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Slide 1 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no
Slide 2 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation
Slide 3 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption?
Slide 4 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988)
Slide 5 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita
Slide 6 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018
Slide 7 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight
Slide 8 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018
Slide 9 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018
Slide 10 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018
Slide 11 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018
Slide 12 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018 The UN Convention against Corruption The UNCAC entered into force in 2005, ratified by 136 nations (May 2009) First global instrument against corruption, divided into 8 chapters with provisions relating to prevention, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery and technical assistance The importance of education and training is highlighted in the UNCAC at several places (Art. 6.2, 7.1, 13, and 60) For instance, Article 13 on participation of society reads: […] participation should be strengthened by such measures as: (c) Undertaking public information activities that contribute to non-tolerance of corruption, as well as public education programmes, including school and university curricula. 21/06/2018
Slide 13 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018 The UN Convention against Corruption The UNCAC entered into force in 2005, ratified by 136 nations (May 2009) First global instrument against corruption, divided into 8 chapters with provisions relating to prevention, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery and technical assistance The importance of education and training is highlighted in the UNCAC at several places (Art. 6.2, 7.1, 13, and 60) For instance, Article 13 on participation of society reads: […] participation should be strengthened by such measures as: (c) Undertaking public information activities that contribute to non-tolerance of corruption, as well as public education programmes, including school and university curricula. 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Primary and secondary education: Important role in transmitting fundamental values E.g.: Transparency International’s Corruption Fighter’s toolkits: “Teaching Integrity to Youth” with examples from 11 countries Tertiary education: Reach future political, administrative and business leaders E.g.: Include courses on corruption and anti-corruption at Universities (masters etc.), foster research on the issue Pre-service and in-service trainings: Sensitise and build capacities within staff Knowledge on risks and costs of corruption in specific sectors Provide guidelines on how to react to corruption 21/06/2018
Slide 14 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018 The UN Convention against Corruption The UNCAC entered into force in 2005, ratified by 136 nations (May 2009) First global instrument against corruption, divided into 8 chapters with provisions relating to prevention, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery and technical assistance The importance of education and training is highlighted in the UNCAC at several places (Art. 6.2, 7.1, 13, and 60) For instance, Article 13 on participation of society reads: […] participation should be strengthened by such measures as: (c) Undertaking public information activities that contribute to non-tolerance of corruption, as well as public education programmes, including school and university curricula. 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Primary and secondary education: Important role in transmitting fundamental values E.g.: Transparency International’s Corruption Fighter’s toolkits: “Teaching Integrity to Youth” with examples from 11 countries Tertiary education: Reach future political, administrative and business leaders E.g.: Include courses on corruption and anti-corruption at Universities (masters etc.), foster research on the issue Pre-service and in-service trainings: Sensitise and build capacities within staff Knowledge on risks and costs of corruption in specific sectors Provide guidelines on how to react to corruption 21/06/2018 GTZ Experiences 2004: GTZ Practical Guide “Preventing Corruption in the Education System” Two GTZ projects: 21/06/2018 Honduras Sierra Leone
Slide 15 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018 The UN Convention against Corruption The UNCAC entered into force in 2005, ratified by 136 nations (May 2009) First global instrument against corruption, divided into 8 chapters with provisions relating to prevention, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery and technical assistance The importance of education and training is highlighted in the UNCAC at several places (Art. 6.2, 7.1, 13, and 60) For instance, Article 13 on participation of society reads: […] participation should be strengthened by such measures as: (c) Undertaking public information activities that contribute to non-tolerance of corruption, as well as public education programmes, including school and university curricula. 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Primary and secondary education: Important role in transmitting fundamental values E.g.: Transparency International’s Corruption Fighter’s toolkits: “Teaching Integrity to Youth” with examples from 11 countries Tertiary education: Reach future political, administrative and business leaders E.g.: Include courses on corruption and anti-corruption at Universities (masters etc.), foster research on the issue Pre-service and in-service trainings: Sensitise and build capacities within staff Knowledge on risks and costs of corruption in specific sectors Provide guidelines on how to react to corruption 21/06/2018 GTZ Experiences 2004: GTZ Practical Guide “Preventing Corruption in the Education System” Two GTZ projects: 21/06/2018 Honduras Sierra Leone Honduras: EFA Initiative (PROEFA) Situation in Honduras: High rates of illiteracy, early dropout and prolonged teacher strikes 75% of the sector’s expenditures are spent on teacher salaries, while quality of education indicators are lacking Severe governance problems (sale of jobs, ghost positions, high absenteeism of teachers, insufficiently qualified teachers or fluctuation of staff, clientelism) To improve quality and efficiency of primary education, Honduras has been participating in the „Education for All Initiative” (EFA) since 2001 GTZ’s Program to Support the Quality of Basic Education in the Framework of the EFA Fast Track Initiative (PROEFA) focuses on Capacity Development in the sector, but also aims at fostering transparency and accountability 21/06/2018
