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Slide 1 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley
Slide 2 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design
Slide 3 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM
Slide 4 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns
Slide 5 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels
Slide 6 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture
Slide 7 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 7 Results With 2 send buffers: No priority inversion Average message latency = 4.165ms With 1 send buffer: Priority inversion: Message 7 < Message 1~6 2. Average message latency = 4.936ms Functional Model 14 functional processes 48 signals CAN controller configurations: Number of send buffers Metric Message End-to-end Latency
Slide 8 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 7 Results With 2 send buffers: No priority inversion Average message latency = 4.165ms With 1 send buffer: Priority inversion: Message 7 < Message 1~6 2. Average message latency = 4.936ms Functional Model 14 functional processes 48 signals CAN controller configurations: Number of send buffers Metric Message End-to-end Latency Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 8 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design
Slide 9 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 7 Results With 2 send buffers: No priority inversion Average message latency = 4.165ms With 1 send buffer: Priority inversion: Message 7 < Message 1~6 2. Average message latency = 4.936ms Functional Model 14 functional processes 48 signals CAN controller configurations: Number of send buffers Metric Message End-to-end Latency Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 8 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 9 Project Background and Motivation GM has decided to choose FlexRay as the future communication system Importance of deciding the Communication Cycle Length, Slot Size and Slot Order in the FlexRay based system design. There is currently no technique to determine these parameters for FlexRay. Scheduling is currently done manually in GM, which is time consuming and error prone. Need an incremental scheduling tool for FlexRay system which supports any form of automated bus/task schedule
Slide 10 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 7 Results With 2 send buffers: No priority inversion Average message latency = 4.165ms With 1 send buffer: Priority inversion: Message 7 < Message 1~6 2. Average message latency = 4.936ms Functional Model 14 functional processes 48 signals CAN controller configurations: Number of send buffers Metric Message End-to-end Latency Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 8 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 9 Project Background and Motivation GM has decided to choose FlexRay as the future communication system Importance of deciding the Communication Cycle Length, Slot Size and Slot Order in the FlexRay based system design. There is currently no technique to determine these parameters for FlexRay. Scheduling is currently done manually in GM, which is time consuming and error prone. Need an incremental scheduling tool for FlexRay system which supports any form of automated bus/task schedule Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 10 FlexRay Timing Hierarchy ACTION POINT OFFSET Source: FlexRay Specification 2.1
Slide 11 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 7 Results With 2 send buffers: No priority inversion Average message latency = 4.165ms With 1 send buffer: Priority inversion: Message 7 < Message 1~6 2. Average message latency = 4.936ms Functional Model 14 functional processes 48 signals CAN controller configurations: Number of send buffers Metric Message End-to-end Latency Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 8 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 9 Project Background and Motivation GM has decided to choose FlexRay as the future communication system Importance of deciding the Communication Cycle Length, Slot Size and Slot Order in the FlexRay based system design. There is currently no technique to determine these parameters for FlexRay. Scheduling is currently done manually in GM, which is time consuming and error prone. Need an incremental scheduling tool for FlexRay system which supports any form of automated bus/task schedule Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 10 FlexRay Timing Hierarchy ACTION POINT OFFSET Source: FlexRay Specification 2.1 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 11 FlexRay Message Passing Mechanism 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... T1 T3 T4 s1 T2 s2 T5 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 1 T1 T4 T2 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 2 T3 T5 s1 s1 s2 s2 s1 s2
