strategies for a tourism that is equitable, people-centred, sustainable, ecologically sensible, child-friendly and gender-just”. (TIG, 2004)
Slide 15 - The Promise of Tourism Before the advent of the neoliberal era, tourism was dedicated to establishing a New International Economic Order (Asher 1985) The Manila Declaration of 1980 held that “world tourism can only flourish if based on equity … and if its ultimate aim is the improvement of the quality of life and the creation of better living conditions for all peoples” It expected tourism to “help to eliminate the widening economic gap between developed and developing countries”
Slide 16 - Inayatullah’s tourism checklist: How does tourism affect the distribution of wealth? Does tourism create conditions where economic growth is sustaining? Does tourism reduce structural violence (systemic poverty, ill-health and racism ) or does it contribute to further impoverishment of the periphery? Does tourism enhance individual & social peace? Does tourism create the possibilities for cultural pluralism? Can knowledge of the Other reduce intolerance, creating the possibility of a multicultural peaceful world? Does tourism help create economic democracy? Is tourism progressive? Does it use resources progressively, from physical to mental to cultural-spiritual? (1995)
Slide 17 - The Ultimate Promise of Tourism Cohen and Kennedy (2000) contend that tourism “… contributes to the growth of globalism – a more intense feeling of common membership of the human collectivity. It does this by exposing us directly to a multicultural world where the boundaries between societies and between insiders and outsiders are becoming increasingly blurred”.
Slide 18 - Stilwell’s Model: Can we apply this to tourism?
Slide 19 - Conclusion Justice tourism is about challenging this system & engaging with alternative visions of global order that could be more just & sustainable.
Slide 20 - References Ecumenical Coalition on Tourism (2003) Concept paper for World Social Forum. Unpublished document. Hong Kong: ECOT. Fennell, D. A. (2006) Tourism Ethics. Clevedon, UK: Channel View. Global Exchange (no date) Reality tours. Online documents at URL [6 June 2005].
Slide 21 - International Society for Ecology and Culture (no date) The Ladakh project. Online documents at URL [30 June 2005]. McGehee, N. & Norman, W. C. (2002). Alternative tourism as impetus for consciousness-raising. Tourism Analysis, 6, 239-251. Oxfam Australia (no date) Community leadership program. Online documents at URL [2 November 2005].
Slide 22 - Poon, A. (1993). A global transformation. In A. Poon. Tourism, technology and competitive strategies (pp. 85-92). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Scheyvens, R. (2002) Tourism for Development: Empowering Communities. Harlow, England: Prentice-Hall. Sklair, L. (2002) Globalization, Capitalism and its Alternatives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Stilwell, F. (2002). Political economy: The contest of economic ideas. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Tourism Interventions Group (2004) Who really benefits from tourism? Statement of Concern at the 4th WSF. Online documents at URL [4 April 2005].
Slide 23 - This presentation is based on the academic analysis presented in: Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2008) Justice tourism and alternative globalisation. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, in press.