Slide 16 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018 The UN Convention against Corruption The UNCAC entered into force in 2005, ratified by 136 nations (May 2009) First global instrument against corruption, divided into 8 chapters with provisions relating to prevention, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery and technical assistance The importance of education and training is highlighted in the UNCAC at several places (Art. 6.2, 7.1, 13, and 60) For instance, Article 13 on participation of society reads: […] participation should be strengthened by such measures as: (c) Undertaking public information activities that contribute to non-tolerance of corruption, as well as public education programmes, including school and university curricula. 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Primary and secondary education: Important role in transmitting fundamental values E.g.: Transparency International’s Corruption Fighter’s toolkits: “Teaching Integrity to Youth” with examples from 11 countries Tertiary education: Reach future political, administrative and business leaders E.g.: Include courses on corruption and anti-corruption at Universities (masters etc.), foster research on the issue Pre-service and in-service trainings: Sensitise and build capacities within staff Knowledge on risks and costs of corruption in specific sectors Provide guidelines on how to react to corruption 21/06/2018 GTZ Experiences 2004: GTZ Practical Guide “Preventing Corruption in the Education System” Two GTZ projects: 21/06/2018 Honduras Sierra Leone Honduras: EFA Initiative (PROEFA) Situation in Honduras: High rates of illiteracy, early dropout and prolonged teacher strikes 75% of the sector’s expenditures are spent on teacher salaries, while quality of education indicators are lacking Severe governance problems (sale of jobs, ghost positions, high absenteeism of teachers, insufficiently qualified teachers or fluctuation of staff, clientelism) To improve quality and efficiency of primary education, Honduras has been participating in the „Education for All Initiative” (EFA) since 2001 GTZ’s Program to Support the Quality of Basic Education in the Framework of the EFA Fast Track Initiative (PROEFA) focuses on Capacity Development in the sector, but also aims at fostering transparency and accountability 21/06/2018 Achievements in Honduras Training of key actors such as teachers’ unions, parents’ organisations as well as important players in civil society on the issue of corruption within education (with the U4) Together with the National Anti-Corruption Commission (CNA), PROEFA provides technical assistance to the Transparency Department of the Ministry of Education, founded in 2008 after the adoption of the Law on Transparency and Access to Public Information in 2006 PROEFA seeks alliances with local institutions and civil society to promote actions against corruption and strengthen support for corresponding laws and reforms 2009: Abkommen zur Unterstützung von Sozialkontrollen und Dezentralisierungsprozessen im Bildungssystem von Honduras 21/06/2018
Slide 17 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018 The UN Convention against Corruption The UNCAC entered into force in 2005, ratified by 136 nations (May 2009) First global instrument against corruption, divided into 8 chapters with provisions relating to prevention, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery and technical assistance The importance of education and training is highlighted in the UNCAC at several places (Art. 6.2, 7.1, 13, and 60) For instance, Article 13 on participation of society reads: […] participation should be strengthened by such measures as: (c) Undertaking public information activities that contribute to non-tolerance of corruption, as well as public education programmes, including school and university curricula. 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Primary and secondary education: Important role in transmitting fundamental values E.g.: Transparency International’s Corruption Fighter’s toolkits: “Teaching Integrity to Youth” with examples from 11 countries Tertiary education: Reach future political, administrative and business leaders E.g.: Include courses on corruption and anti-corruption at Universities (masters etc.), foster research on the issue Pre-service and in-service trainings: Sensitise and build capacities within staff Knowledge on risks and costs of corruption in specific sectors Provide guidelines on how to react to corruption 21/06/2018 GTZ Experiences 2004: GTZ Practical Guide “Preventing Corruption in the Education System” Two GTZ projects: 21/06/2018 Honduras Sierra Leone Honduras: EFA Initiative (PROEFA) Situation in Honduras: High rates of illiteracy, early dropout and prolonged teacher strikes 75% of the sector’s expenditures are spent on teacher salaries, while quality of education indicators are lacking Severe governance problems (sale of jobs, ghost positions, high absenteeism of teachers, insufficiently qualified teachers or fluctuation of staff, clientelism) To improve quality and efficiency of primary education, Honduras has been participating in the „Education for All Initiative” (EFA) since 2001 GTZ’s Program to Support the Quality of Basic Education in the Framework of the EFA