Slide 12 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 7 Results With 2 send buffers: No priority inversion Average message latency = 4.165ms With 1 send buffer: Priority inversion: Message 7 < Message 1~6 2. Average message latency = 4.936ms Functional Model 14 functional processes 48 signals CAN controller configurations: Number of send buffers Metric Message End-to-end Latency Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 8 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 9 Project Background and Motivation GM has decided to choose FlexRay as the future communication system Importance of deciding the Communication Cycle Length, Slot Size and Slot Order in the FlexRay based system design. There is currently no technique to determine these parameters for FlexRay. Scheduling is currently done manually in GM, which is time consuming and error prone. Need an incremental scheduling tool for FlexRay system which supports any form of automated bus/task schedule Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 10 FlexRay Timing Hierarchy ACTION POINT OFFSET Source: FlexRay Specification 2.1 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 11 FlexRay Message Passing Mechanism 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... T1 T3 T4 s1 T2 s2 T5 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 1 T1 T4 T2 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 2 T3 T5 s1 s1 s2 s2 s1 s2 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 12 Comparison for scheduling In Traditional Schedule: Incremental changes impossible without full rescheduling In Optimized Schedule: A lot more porosity to accommodate new tasks and messages
Slide 13 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 7 Results With 2 send buffers: No priority inversion Average message latency = 4.165ms With 1 send buffer: Priority inversion: Message 7 < Message 1~6 2. Average message latency = 4.936ms Functional Model 14 functional processes 48 signals CAN controller configurations: Number of send buffers Metric Message End-to-end Latency Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 8 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 9 Project Background and Motivation GM has decided to choose FlexRay as the future communication system Importance of deciding the Communication Cycle Length, Slot Size and Slot Order in the FlexRay based system design. There is currently no technique to determine these parameters for FlexRay. Scheduling is currently done manually in GM, which is time consuming and error prone. Need an incremental scheduling tool for FlexRay system which supports any form of automated bus/task schedule Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 10 FlexRay Timing Hierarchy ACTION POINT OFFSET Source: FlexRay Specification 2.1 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 11 FlexRay Message Passing Mechanism 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... T1 T3 T4 s1 T2 s2 T5 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 1 T1 T4 T2 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 2 T3 T5 s1 s1 s2 s2 s1 s2 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 12 Comparison for scheduling In Traditional Schedule: Incremental changes impossible without full rescheduling In Optimized Schedule: A lot more porosity to accommodate new tasks and messages Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 13 Scheduling Tool Framework AETM - DB (XML) convert FlexRay communication System design tool Graphical Design Front End Internal Data Structure Scheduling Engine AETM - DB1 (XML) Back-annotate Gant Graph Scheduling Result Display
Slide 14 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 7 Results With 2 send buffers: No priority inversion Average message latency = 4.165ms With 1 send buffer: Priority inversion: Message 7 < Message 1~6 2. Average message latency = 4.936ms Functional Model 14 functional processes 48 signals CAN controller configurations: Number of send buffers Metric Message End-to-end Latency Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 8 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 9 Project Background and Motivation GM has decided to choose FlexRay as the future communication system Importance of deciding the Communication Cycle Length, Slot Size and Slot Order in the FlexRay based system design. There is currently no technique to determine these parameters for FlexRay. Scheduling is currently done manually in GM, which is time consuming and error prone. Need an incremental scheduling tool for FlexRay system which supports any form of automated bus/task schedule Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 10 FlexRay Timing Hierarchy ACTION POINT OFFSET Source: FlexRay Specification 2.1 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 11 FlexRay Message Passing Mechanism 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... T1 T3 T4 s1 T2 s2 T5 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 1 T1 T4 T2 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 2 T3 T5 s1 s1 s2 s2 s1 s2 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 12 Comparison for scheduling In Traditional Schedule: Incremental changes impossible without full rescheduling In Optimized Schedule: A lot more porosity to accommodate new tasks and messages Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 13 Scheduling Tool Framework AETM - DB (XML) convert FlexRay communication System design tool Graphical Design Front End Internal Data Structure Scheduling Engine AETM - DB1 (XML) Back-annotate Gant Graph Scheduling Result Display Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 14 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design
