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Published on : Jul 26, 2014
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Slide 3 - Pathophysiology Disc degeneration -nucleus pulposus loses water content, fissuring, loss of height and bulging annulus. -acute rupture and herniation may occur Secondary changes due to increased and uneven loading of forces - Vertebral osteophytes - Facet and uncovertebral joint osteoarthritis and hypertrophy - Ligamentum flavum becomes thickened and may ossify - Spine deformity due to segmental instability Degenerative spondylolistheses Degenerative kyphosis or scoliosis Narrowing of the central canal, lateral recesses and foramina with subsequent neural and vascular compression
Slide 6 - Clinical Presentation Asymptomtic with incidental radiographic findings Symptomatic - in most cases: onset is slow and insidious . However some cases may be acute eg hyperextension injury in minor trauma or acute disc herniation Neck pain Myelopathy Radiculopathy
Slide 7 - Neck pain Occurs if there is a disc extrusion Nerve root compression Facet joint arthritis Segmental instability Often poorly localized May radiate to the occipital region, shoulders, interscapular. There may be associated stiffness of the neck from muscle spasm
Slide 8 - Myelopathy May be complex and variable Most cases seem to present with a central cord syndrome, rarely brown squard, or complete myelopathy Motor -upper limbs: LMN Weakness Clumsiness of the hands. Muscle wasting. Absent biceps reflex, inverted reflex, Triceps reflex may be brisk. Positive Hoffman reflex -Lower limbs: Spasticity, difficulty walking. No or slight weakness. Sphincters: usually no symptoms. Rarely mild bladder symptoms. ? Prostate
Slide 9 - Sensory - No involvement - Patchy sensory loss - Paraesthesia in the hands, sometimes the feet and legs - May be asymmetrical or symmetrical - Different from radiculopathy in that it is not in a specific dermatomes - Lhermittes’s sign
Slide 10 - Radiculopathy May be acute if due to a disc protrusion Slow and insidious if due to an osteophyte Most common nerve root is C6 Neck pain and shoulder pain. Pain radiates down the biceps, then the lateral aspect of the forearm then the thumb and index finger. Head may be tilted to the affected side due to muscle spasm. Pain made worse by neck extension, relieved by neck flexion and shoulder abduction. Often numbness, more often hand and fingers
Slide 11 - Chronic cases – wasting and fasciculations of biceps and brachioradialis muscle. Weakness of elbow flexion (Thumb-nose), and wrist extension. Absent biceps and brachioradialis reflex
Slide 12 - C5 nerve root radiculopathy - Neck pain - Shoulder pain, pain over the lateral aspect of the upper arm. - Numbness or paraesthesia over the lateral aspect of the upper arm. - Weakness of deltoid and biceps muscles, with absent biceps reflex In severe cases, wasting of the deltoid and biceps muscles
Slide 13 - Treatment Neck Pain -Conservative -Rarely, surgery Myelopathy -Surgery in most cases -Some may stabilize on conservative Acute radiculopathy -Conservative -Surgery if indicated Chronic radiculopathy -Most cases, surgery
Slide 14 - Conservative treatment Medication: Analgesia NSAIDS Diazepam Baclofen Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, Lyrica Physiotherapy: Range of motion exercises Isometric exercises Heat and massage Traction: Continuous or intermittent halter traction Neck collar Soft neck collar < 1 week Facet and Medial branch block – Cortisone, L.A, Radiofrequency
Slide 15 - SURGERY Anterior decompression Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion Corpectomy and fusion Posterior decompression Laminaplasty Laminectomy
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