Fast Track Initiative (PROEFA) focuses on Capacity Development in the sector, but also aims at fostering transparency and accountability 21/06/2018 Achievements in Honduras Training of key actors such as teachers’ unions, parents’ organisations as well as important players in civil society on the issue of corruption within education (with the U4) Together with the National Anti-Corruption Commission (CNA), PROEFA provides technical assistance to the Transparency Department of the Ministry of Education, founded in 2008 after the adoption of the Law on Transparency and Access to Public Information in 2006 PROEFA seeks alliances with local institutions and civil society to promote actions against corruption and strengthen support for corresponding laws and reforms 2009: Abkommen zur Unterstützung von Sozialkontrollen und Dezentralisierungsprozessen im Bildungssystem von Honduras 21/06/2018 Sierra Leone: Anti-corruption Commission Situation in Sierra Leone: Education sector accounts for almost 20% of government expenditure, and is perceived as one of the most corrupt sectors PETS in 2005 found that 27% of learning and teaching materials do not reach schools (see also TI, 2005) The Ministry of Education estimates that about 30% of teachers on the government’s payroll are so-called ghost teachers With GTZ support, the ACC developed a cartoon poster series for teaching school children in secondary Transmit knowledge about corruption in a way easily accessible for pupils The ACC has trained teachers in the use of these posters Served as trigger to integrate anti-corruption in review of school curricula Given that education material of this kind is still rare worldwide, GTZ has helped facilitate some pioneer work in this respect 21/06/2018
Slide 18 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018 The UN Convention against Corruption The UNCAC entered into force in 2005, ratified by 136 nations (May 2009) First global instrument against corruption, divided into 8 chapters with provisions relating to prevention, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery and technical assistance The importance of education and training is highlighted in the UNCAC at several places (Art. 6.2, 7.1, 13, and 60) For instance, Article 13 on participation of society reads: […] participation should be strengthened by such measures as: (c) Undertaking public information activities that contribute to non-tolerance of corruption, as well as public education programmes, including school and university curricula. 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Primary and secondary education: Important role in transmitting fundamental values E.g.: Transparency International’s Corruption Fighter’s toolkits: “Teaching Integrity to Youth” with examples from 11 countries Tertiary education: Reach future political, administrative and business leaders E.g.: Include courses on corruption and anti-corruption at Universities (masters etc.), foster research on the issue Pre-service and in-service trainings: Sensitise and build capacities within staff Knowledge on risks and costs of corruption in specific sectors Provide guidelines on how to react to corruption 21/06/2018 GTZ Experiences 2004: GTZ Practical Guide “Preventing Corruption in the Education System” Two GTZ projects: 21/06/2018 Honduras Sierra Leone Honduras: EFA Initiative (PROEFA) Situation in Honduras: High rates of illiteracy, early dropout and prolonged teacher strikes 75% of the sector’s expenditures are spent on teacher salaries, while quality of education indicators are lacking Severe governance problems (sale of jobs, ghost positions, high absenteeism of teachers, insufficiently qualified teachers or fluctuation of staff, clientelism) To improve quality and efficiency of primary education, Honduras has been participating in the „Education for All Initiative” (EFA) since 2001 GTZ’s Program to Support the Quality of Basic Education in the Framework of the EFA Fast Track Initiative (PROEFA) focuses on Capacity Development in the sector, but also aims at fostering transparency and accountability 21/06/2018 Achievements in Honduras Training of key actors such as teachers’ unions, parents’ organisations as well as important players in civil society on the issue of corruption within education (with the U4) Together with the National Anti-Corruption Commission (CNA), PROEFA provides technical assistance to the Transparency Department of the Ministry of Education, founded in 2008 after the adoption of the Law on Transparency and Access to Public Information in 2006 PROEFA seeks alliances with local institutions and civil society to promote actions against corruption and strengthen support for corresponding laws and reforms 2009: Abkommen zur Unterstützung von Sozialkontrollen und Dezentralisierungsprozessen im Bildungssystem von Honduras 21/06/2018 Sierra Leone: Anti-corruption Commission Situation in Sierra Leone: Education sector accounts for almost 20% of government expenditure, and is perceived as one of the most corrupt sectors PETS in 2005 found that 27% of learning and teaching materials do not reach schools (see also TI, 2005) The Ministry of Education estimates that about 30% of teachers on the government’s payroll are so-called ghost teachers With GTZ support, the ACC developed a cartoon poster series for teaching school children in secondary Transmit knowledge about corruption in a way easily accessible for pupils The ACC has trained teachers in the use of these posters Served as trigger to integrate anti-corruption in review of school curricula Given that education material of this kind is still rare worldwide, GTZ has helped facilitate some pioneer work in this respect 21/06/2018 Other Achievements in Sierra Leone GTZ has provided support to the ACC in its efforts regarding school “integrity clubs” For example, they perform plays based on comic stories developed by a school, monitor fairness in exams, or raise awareness through cultural activities With GTZ assistance, the ACC’s Prevention Department monitored the allocation and utilisation of fee subsidies the distribution of teaching and learning materials This revealed that schools suffered from poor record keeping As a result, head teachers were provided with the relevant training 21/06/2018