Slide 15 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 7 Results With 2 send buffers: No priority inversion Average message latency = 4.165ms With 1 send buffer: Priority inversion: Message 7 < Message 1~6 2. Average message latency = 4.936ms Functional Model 14 functional processes 48 signals CAN controller configurations: Number of send buffers Metric Message End-to-end Latency Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 8 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 9 Project Background and Motivation GM has decided to choose FlexRay as the future communication system Importance of deciding the Communication Cycle Length, Slot Size and Slot Order in the FlexRay based system design. There is currently no technique to determine these parameters for FlexRay. Scheduling is currently done manually in GM, which is time consuming and error prone. Need an incremental scheduling tool for FlexRay system which supports any form of automated bus/task schedule Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 10 FlexRay Timing Hierarchy ACTION POINT OFFSET Source: FlexRay Specification 2.1 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 11 FlexRay Message Passing Mechanism 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... T1 T3 T4 s1 T2 s2 T5 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 1 T1 T4 T2 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 2 T3 T5 s1 s1 s2 s2 s1 s2 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 12 Comparison for scheduling In Traditional Schedule: Incremental changes impossible without full rescheduling In Optimized Schedule: A lot more porosity to accommodate new tasks and messages Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 13 Scheduling Tool Framework AETM - DB (XML) convert FlexRay communication System design tool Graphical Design Front End Internal Data Structure Scheduling Engine AETM - DB1 (XML) Back-annotate Gant Graph Scheduling Result Display Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 14 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 15 Toyota: Coldstart Engine Controller Design (C. Zavala and K. Hedrick) Objectives: Minimize the HC emissions of cold-start Reduce design-to-implementation controller cycle time. Challenges Sensors not active, poor combustion, keep development cost low. Strategies Design of AFR and HC observers, use of design of automated tools, use of modern controller design techniques Experimental facilities
Slide 16 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 7 Results With 2 send buffers: No priority inversion Average message latency = 4.165ms With 1 send buffer: Priority inversion: Message 7 < Message 1~6 2. Average message latency = 4.936ms Functional Model 14 functional processes 48 signals CAN controller configurations: Number of send buffers Metric Message End-to-end Latency Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 8 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 9 Project Background and Motivation GM has decided to choose FlexRay as the future communication system Importance of deciding the Communication Cycle Length, Slot Size and Slot Order in the FlexRay based system design. There is currently no technique to determine these parameters for FlexRay. Scheduling is currently done manually in GM, which is time consuming and error prone. Need an incremental scheduling tool for FlexRay system which supports any form of automated bus/task schedule Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 10 FlexRay Timing Hierarchy ACTION POINT OFFSET Source: FlexRay Specification 2.1 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 11 FlexRay Message Passing Mechanism 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... T1 T3 T4 s1 T2 s2 T5 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 1 T1 T4 T2 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 2 T3 T5 s1 s1 s2 s2 s1 s2 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 12 Comparison for scheduling In Traditional Schedule: Incremental changes impossible without full rescheduling In Optimized Schedule: A lot more porosity to accommodate new tasks and messages Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 13 Scheduling Tool Framework AETM - DB (XML) convert FlexRay communication System design tool Graphical Design Front End Internal Data Structure Scheduling Engine AETM - DB1 (XML) Back-annotate Gant Graph Scheduling Result Display Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 14 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 15 Toyota: Coldstart Engine Controller Design (C. Zavala and K. Hedrick) Objectives: Minimize the HC emissions of cold-start Reduce design-to-implementation controller cycle time. Challenges Sensors not active, poor combustion, keep development cost low. Strategies Design of AFR and HC observers, use of design of automated tools, use of modern controller design techniques Experimental facilities Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 16 Transmission Control Goal: Improve drivability and fuel efficiency by automotive control. Approach: Utilize dynamical model-based analysis and controller design. Control Strategy: Multi-tiered approach to achieve shock-free gear shifting by smooth gear shifting control with engine/AT collaboration balancing between fuel economy & performance by optimal shift pattern scheduling Prospected control structure for intelligent shifting Smooth Gear Shifting Control Gas Pedal Brake Pedal Vehicle Speed Optimal Shift Pattern Scheduling Human Driver Model & Driving Conditions Identification Optimal Engine Torque Profile Optimal AT Friction Elements Torque Profiles Determine Driver’s Intentions & Driving Condition in Real Time
