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Digi Zigbee Mesh networking PowerPoint Presentation

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On : Mar 14, 2014

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  • Slide 1 - ZigBEE
  • Slide 2 - Fundamentals of ZigBee Low Cost Low Power Security-enabled Reliable Initial Target Markets were AMR, Building Automation, and Industrial Automation (M2M Comms)
  • Slide 3 - ZigBee Protocol Where Does ZigBee Fit? Data Rate vs. Range vs. Battery Life (not shown)
  • Slide 4 - Wireless Standards Comparison
  • Slide 5 - The Value of Mesh: Extending Range Reduced Function Device Point-to-Multipoint Communications Flow out of range, no RF connectivity
  • Slide 6 - The Value of Mesh: Extending Range RF Node Mesh Node Hopping Communications Flow leverage network nodes to increase range and establish RF connectivity
  • Slide 7 - The Value of Mesh: Self Healing/Discovery RF Node Mesh Node Hopping Communications Flow unexpected interruptions in the network can be automatically compensated for by re-directing communication
  • Slide 8 - Zigbee Pro Feature Set Section 1
  • Slide 9 - ZigBee Feature Sets ZigBee releases are defined as “Feature Sets” A Feature Set refers to a group, or set, of features. There are two Feature Sets in the latest update to the ZigBee specification: ZigBee Feature Set and the ZigBee PRO Feature Set. “ZigBee 2004”, “ZigBee 2006”, and “ZigBee 2007” are colloquial references and not endorsed by the ZigBee Alliance
  • Slide 10 - ZigBee Events ZigBee Technology 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003 Need for WPANs IEEE 802.15.4 released ZigBee “2004” ratified ZigBee “2004” available ZigBee Feature Set available ZigBee PRO Feature Set available “Smart Energy” profile ratified Point-to-multipoint / peer-to-peer networks Feeble, mesh networking; tree-based addressing architecture; very small node density “Enhanced” mesh; pseudo-stochastic addressing; support for more dense networks; compatibility issues Significantly improved mesh; support for thousands of nodes; broad interoperability
  • Slide 11 - ZigBee Feature Set (2004) Router Reduced Function Device Communications Flow Tree Mesh Coordinator
  • Slide 12 - ZigBee Pro Feature Set Router Reduced Function Device Communications Flow Stochastic Mesh Coordinator
  • Slide 13 - ZigBee & IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee uses the PHY and MAC defined by 802.15.4 Accordingly, ZigBee is a WPAN network, but with added networking intelligence ZigBee inherits the RF characteristics of its 802.15.4 platform: RF Link Budget Current Draw
  • Slide 14 - Simplified ZigBee Stack PHY (2.4 GHz, 900 MHz, 868 MHz) MAC ZigBee Network Layer IEEE 802.15.4 User defined ZigBee APS Security Services ZigBee Device Object (ZDO) User Application ZigBee Protocol
  • Slide 15 - 802.15.4 Protocol 802.15.4 Specifications Supported Networks Point-Point Point-Multipoint/Star Types of Nodes Coordinator End Node Reliable Delivery CSMA/CA MAC-level (pt-pt) Retries/Acknowledgments 64-bit IEEE and 16-bit short Addressing 16 DSSS RF Channels 802.15.4 PHY 802.15.4 MAC ZigBee Network ZigBee APS ZigBee AF ZigBee ZDO
  • Slide 16 - 802.15.4 Protocol 802.15.4 Nodes in a PAN (Personal Area Network)
  • Slide 17 - ZigBee Protocol Supported Networks Point-Point Point-Multipoint/Star MESH Types of Nodes Coordinator End Node ROUTER Reliable Delivery CSMA/CA MAC-level (pt-pt) Retries/Acknowledgments MESH NETWORK-level (multi-hop) Retries/ACKs 16 DSSS RF Channels 802.15.4 PHY 802.15.4 MAC ZigBee Network ZigBee APS ZigBee AF ZigBee ZDO
  • Slide 18 - ZigBee Protocol ZigBee Nodes in a PAN (Personal Area Network)
  • Slide 19 - ZigBee Protocol ZigBee Specifications Addressing 64-bit IEEE Address Unique to every 802.15.4 device in the world Permanent, assigned during mfg 16-bit Network Addressing Unique to each module within a PAN Used in Routing Tables Used for data transmissions, etc. Volatile Address - Can Change 802.15.4 PHY 802.15.4 MAC ZigBee Network ZigBee APS ZigBee AF ZigBee ZDO