Slide 19 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018 The UN Convention against Corruption The UNCAC entered into force in 2005, ratified by 136 nations (May 2009) First global instrument against corruption, divided into 8 chapters with provisions relating to prevention, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery and technical assistance The importance of education and training is highlighted in the UNCAC at several places (Art. 6.2, 7.1, 13, and 60) For instance, Article 13 on participation of society reads: […] participation should be strengthened by such measures as: (c) Undertaking public information activities that contribute to non-tolerance of corruption, as well as public education programmes, including school and university curricula. 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Primary and secondary education: Important role in transmitting fundamental values E.g.: Transparency International’s Corruption Fighter’s toolkits: “Teaching Integrity to Youth” with examples from 11 countries Tertiary education: Reach future political, administrative and business leaders E.g.: Include courses on corruption and anti-corruption at Universities (masters etc.), foster research on the issue Pre-service and in-service trainings: Sensitise and build capacities within staff Knowledge on risks and costs of corruption in specific sectors Provide guidelines on how to react to corruption 21/06/2018 GTZ Experiences 2004: GTZ Practical Guide “Preventing Corruption in the Education System” Two GTZ projects: 21/06/2018 Honduras Sierra Leone Honduras: EFA Initiative (PROEFA) Situation in Honduras: High rates of illiteracy, early dropout and prolonged teacher strikes 75% of the sector’s expenditures are spent on teacher salaries, while quality of education indicators are lacking Severe governance problems (sale of jobs, ghost positions, high absenteeism of teachers, insufficiently qualified teachers or fluctuation of staff, clientelism) To improve quality and efficiency of primary education, Honduras has been participating in the „Education for All Initiative” (EFA) since 2001 GTZ’s Program to Support the Quality of Basic Education in the Framework of the EFA Fast Track Initiative (PROEFA) focuses on Capacity Development in the sector, but also aims at fostering transparency and accountability 21/06/2018 Achievements in Honduras Training of key actors such as teachers’ unions, parents’ organisations as well as important players in civil society on the issue of corruption within education (with the U4) Together with the National Anti-Corruption Commission (CNA), PROEFA provides technical assistance to the Transparency Department of the Ministry of Education, founded in 2008 after the adoption of the Law on Transparency and Access to Public Information in 2006 PROEFA seeks alliances with local institutions and civil society to promote actions against corruption and strengthen support for corresponding laws and reforms 2009: Abkommen zur Unterstützung von Sozialkontrollen und Dezentralisierungsprozessen im Bildungssystem von Honduras 21/06/2018 Sierra Leone: Anti-corruption Commission Situation in Sierra Leone: Education sector accounts for almost 20% of government expenditure, and is perceived as one of the most corrupt sectors PETS in 2005 found that 27% of learning and teaching materials do not reach schools (see also TI, 2005) The Ministry of Education estimates that about 30% of teachers on the government’s payroll are so-called ghost teachers With GTZ support, the ACC developed a cartoon poster series for teaching school children in secondary Transmit knowledge about corruption in a way easily accessible for pupils The ACC has trained teachers in the use of these posters Served as trigger to integrate anti-corruption in review of school curricula Given that education material of this kind is still rare worldwide, GTZ has helped facilitate some pioneer work in this respect 21/06/2018 Other Achievements in Sierra Leone GTZ has provided support to the ACC in its efforts regarding school “integrity clubs” For example, they perform plays based on comic stories developed by a school, monitor fairness in exams, or raise awareness through cultural activities With GTZ assistance, the ACC’s Prevention Department monitored the allocation and utilisation of fee subsidies the distribution of teaching and learning materials This revealed that schools suffered from poor record keeping As a result, head teachers were provided with the relevant training 21/06/2018 Some Challenges … Addressing corruption openly can lead to unintended effects E.g. raising awareness of sexual abuse in schools alone could incite parents to withdraw their children, especially daughters, from school Control vs. Motivation Too much focus on increasing controls may breed mistrust and undermine the intrinsic motivation of teachers and staff in the sector Decentralisation Decentralisation may not necessarily facilitate anti-corruption efforts Instead, it may create new opportunities for local corrupt behaviours that may be more difficult to control Holistic approach Anti-corruption efforts in education are a key aspect in the overall fight against corruption But they may go up in smoke if not echoed by more effective prosecution and sanctioning of corrupt cases 21/06/2018