Slide 17 - Industrial Collaboration: Automotive Electronics Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli UC Berkeley Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 2 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 3 ABS: Antilock Brake System ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control BCM: Body Control Module DoD: Displacement On Demand ECS: Electronics, Controls, and Software EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation. GDI: Gas Direct Injection OBD: Onboard Diagnostics TCC: Torque Converter Clutch PT: Powertrain Value from Electronics & Software More functions & features Less hardware Faster Potential inflection point. Now! Hybrid PT Electric Ignition ACC Rear Vision Passive Entry Side Airbags Fuel Cell Wheel Motor … OnStar OBD II HI Spd Data Rear aud/vid CDs BCM ABS TCC EGR Electric Fan Head Airbags ... Electric Brake DoD GDI … … … … … … 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Electronics, Controls & Software is shifting the basis of competition in vehicles $1182 (+196%) 50 ECUs (+150%) 100M Lines of Code (+9900%) $400 20 ECUs 1M Lines ~ ~ Software $ Other $ Electronics $ Software $ Other $ Mechanical $ Mechanical $ Electronics $ AVG. AVG. Source: Matt Tsien, GM Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 4 Specification Analysis Development Process Buses Buses Matlab CPUs Buses Operating Systems Behavior Components Virtual Architectural Components C-Code IPs ASCET Metro: Separation of Concerns Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 5 Architecture Model: Abstraction Levels Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 6 Matching Models of Computation The functional and architectural models should be described using the same model of computation Architecture Characteristics: Network of processes connected by point-to-point FIFOs Non-blocking reads and writes Messages may be lost or duplicated within FIFO Functional Model Functional blocks operate concurrently Single rate No synchronization across processes Non-blocking read, non-blocking write communication semantics Mapping: intersection of behaviors Before mapping, nondeterministic loss and/or duplication of messages in functional model After mapping, functional loss/duplication follows architecture Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 7 Results With 2 send buffers: No priority inversion Average message latency = 4.165ms With 1 send buffer: Priority inversion: Message 7 < Message 1~6 2. Average message latency = 4.936ms Functional Model 14 functional processes 48 signals CAN controller configurations: Number of send buffers Metric Message End-to-end Latency Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 8 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 9 Project Background and Motivation GM has decided to choose FlexRay as the future communication system Importance of deciding the Communication Cycle Length, Slot Size and Slot Order in the FlexRay based system design. There is currently no technique to determine these parameters for FlexRay. Scheduling is currently done manually in GM, which is time consuming and error prone. Need an incremental scheduling tool for FlexRay system which supports any form of automated bus/task schedule Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 10 FlexRay Timing Hierarchy ACTION POINT OFFSET Source: FlexRay Specification 2.1 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 11 FlexRay Message Passing Mechanism 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... T1 T3 T4 s1 T2 s2 T5 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 1 T1 T4 T2 @ FlexRay Controller OSEK Kernel Middleware Application Software Host ECU 2 T3 T5 s1 s1 s2 s2 s1 s2 Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 12 Comparison for scheduling In Traditional Schedule: Incremental changes impossible without full rescheduling In Optimized Schedule: A lot more porosity to accommodate new tasks and messages Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 13 Scheduling Tool Framework AETM - DB (XML) convert FlexRay communication System design tool Graphical Design Front End Internal Data Structure Scheduling Engine AETM - DB1 (XML) Back-annotate Gant Graph Scheduling Result Display Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 14 Automotive Collaborations General Motors (ASV) Architecture Exploration Using Metropolis FlexRay Scheduling Cost Metrics Toyota (K. Hedrick, E. Lee) Cold Start Engine Controller Pirelli (ASV) Smart Tire Daimler-Chrysler (all) Embedded Software design Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 15 Toyota: Coldstart Engine Controller Design (C. Zavala and K. Hedrick) Objectives: Minimize the HC emissions of cold-start Reduce design-to-implementation controller cycle time. Challenges Sensors not active, poor combustion, keep development cost low. Strategies Design of AFR and HC observers, use of design of automated tools, use of modern controller design techniques Experimental facilities Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 16 Transmission Control Goal: Improve drivability and fuel efficiency by automotive control. Approach: Utilize dynamical model-based analysis and controller design. Control Strategy: Multi-tiered approach to achieve shock-free gear shifting by smooth gear shifting control with engine/AT collaboration balancing between fuel economy & performance by optimal shift pattern scheduling Prospected control structure for intelligent shifting Smooth Gear Shifting Control Gas Pedal Brake Pedal Vehicle Speed Optimal Shift Pattern Scheduling Human Driver Model & Driving Conditions Identification Optimal Engine Torque Profile Optimal AT Friction Elements Torque Profiles Determine Driver’s Intentions & Driving Condition in Real Time Chess Review, Nov. 21, 2005 "Automotive Electronics", ASV 17 Hybrid Systems Modeling Objectives Hybrid System Analysis: study of a general semantics for simulator engines to execute hybrid system models. Study of representations of discontinuities and interactions between continuous-time dynamics and simultaneous discrete events The code generation project aims to produce application code automatically from graphical models in Ptolemy II If an outgoing guard is true upon entering a state, because of the triggering semantics of transitions, the time spent in that state is identically zero. This state is called a ¡° transient state ¡± .