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Cancer Anorexia Cachexia Syndrome PowerPoint Presentation

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  • Slide 1 - Cancer Anorexia Cachexia Syndrome John Mulder, MD Vice President of Medical Services Faith Hospice Director, HPM Fellowship Program Grand Rapids, MI
  • Slide 2 - Cancer Cachexia - Definitions Derives from the Greek ‘kakos’ meaning bad & ‘hexis’ meaning condition A physical fading of wholeness Syndrome of decreased appetite, weight loss, metabolic alterations & inflammatory state
  • Slide 3 - Cancer Cachexia - What it is? An extreme on the continuum of weight loss in cancer Seen in cancer, cardiac disease & chronic infection but not neurological disease Due to a systemic inflammatory response Mediated through cytokines & other factors such as proteolysis inducing factor (PIF) & lipid mobilising factor (LMF) (Regnard, 2004)
  • Slide 4 - Cancer Cachexia - Features Some or all of the following features are exhibited in varying degrees: Hypophagia / anorexia Early satiety Anemia Weight loss with depletion & alteration of body compartments Edema Asthenia (weakness) (Freeman & Donnelly, 2004)
  • Slide 5 - Theories of Nutrition & Cachexia in Cancer It is NOT: Due to starvation Due to malnutrition Due to competition by the tumor Restricted to cancer Reversed by nutritional support (Regnard, 2004)
  • Slide 6 - Cancer Cachexia - Prevalence Occurs in ~ 70% of patients during the terminal course of disease Weight loss > 10% pre illness weight occurs in up to 45% of hospitalised cancer patients Cancer of the Upper GI & lung have the highest prevalence of weight loss Lung cancer patients with 30% weight loss show 75% depletion of skeletal muscle Breast cancer, sarcomas & NHL show the least weight loss (Payne-James et al., 2001)
  • Slide 7 - Cancer Cachexia - Etiology Understanding is limited & based upon the knowledge of abnormalities in nutrition behaviour & metabolic patterns Appears as a classic case of malnutrition 3 theories have been suggested: Metabolic competition Malnutrition Alterations of metabolic pathways (Payne-James et al., 2001)
  • Slide 8 - Cancer Cachexia - Metabolic Competition Neoplastic cells compete with host tissues for protein, functioning as a ‘nitrogen trap’ In experiments where tumor is a high % of animal weight this theory holds, but in human tumors – even patients with a very small tumour can have severe cachexia (Morrison, 1976)
  • Slide 9 - Cancer Cachexia – Malnutrition Upper aerodigestive disease is an obvious cause of malnutrition Regardless of tumor location, anorexia is the most common cause of hypophagia & usually consists of a loss of appetite &/or feelings of early satiety Hypophagia has been related to the presence of dysgeusia Diminished ability to perceive sweet flavors leads to anorexia (Payne-James et al., 2001)
  • Slide 10 - Cancer Cachexia – Malnutrition Reduced threshold for bitter flavors linked to an aversion to meat Dysosmia is also related to an aversion to food Malnutrition leads to secondary changes in the GI tract which may be responsible for the feeling of fullness, delayed emptying, defective digestion & the poor absorption of nutrients However, malnutrition alone is not thought to be the main cause of cachexia (Payne-James et al., 2001)
  • Slide 11 - Metabolic Alterations in Starvation v Cancer Cachexia – CHO Metabolism Adapted from Rivadeneira et al.,1998
  • Slide 12 - Metabolic Alterations in Starvation v Cancer Cachexia – Fat Metabolism Adapted from Rivadeneira et al.,1998
  • Slide 13 - Adapted from Rivadeneira et al., 1998 Metabolic Alterations in Starvation v Cancer Cachexia – Protein Metabolism
  • Slide 14 - Cancer Cachexia - Cytokines Produced by host in response to tumor Cytokines regulate many of the nutritional & metabolic disturbances in the cancer patient leading to: Decreased appetite Increase in BMR Increased glucose uptake Increased mobilization of fat & protein stores Increased muscle protein release (Tisdale, 2004)
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  • Slide 20 - Managing Cancer-related Cachexia Ineffective Drugs Cyproheptidine (Periactin) Metaclopramide (Reglan) Pentoxifyline (Trental) Commonly Used Drugs Progesagins – megestrol acetate (Megace), medroxyprogesterone (Provera) Corticosteroids – prednisone, dexamethasone Mantovani G et al, Drugs 201; 61, 49-514