Slide 20 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018 The UN Convention against Corruption The UNCAC entered into force in 2005, ratified by 136 nations (May 2009) First global instrument against corruption, divided into 8 chapters with provisions relating to prevention, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery and technical assistance The importance of education and training is highlighted in the UNCAC at several places (Art. 6.2, 7.1, 13, and 60) For instance, Article 13 on participation of society reads: […] participation should be strengthened by such measures as: (c) Undertaking public information activities that contribute to non-tolerance of corruption, as well as public education programmes, including school and university curricula. 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Primary and secondary education: Important role in transmitting fundamental values E.g.: Transparency International’s Corruption Fighter’s toolkits: “Teaching Integrity to Youth” with examples from 11 countries Tertiary education: Reach future political, administrative and business leaders E.g.: Include courses on corruption and anti-corruption at Universities (masters etc.), foster research on the issue Pre-service and in-service trainings: Sensitise and build capacities within staff Knowledge on risks and costs of corruption in specific sectors Provide guidelines on how to react to corruption 21/06/2018 GTZ Experiences 2004: GTZ Practical Guide “Preventing Corruption in the Education System” Two GTZ projects: 21/06/2018 Honduras Sierra Leone Honduras: EFA Initiative (PROEFA) Situation in Honduras: High rates of illiteracy, early dropout and prolonged teacher strikes 75% of the sector’s expenditures are spent on teacher salaries, while quality of education indicators are lacking Severe governance problems (sale of jobs, ghost positions, high absenteeism of teachers, insufficiently qualified teachers or fluctuation of staff, clientelism) To improve quality and efficiency of primary education, Honduras has been participating in the „Education for All Initiative” (EFA) since 2001 GTZ’s Program to Support the Quality of Basic Education in the Framework of the EFA Fast Track Initiative (PROEFA) focuses on Capacity Development in the sector, but also aims at fostering transparency and accountability 21/06/2018 Achievements in Honduras Training of key actors such as teachers’ unions, parents’ organisations as well as important players in civil society on the issue of corruption within education (with the U4) Together with the National Anti-Corruption Commission (CNA), PROEFA provides technical assistance to the Transparency Department of the Ministry of Education, founded in 2008 after the adoption of the Law on Transparency and Access to Public Information in 2006 PROEFA seeks alliances with local institutions and civil society to promote actions against corruption and strengthen support for corresponding laws and reforms 2009: Abkommen zur Unterstützung von Sozialkontrollen und Dezentralisierungsprozessen im Bildungssystem von Honduras 21/06/2018 Sierra Leone: Anti-corruption Commission Situation in Sierra Leone: Education sector accounts for almost 20% of government expenditure, and is perceived as one of the most corrupt sectors PETS in 2005 found that 27% of learning and teaching materials do not reach schools (see also TI, 2005) The Ministry of Education estimates that about 30% of teachers on the government’s payroll are so-called ghost teachers With GTZ support, the ACC developed a cartoon poster series for teaching school children in secondary Transmit knowledge about corruption in a way easily accessible for pupils The ACC has trained teachers in the use of these posters Served as trigger to integrate anti-corruption in review of school curricula Given that education material of this kind is still rare worldwide, GTZ has helped facilitate some pioneer work in this respect 21/06/2018 Other Achievements in Sierra Leone GTZ has provided support to the ACC in its efforts regarding school “integrity clubs” For example, they perform plays based on comic stories developed by a school, monitor fairness in exams, or raise awareness through cultural activities With GTZ assistance, the ACC’s Prevention Department monitored the allocation and utilisation of fee subsidies the distribution of teaching and learning materials This revealed that schools suffered from poor record keeping As a result, head teachers were provided with the relevant training 21/06/2018 Some Challenges … Addressing corruption openly can lead to unintended effects E.g. raising awareness of sexual abuse in schools alone could incite parents to withdraw their children, especially daughters, from school Control vs. Motivation Too much focus on increasing controls may breed mistrust and undermine the intrinsic motivation of teachers and staff in the sector Decentralisation Decentralisation may not necessarily facilitate anti-corruption efforts Instead, it may create new opportunities for local corrupt behaviours that may be more difficult to control Holistic approach Anti-corruption efforts in education are a key aspect in the overall fight against corruption But they may go up in smoke if not echoed by more effective prosecution and sanctioning of corrupt cases 21/06/2018 Websites GTZ PROEFA Honduras Sierra Leone ACC UNCAC Project Transparency International Education Theme Page U4 Anti-corruption Resource Centre Corruption in the Education Sector Theme UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP): Education for All (EFA) 21/06/2018
Slide 21 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018 The UN Convention against Corruption The UNCAC entered into force in 2005, ratified by 136 nations (May 2009) First global instrument against corruption, divided into 8 chapters with provisions relating to prevention, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery and technical assistance The importance of education and training is highlighted in the UNCAC at several places (Art. 6.2, 7.1, 13, and 60) For instance, Article 13 on participation of society reads: […] participation should be strengthened by such measures as: (c) Undertaking public information activities that contribute to non-tolerance of corruption, as well as public education programmes, including school and university curricula. 