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Slide 1 - Citizenship, Society, and the State
Slide 2 - “Citizenship is the right to full partnership in the fortunes and in the future of the nation” – Paul Martin Sr. “There can be no daily democracy without daily citizenship” – Ralph Nader “Citizenship is what makes a republic, monarchies can get along without it” - Mark Twain “Every citizen of the republic ought to consider himself an unofficial policeman, and keep unsalaried watch and ward over the laws and their execution” – Mark Twain
Slide 3 - The classical ideal A citizen is one who both rules and is ruled Membership in a political community The state is inseparable from the citizen Rights and duties Exclusion The liberal political tradition Citizens have equal rights and their relationship with the state is based on contract and consensus Locke: Social Contract State-society relations
Slide 4 - Rights “A right is the ability to require the performance of a specific duty” – Don Carmichael T.H. Marshall, Cambridge lectures of 1949*: Three elements of citizenship: Civil Political Social *T.H. Marshall, Citizenship and Social Class, and other essays. Cambridge University Press, 1950
Slide 5 - The civil element, established in the 18th-19th centuries: Liberty of the person Freedom of speech, thought and faith Right to own property Right to defend and assert one’s rights on equal terms with others through due process of law Main institutions – the courts
Slide 6 - The political element, established in the 19th-20th centuries: Right to participate in the exercise of political power – to be elected to office or to elect others Main institutions – elected bodies of government
Slide 7 - The social element The right to a modicum of economic welfare and security Right to share in full in the social heritage Right to live the life of a civilized being according to standards prevailing in society Institutions: educational system and social services
Slide 8 - Writing in the middle of the 20th century, Marshall saw 3 long-term trends, driven by the struggles for rights: Reduction of the scale of social inequality Great extension of the area of common culture and common experience The enrichment of the universal status of citizenship In sum: “the drive toward social equality” By the end of the century, those trends were reversed
Slide 9 - Civil Society Civil society in a descriptive sense – a concept Civil society in a prescriptive sense – a theory, a model What is it? Can it serve as a model for political and social change?
Slide 10 - Civil society is a space, an arena, a sphere In which citizens associate with each other independently of the state, creating a network of links and organizations to promote their collective identities and serve and represent their group interests Marx: “Society minus the state”
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Slide 14 - Canadian associations (Compiled by Micromedia ProQuest) 14,542 –special interest 10,223 – with unique email addresses (?) 6,669 trade associations 1,853 professional associations 2,541 business and finance 1,344 Boards of Trade/Chambers of Commerce 411 trade unions 2,467 environmental associations 441 - politics 1,983 art and culture 1,763 sports associations MEDIA?
Slide 15 - Membership size: 182 associations with over 50,000 members 246 – with 15,000 – 49,999 members 448 – with 5,000 – 14,999 members 1,218 – with 1,000 – 4,999 members
Slide 16 - State-society relations How much individual freedom and autonomy does the state allow? How free are citizens to form associations? Does civil society challenge the state? The rise of civil society is an evolutionary, gradual process At some point, this evolution leads to a clash with the state
Slide 17 - A revolution takes place to establish society’s autonomy from the state (civil and political rights and liberties) No revolution involves the entire civil society – normally, it is led by specific social and political forces which seek to represent “the people” 2 periods: late 18th century and late 20th century The past 30 years: the fall of dozens of authoritarian regimes Civil society compelled the state to yield
Slide 18 - In established democracies: The need to defend civil society from the state Representation of interests means pressure on the state Every state policy evokes different reactions from civil society: some support, some oppose So, a degree of friction and tension between civil society and the state is a normal condition in a democracy
Slide 19 - Relations within civil society How divided is civil society? It is very diverse Inequality of power The associations may compete, but must not destroy each other Toleration of differences allows society to exist Civil society may produce civil wars Yugoslavia
Slide 20 - Civil society as a model Developing countries, new democracies after the collapse of authoritarian regimes Civil society as a good society: Autonomous from the state Peaceful Pluralistic Citizens enjoying civil and political rights Underpinning political democracy
Slide 21 - 2 sides to it 1. For societies emerging from authoritarian rule, the civil society model is a major step forward – the main thing is limiting the power of the state, creation of conditions for freedom More generally, with development of democracy the dominance of state over society should give way to the opposite situation: dominance of society over the state But is the state the only source of antidemocratic tendencies? And… What about relations within civil society itself?
Slide 22 - 2. Once you leave state-society relations aside, And begin a critical examination of what happens within civil society itself, You discover problems with the model: What about inequality in the distribution of power in the private sphere? What levels and forms of inequality and discrimination are compatible with social peace – and what levels generate deep social splits and conflicts? Can civil society be oppressive of individuals, minorities? Etc.
Slide 23 - Should a democratic state intervene in civil society to help deal with inequality, discrimination, oppression? Violence in the family Mandatory primary and secondary school education Prohibition of private practices which violate human rights Redistribution of wealth to reduce inequality Etc. The state can – and does - try to reform society Some reforms are successful, others create more problems than they solve
Slide 24 - Every reform program is a matter of debate, supported by some, opposed by others Because at stake is the distribution and use of social power Economic, political, cultural considerations When do significant reforms take place?
Slide 25 - Sufficient pressure from citizens, civil society groups Political leadership accepts the need for reforms Appropriate legal conditions are in place: the government can actually do it Are reforms always associated with the Left? Generally, the Right is sceptical of reforms But sometimes, the Right offers its own reform agenda, which is also aimed at changing civil society relations
Slide 26 - 2 extremes: When the state’s ability do deal with social problems is artificially limited in the name of civil society and privatization When civil society is undermined - or even destroyed - by the state in the name of progressive change (the 20th century communist experience) In both cases, democracy suffers, social progress is stymied, the people lose power to elites
Slide 27 - Levels of government National (central) Regional (in large states) Local (municipal) Distribution of power between the levels is a hot political issue everywhere, at all times
Slide 28 - Historically, political power starts at the local level and grows from the bottom up Because that’s where the people are Tribal authority The rise of the city and the rise of the state are inseparable The state is built around the city The city is the king’s fortress But the city also contains civil society, with elements of self-government
Slide 29 - In the Middle Ages, 3 axes of conflict: The king vs. the city The city vs. the countryside The city can be ruthlessly oppressive The power of the gentry The king vs. the countryside
Slide 30 - In the Modern Age, the city becomes the hub of social development Industry, trade, education Capitalism, industrialization and urbanization go hand in hand The city is the hotbed of change, new ideas, new politics, dissent, revolution These roles of the city collide with its role as the state’s main base
Slide 31 - The rise of democracy does not eliminate the conflict between the two sides of the city: The seat of power – political and economic The home of society The countryside moves to the cities The size and power of the state increases massively Liberal democracy increasingly becomes the norm What do we see?
Slide 32 - Local government is closest to the people It is elected by the citizens Does it make it more democratic? How close is it to democratic self-government? Is it more honest? How effective is it?
Slide 33 - The local government provides citizens with many public goods As cities grow, the demand for local services grows, too Lack of funds: growing need for help from other levels of the state Lack of power at the municipal level Low levels of citizen participation The divisions within the city Some groups are more powerful than others
Slide 34 - City of Toronto 2008 budget City of Toronto: Agenda for Prosperity Federation of North American City-States