  • Slide 20 - 802.15.4 Data Transmission modes Broadcast Mode To send a broadcast packet to all radios regardless of 16-bit or 64-bit addressing Unicast Mode – Guaranteed Delivery 64-bit IEEE Addressing Destination 64-bit Address to match 64-bit source address of intended receiver. 16-bit Network Addressing Destination 16-bit Address to match 16-bit source address of intended receiver ZigBee Protocol needs/uses
  • Slide 21 - PAN Network Formation Coordinator must select an unused operating channel and PAN ID Energy scan on all channels Sends Beacon request (Broadcast PAN ID) Listens to all responses and logs the results After the Coordinator has started, it will allow nodes to join to it for a time based on the specified Node Join Time ZigBee Protocol
  • Slide 22 - Router Startup A new Router must locate a Router that has already joined a PAN or a Coordinator Sends a Broadcast PAN ID on each channel Returns sent via Unicast Router will then try to join to a Router or Coordinator that is allowing joining ZigBee Protocol
  • Slide 23 - End node: Low-power Sleep Modes End Node Startup A new End node must locate a Router that has already joined a PAN or a Coordinator Sends a Broadcast PAN ID on each channel Returns sent via Unicast End node will then try to join to a parent (Router or Coordinator) that is allowing joining ZigBee Protocol
  • Slide 24 - Single Point of Failure Common Belief: If a Coordinator fails, the network fails FALSE: If a Coordinator fails, the network continues to function, but without certain non-essential features of the Coordinator
  • Slide 25 - Broadcast Transmissions - Relayed to All Nodes No Acks are transmitted – Routers listen to neighboring Routers to know if message was retransmitted Retransmit if neighbors are not heard (up to 2 times) Broadcast Transaction Table used to ensure Routers do not repeat a message they have already repeated Expensive time wise C R R R R R R R R R ZigBee Protocol
  • Slide 26 - Route Discovery consists of the following commands: Route Request (broadcast) 64-bit address used to find the local 16-bit address (Network address discovery) Routing tables based on 16-bit address Route Reply (unicast) Positive acknowledgement returned If node is gone- Network address discovery fails C R6 R5 R2 R3 R1 R7 ZigBee Protocol R10
  • Slide 27 - Normal Data Transmissions (Unicast - established Network) R1 must transmit data to R10. MAC ACKs are transmitted for each hop. One Network ACK is transmitted from the Destination node back to the Source C R6 R5 R3 R2 R7 R9 R8 R1 R10 R4 ZigBee Protocol
  • Slide 28 - C R6 R5 R3 R2 R7 R9 R8 R1 R10 R4 X Disabled Node ZigBee Protocol
  • Slide 29 - C R6 R5 R3 R2 R7 R9 R8 R1 R10 R4 X Disabled Node New Route Discovery Request (broadcast) 64-bit address used to find the local 16-bit address (Network address discovery) ZigBee Protocol
  • Slide 30 - C R6 R5 R3 R2 R7 R9 R8 R1 R10 R4 X Disabled Node New Route sent back along best path (unicast) Coordinator not necessary after network setup ZigBee Protocol
  • Slide 31 - ZigBee Protocol Sleeping end node (child) Associates with a parent Parent takes over Zigbee network communications while child is sleeping Parent must always be awake (router or coordinator) Number of childs per parent is limited C R6 R5 R3 R2 R7 R9 R8 R1 E10 R4
  • Slide 32 - Digimesh Section 2
  • Slide 33 - The Value of Mesh Mesh Node Hopping Communications Flow many common mesh technologies require different node types with a parent/child relationship to achieve mesh node hopping Router Reduced Function Device Coordinator
  • Slide 34 - DigiMesh Topology DigiMesh Router Communications Flow Peer-to-Peer Mesh
  • Slide 35 - DigiMesh Network Overview Simple relative to Parent/Child-based mesh technologies Support for Sleeping Routers Unpredictable timing (like all mesh networks) Poor latency performance relative to multipoint technologies (like all mesh networks) Lower sustained throughput relative to multipoint products (like all mesh networks)
  • Slide 36 - How DigiMesh is Different Parent/Child Mesh Parent/Child Hierarchy Multiple Node Types No Sleeping Routers Complex Setup Most Commonly 2.4 GHz Open Protocols Available DigiMesh Peer-to-Peer Hierarchy One Node Type Support for Sleeping Routers Simple Setup 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz Proprietary Protocol

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