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Primary and secondary education: Important role in transmitting fundamental values E.g.: Transparency International’s Corruption Fighter’s toolkits: “Teaching Integrity to Youth” with examples from 11 countries Tertiary education: Reach future political, administrative and business leaders E.g.: Include courses on corruption and anti-corruption at Universities (masters etc.), foster research on the issue Pre-service and in-service trainings: Sensitise and build capacities within staff Knowledge on risks and costs of corruption in specific sectors Provide guidelines on how to react to corruption 21/06/2018 GTZ Experiences 2004: GTZ Practical Guide “Preventing Corruption in the Education System” Two GTZ projects: 21/06/2018 Honduras Sierra Leone Honduras: EFA Initiative (PROEFA) Situation in Honduras: High rates of illiteracy, early dropout and prolonged teacher strikes 75% of the sector’s expenditures are spent on teacher salaries, while quality of education indicators are lacking Severe governance problems (sale of jobs, ghost positions, high absenteeism of teachers, insufficiently qualified teachers or fluctuation of staff, clientelism) To improve quality and efficiency of primary education, Honduras has been participating in the „Education for All Initiative” (EFA) since 2001 GTZ’s Program to Support the Quality of Basic Education in the Framework of the EFA Fast Track Initiative (PROEFA) focuses on Capacity Development in the sector, but also aims at fostering transparency and accountability 21/06/2018 Achievements in Honduras Training of key actors such as teachers’ unions, parents’ organisations as well as important players in civil society on the issue of corruption within education (with the U4) Together with the National Anti-Corruption Commission (CNA), PROEFA provides technical assistance to the Transparency Department of the Ministry of Education, founded in 2008 after the adoption of the Law on Transparency and Access to Public Information in 2006 PROEFA seeks alliances with local institutions and civil society to promote actions against corruption and strengthen support for corresponding laws and reforms 2009: Abkommen zur Unterstützung von Sozialkontrollen und Dezentralisierungsprozessen im Bildungssystem von Honduras 21/06/2018 Sierra Leone: Anti-corruption Commission Situation in Sierra Leone: Education sector accounts for almost 20% of government expenditure, and is perceived as one of the most corrupt sectors PETS in 2005 found that 27% of learning and teaching materials do not reach schools (see also TI, 2005) The Ministry of Education estimates that about 30% of teachers on the government’s payroll are so-called ghost teachers With GTZ support, the ACC developed a cartoon poster series for teaching school children in secondary Transmit knowledge about corruption in a way easily accessible for pupils The ACC has trained teachers in the use of these posters Served as trigger to integrate anti-corruption in review of school curricula Given that education material of this kind is still rare worldwide, GTZ has helped facilitate some pioneer work in this respect 21/06/2018 Other Achievements in Sierra Leone GTZ has provided support to the ACC in its efforts regarding school “integrity clubs” For example, they perform plays based on comic stories developed by a school, monitor fairness in exams, or raise awareness through cultural activities With GTZ assistance, the ACC’s Prevention Department monitored the allocation and utilisation of fee subsidies the distribution of teaching and learning materials This revealed that schools suffered from poor record keeping As a result, head teachers were provided with the relevant training 21/06/2018 Some Challenges … Addressing corruption openly can lead to unintended effects E.g. raising awareness of sexual abuse in schools alone could incite parents to withdraw their children, especially daughters, from school Control vs. Motivation Too much focus on increasing controls may breed mistrust and undermine the intrinsic motivation of teachers and staff in the sector Decentralisation Decentralisation may not necessarily facilitate anti-corruption efforts Instead, it may create new opportunities for local corrupt behaviours that may be more difficult to control Holistic approach Anti-corruption efforts in education are a key aspect in the overall fight against corruption But they may go up in smoke if not echoed by more effective prosecution and sanctioning of corrupt cases 21/06/2018 Websites GTZ PROEFA Honduras Sierra Leone ACC UNCAC Project Transparency International Education Theme Page U4 Anti-corruption Resource Centre Corruption in the Education Sector Theme UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP): Education for All (EFA) 21/06/2018 Selected Literature Boehm, F.; Nell, M. (2007): Anti-corruption Training and Education. U4 Brief No. 13 Fontana, A. (2008): Teachers and taxis: Corruption in the education sector in Honduras. U4 Brief No. 16 GTZ (2004): Preventing Corruption in the Education System. Division State and Democracy, Eschborn GTZ (2007): Honduras: Linking Education with Social Development. Factsheet Division Health, Education, and Social Protection GTZ (2008): Anti-corruption in Education. Factsheet No. 23, UNCAC Team Hallak, J.; Poisson, M. (2005): Ethics and corruption in education: An overview. Journal of Education for International Development 1(1), 1-16 Hallak, J.; Poisson, M. (2007): Corrupt Schools, Corrupt Universities. What can be done? IIEP, International Institute for Educational Planning, UNESCO Heyneman, S.P. (2004): Education and Corruption. International Journal of Educational Development 24, 637-648 Keen, E. (2000): Fighting Corruption through Education. Open Society Institute, COLPI Papers # 1, Budapest Mauro, P. (1998): Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics 69, 263-79 Patrinos, H.A.; Kagia, R. (2007): Maximising the Performance of Education Systems. The Case of Teacher Absenteeism. In: Campos, E., Pradhan, S. [eds.]: The Many Faces of Corruption. The World Bank, Washington D.C. Reinikka, R.; Svensson, J. (2005): Fighting Corruption to Improve Schooling: Evidence from a Newspaper Campaign in Uganda. Journal of the European Economic Association, 3(2–3), 259–267 Rotta Castilla, S. (2008): Corruption-free Education. Lessons from a State and civil society joint initiative in Peru. U4 Brief No. 6 Svensson, J. (2005): Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives 19(3), 19-42 Tanaka, S. (2001): Corruption in education sector development: a suggestion for anticipatory strategy. The International Journal of Educational Management 15(4), 158-166 Transparency International (2007): Corruption in the Education Sector. Working Paper # 4/2007 U4 Issue (2006): Corruption in the education sector. U4 Issue 4:2006, Chr. Michelsen Institute 21/06/2018