  • Slide 21 - Managing Cancer-related Cachexia Drugs with strong rationale that failed or did not show unequivocal results in trials Omega-3-fatty acids (eicosapentoic acid) Cannabinoids (including Marinol) Bortezomid (Velcade) Emerging drugs with some effective results still under trials Thalidomide Ghrelin COX-2 inhibitors (Celebrex) Insulin BCAA (branched chain amino acids) Oxandrolone (Oxandrin) Mantovani G et al, Drugs 201; 61, 49-514
  • Slide 22 - Managing Cancer-related Cachexia Future Trends Melanocortin antagonist b2 agonists (formoterol) Anti-myostatin Anti IL-6 SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators) Mantovani G et al, Drugs 201; 61, 49-514
  • Slide 23 - Managing Cancer-related Cachexia Future Trends Melanocortin antagonist b2 agonists (formoterol) Anti-myostatin Anti IL-6 SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators) Mantovani G et al, Drugs 201; 61, 49-514
  • Slide 24 - Managing Cancer-related Cachexia Future Trends Melanocortin antagonist b2 agonists (formoterol) Anti-myostatin Anti IL-6 SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators) Mantovani G et al, Drugs 201; 61, 49-514
  • Slide 25 - Managing Cancer-related Cachexia Future Trends Melanocortin antagonist b2 agonists (formoterol) Anti-myostatin Anti IL-6 SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators) Mantovani G et al, Drugs 201; 61, 49-514
  • Slide 26 - Managing Cancer-related Cachexia Future Trends Melanocortin antagonist b2 agonists (formoterol) Anti-myostatin Anti IL-6 SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators) Mantovani G et al, Drugs 201; 61, 49-514
  • Slide 27 - Managing Cancer-related Cachexia Future Trends Melanocortin antagonist b2 agonists (formoterol) Anti-myostatin Anti IL-6 SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators) Mantovani G et al, Drugs 201; 61, 49-514
  • Slide 28 - Managing Cancer-related Cachexia Future Trends Melanocortin antagonist b2 agonists (formoterol) Anti-myostatin Anti IL-6 SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators) Mantovani G et al, Drugs 201; 61, 49-514
  • Slide 29 - Managing Cancer-related Cachexia Future Trends Melanocortin antagonist b2 agonists (formoterol) Anti-myostatin Anti IL-6 SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators) Mantovani G et al, Drugs 201; 61, 49-514
  • Slide 30 - Role of Nutritional Support
  • Slide 31 - Role of Nutritional Support ‘An improvement in survival due to nutritional interventions has not yet been shown’ (Arends et al., 2006)
  • Slide 32 - Role of Nutritional Support ‘Unintentional weight loss of ≥ 10% within the previous 6 months signifies substantial nutritional deficit & is a good prognostic indicator of outcome’ (DeWys et al., 1980)
  • Slide 33 - Cancer - Aims of Nutritional Support Improve the subjective quality of life (QoL) Enhance anti-tumor treatment effects Reduce the adverse effects of anti-tumor therapies Prevent & treat undernutrition (Arends et al., 2006)
  • Slide 34 - Cancer - Aims of Nutritional Support ‘…the principle aim of nutritional intervention with cancer patients will be to maintain physical strength & optimize nutritional status within the confines of the disease…’ (van Bokhorst de van der Schueren et al., 1999) ‘…nutritional intervention should be tailored to meet the needs of the patient & realistic for the patient to achieve…’ (Mick et al., 1991)
  • Slide 35 - Aims of Nutritional Support Optimum nutrition improves therapeutic modalities & the clinical course & outcome in cancer patients (Rivadeneira et al., 1998) Numerous studies strongly suggest substantial weight loss >10% leads to adverse consequences: Reduced response to chemotherapy & radiotherapy Increased morbidity Poor quality of life (QoL) Increased mortality rate (Van Bokhorst de van der Scheren et al., 1997)
  • Slide 36 - Can Nutritional Support improve Nutritional Status in Cancer? Yes, in patients whose weight loss is due to insufficient nutritional intake secondary to obstruction e.g. upper GI, head & neck In cachexic patients it is virtually impossible to achieve whole body protein anabolism Goals of NS are therefore different (Arends et al., 2006)
  • Slide 37 - Does Nutrition Support Feed the Tumor? There is no reliable data to support the effect of nutrition on tumor growth ‘Feeding the tumor’ should have no influence on the decision to feed a cancer patient (Arends et al., 2006)
  • Slide 38 - John Mulder, MD 616-235-5100 john.mulder@hollandhome.org

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