Slide 22 - Fighting Corruption in and through Education Experiences from German Technical Cooperation Dr Frédéric Boehm Division 42, State and Democracy Public Policy – The German UNCAC Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH www.gtz.de/anti-corruption www.u4.no Frédéric Boehm Source: World Bank, INT Investigation 21/06/2018 Abuse of entrusted power for private (illicit) gains Complex Phenomenon Bribes, fraud, extortion, favouritism, nepotism, embezzlement, collusion In politics, administration, justice, prosecution, private sector Grand vs. petty Chaotic vs. organised (or systemic) Market vs. parochial Paying for something one is entitled to get (extortion) vs. paying for something on is not entitled to get Grey areas: Lobbying, gifts Criteria: Reciprocity, transparency and accountability, biased decisions What is Corruption? Root Causes of Corruption Robert Klitgaard (1988) 21/06/2018 300 % Dividend of Anti-corruption $300 $3,000 $30,000 Data Source for calculations: KK 2004. Y-axis measures predicted GDP per capita on the basis of Instrumental Variable (IV) results for each of the 3 categories. Estimations based on various authors’ studies, including Kaufmann and Kraay. GDP per capita The Pillars of Anticorruption 21/06/2018 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 US$ per student Intended grant Actual grant received by primary school (means) 1999 Source: Uganda Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys, and Reinikka / Svensson (2005) Tracking Education Dollars in Uganda Transparency and Citizen Oversight Corruption and Education – Relevance Millennium Development Goal 2 Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling But corruption may undermine achieving this and other goals related to education “Widespread corruption not only costs societies billions of dollars, it also seriously undermines the vital effort to provide education for all. It prevents poorer parents from sending their children to school, robs schools and pupils of equipment, lowers teaching standards and thus education standards generally, and compromises the future of our youth. We cannot let it go unchecked." Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General UNESCO 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – The Links Between policymakers (ministerial, central level) and providers (schools, teacher, contractors) Bias in regulation favouring vested interests Misallocation of expenditures (e.g. subsidies), ghost schools Favouritism, nepotism, selling of posts Corrupt, non-competitive procurement of school books, equipments or construction contracts Between providers (schools, teacher, contractors) and beneficiaries (students, parents, communities) Teacher absenteeism, ghost teachers, private tutoring Unofficial fees, embezzlement of school resources Selling of exam and other marketable information, selling of diplomas, misuse of selection criteria, extortion of sexual favours. 21/06/2018 Corruption in Education – Consequences Corruption diverts scarce funds away from intended purposes Resources may be allocated to other sectors offering more avenues for corrupt gains (Mauro, 1998) Resources that have been allocated to education may be channelled away into private pockets (Reinikka/Svensson, 2005) Corruption affects the supply and quality of education Positive relationship between corruption and number of years in school (Svensson, 2008) Corruption limits access to schools, and may open the door to ethnic or religious oppression in education systems Extortion of sexual favours by teachers (…) see U4, 2006, or TI, 2007 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Poor quality education is likely to become a breeding ground for even more corruption in society as a whole Patrinos and Kagia (2007): “[corruption] may undermine an entire generation’s core values regarding accountability, personal responsibility, and integrity.” Corrupted education systems are a threat for fair and effective education for all Good education as a vehicle for transmitting values may be a key aspect in the long-lasting task of reducing corruption 21/06/2018 The UN Convention against Corruption The UNCAC entered into force in 2005, ratified by 136 nations (May 2009) First global instrument against corruption, divided into 8 chapters with provisions relating to prevention, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery and technical assistance The importance of education and training is highlighted in the UNCAC at several places (Art. 6.2, 7.1, 13, and 60) For instance, Article 13 on participation of society reads: […] participation should be strengthened by such measures as: (c) Undertaking public information activities that contribute to non-tolerance of corruption, as well as public education programmes, including school and university curricula. 21/06/2018 Anticorruption through Education Primary and secondary education: Important role in transmitting fundamental values E.g.: Transparency International’s Corruption Fighter’s toolkits: “Teaching Integrity to Youth” with examples from 11 countries Tertiary education: Reach future political, administrative and business leaders E.g.: Include courses on corruption and anti-corruption at Universities (masters etc.), foster research on the issue Pre-service and in-service trainings: Sensitise and build capacities within staff Knowledge on risks and costs of corruption in specific sectors Provide guidelines on how to react to corruption 21/06/2018 GTZ Experiences 2004: GTZ Practical Guide “Preventing Corruption in the Education System” Two GTZ projects: 21/06/2018 Honduras Sierra Leone Honduras: EFA Initiative (PROEFA) Situation in Honduras: High rates of illiteracy, early dropout and prolonged teacher strikes 75% of the sector’s expenditures are spent on teacher salaries, while quality of education indicators are lacking Severe governance problems (sale of jobs, ghost positions, high absenteeism of teachers, insufficiently qualified teachers or fluctuation of staff, clientelism) To improve quality and efficiency of primary education, Honduras has been participating in the „Education for All Initiative” (EFA) since 2001 GTZ’s Program to Support the Quality of Basic Education in the Framework of the EFA Fast Track Initiative (PROEFA) focuses on Capacity Development in the sector, but also aims at fostering transparency and accountability 21/06/2018 Achievements in Honduras Training of key actors such as teachers’ unions, parents’ organisations as well as important players in civil society on the issue of corruption within education (with the U4) Together with the National Anti-Corruption Commission (CNA), PROEFA provides technical assistance to the Transparency Department of the Ministry of Education, founded in 2008 after the adoption of the Law on Transparency and Access to Public Information in 2006 PROEFA seeks alliances with local institutions and civil society to promote actions against corruption and strengthen support for corresponding laws and reforms 2009: Abkommen zur Unterstützung von Sozialkontrollen und Dezentralisierungsprozessen im Bildungssystem von Honduras 21/06/2018 Sierra Leone: Anti-corruption Commission Situation in Sierra Leone: Education sector accounts for almost 20% of government expenditure, and is perceived as one of the most corrupt sectors PETS in 2005 found that 27% of learning and teaching materials do not reach schools (see also TI, 2005) The Ministry of Education estimates that about 30% of teachers on the government’s payroll are so-called ghost teachers With GTZ support, the ACC developed a cartoon poster series for teaching school children in secondary Transmit knowledge about corruption in a way easily accessible for pupils The ACC has trained teachers in the use of these posters Served as trigger to integrate anti-corruption in review of school curricula Given that education material of this kind is still rare worldwide, GTZ has helped facilitate some pioneer work in this respect 21/06/2018 Other Achievements in Sierra Leone GTZ has provided support to the ACC in its efforts regarding school “integrity clubs” For example, they perform plays based on comic stories developed by a school, monitor fairness in exams, or raise awareness through cultural activities With GTZ assistance, the ACC’s Prevention Department monitored the allocation and utilisation of fee subsidies the distribution of teaching and learning materials This revealed that schools suffered from poor record keeping As a result, head teachers were provided with the relevant training 21/06/2018 Some Challenges … Addressing corruption openly can lead to unintended effects E.g. raising awareness of sexual abuse in schools alone could incite parents to withdraw their children, especially daughters, from school Control vs. Motivation Too much focus on increasing controls may breed mistrust and undermine the intrinsic motivation of teachers and staff in the sector Decentralisation Decentralisation may not necessarily facilitate anti-corruption efforts Instead, it may create new opportunities for local corrupt behaviours that may be more difficult to control Holistic approach Anti-corruption efforts in education are a key aspect in the overall fight against corruption But they may go up in smoke if not echoed by more effective prosecution and sanctioning of corrupt cases 21/06/2018 Websites GTZ PROEFA Honduras Sierra Leone ACC UNCAC Project Transparency International Education Theme Page U4 Anti-corruption Resource Centre Corruption in the Education Sector Theme UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP): Education for All (EFA) 21/06/2018 Selected Literature Boehm, F.; Nell, M. (2007): Anti-corruption Training and Education. U4 Brief No. 13 Fontana, A. (2008): Teachers and taxis: Corruption in the education sector in Honduras. U4 Brief No. 16 GTZ (2004): Preventing Corruption in the Education System. Division State and Democracy, Eschborn GTZ (2007): Honduras: Linking Education with Social Development. Factsheet Division Health, Education, and Social Protection GTZ (2008): Anti-corruption in Education. Factsheet No. 23, UNCAC Team Hallak, J.; Poisson, M. (2005): Ethics and corruption in education: An overview. Journal of Education for International Development 1(1), 1-16 Hallak, J.; Poisson, M. (2007): Corrupt Schools, Corrupt Universities. What can be done? IIEP, International Institute for Educational Planning, UNESCO Heyneman, S.P. (2004): Education and Corruption. International Journal of Educational Development 24, 637-648 Keen, E. (2000): Fighting Corruption through Education. Open Society Institute, COLPI Papers # 1, Budapest Mauro, P. (1998): Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics 69, 263-79 Patrinos, H.A.; Kagia, R. (2007): Maximising the Performance of Education Systems. The Case of Teacher Absenteeism. In: Campos, E., Pradhan, S. [eds.]: The Many Faces of Corruption. The World Bank, Washington D.C. Reinikka, R.; Svensson, J. (2005): Fighting Corruption to Improve Schooling: Evidence from a Newspaper Campaign in Uganda. Journal of the European Economic Association, 3(2–3), 259–267 Rotta Castilla, S. (2008): Corruption-free Education. Lessons from a State and civil society joint initiative in Peru. U4 Brief No. 6 Svensson, J. (2005): Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives 19(3), 19-42 Tanaka, S. (2001): Corruption in education sector development: a suggestion for anticipatory strategy. The International Journal of Educational Management 15(4), 158-166 Transparency International (2007): Corruption in the Education Sector. Working Paper # 4/2007 U4 Issue (2006): Corruption in the education sector. U4 Issue 4:2006, Chr. Michelsen Institute 21/06/2018 Thank You Contact: frederic.boehm@gtz.de or UNCAC-Team@gtz.de 21/06/2018